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THE 



Journal of Conchology: 

BEING THE ORGAN OF THE -<f I , 

CONCHOLOGICAL SOCIETY 
OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 



EDITED, UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE COUNCIL, 
BY 

T. R. LE B. TOM LIN, M.A. 



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libi 



"^Zt"^^ 



VOL. XIV. ^'°^ 

1913—1915. 




Leiostraca diauges T. and S. 

London : Dulau & Co. Ltd., 37, Soho Square, W. 
Leeds : Taylor Bros., Sovereign St. | Manchester: Sherratt & Hughes, St. Ann's St. 



PROCEEDINGS. 



25 
62 

93 
116 
149 
'78 
221 

237 

277 

313 
364 



Proceedings of the Socieiy— page 

October — November, 1912 
December, 1912 — February, 1913 
March — May, 1913 
June, 1913 

September — November, 1913 
December, 1913 — February, 1914 
March — May, 1914 
June and September, 1914 
October — November, 1914 
December, 1914 — March, 1915 ... 
April — June, 1915 

Proceedings of the Leeds Branch — 

Annual Report, 1912 ... ... ... ... .. ... 3° 

Annual Report, 1913 ... ... ... ... ... ... 156 

Annual Report, 1914 ... ... ... ... ... ... 279 

Proceedings of the London Branch — 

Annual Report, 1912 ... ... ... ... ... .. 31 

Annual Report, 1913 ... ... ... ... ... ... IS7 

Annual Report, 19 14 ... ... ... ... ... ' ... 280 

Proceedings of the North Staffordshire Branch — 

Annual Report, 1913 ... ... ... .. ... 157 

Annual Report, 1914 ... ... ... . ... .. 280 



LLST OF PLATES. 

Marginella nielvilli n.sp., j)I. /estiva Kiener, i\I. eveleighi n..sp., lihicronalia 
letuophaes Ti.s^., Marginella loarrcnii Marrat, AI. praecallosa Higgins, 
RI. davisiana Marrat, Adeorbis platyinina n.sp., Marginella nana Marrat L 

William Moss ... ... ... ... ... ... ... IL 

'YX'XQ Ys.'A.dxAz^ oi Hyalinia helvetica YAwxw ... ... ... ... IIL 

Bursa {7'ntn/a) rul/eta Bohen and VRiieties .,, ... ... .. IV. 

Tiirbonilla phrikalea Watson, Syrnola thovunsis n.sp., Turbonilla pyrgidiiivi 
n.sp., Odostoinia piihus x\.s^., Tropidorissoia taphrodes n.?,-p., Leiostraca 
diauges n.sp. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... V. 

^ sty ris caletce n.sp., A. lioiieli n.sp. , Litloridina limosa n.%p., L. angiisti- 

ariim n.sp., L. fa'/iinensis n.sp., L. lioneli n.sp. ... ... ... VI. 

William Cash ... ... ... ... ... ... ... VH. 



CONTENTS. 111. 

ILLUSTRATIONS IN THE TEXT. /'age 

Urocoplis lata C. B. Ad. van producta C. 15. Ad. ... ... ... 12 

Feeding Track of C.ijj-/£/t; /w/^rj'/a Menke ... ... ... .. 80 

Faludesirina deaiii n.s\). ... ... ... ... ... .. 9° 

Marginella pachisla n.sp. ... ... ... ... ... ... loi 

Margiitella aphanospira n.s^. ... ... ... ... ... 102 

Malformation of Keel-line in Z,/wax (:w/<frf(;«2'^^;- Wolf ... ... ... 102 

Clausia of Clans, dubia Drap. and C. cravenensis Taylor ... ... 162 

Genitalia, Jaw.s, and Darts of Helicella caperata Mont, and H. herifmsis 

Mab. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 168 

Monstrosities <>f Tapes pullasira Mont, and Mactra stidtorum L. ... 181 

'R2.0^\\\-A. oi Hyaliiiia helvetica ^\\\m. ... ... ... ... ... 235 

l\3.(iu\a. o[ jyra//iidula nepestris Drap. ... ... ... ... 290 

l\a.d\.\\a. o(^ /dj'altn/a helvetica Bhnn ... ... ... ... ... 3°° 

GenhnMa. of JI)'ali7i!a helvetica Bhim ... .. .. ... ... 302 

Cover and Title-page of Illuminated Address presented to Mr. J. W. Taylor 317 

J?issoina '/liltozona n.sp. ... ... ... ... ... ... 321 

Tentacular Abnormality in Heli.x nentoralis ... ... ... ... 3^3 



GENERA, SPECIES, AND VARIETIES NEW TO SCIENCE 
DE.SCRIBED IN THIS VOLUME. 

JSlarginella eveleighi Tomlin and Shackleford ... ... ... ... il 

M. we/^'///^' Tomlin and Shackleford ... ... . . . . ... il 

Cypicpa caurica L. var. rosea Taylor .. ... ... ... ... 24 

Adeorbis platyi/niiaTo\YL\\x\ ... ... ... ... ... ... 42 

Marginella liparozona Tomlin and Shackleford (~M. festiva Reeve nee 

Kiener) ... ... ... ... ... ... ... '43 

J/«if;(7«rt/?'tz /t'//fc///'aJ5 Tomlin and Shackleford ... ... ... 43 

Paliidesti'ina deaiii K.enAs.\\ ... ... ,.. ... ... ... 90 

Umax arlioriini B.Ch. var. (?//'/«t7j- Roebuck ... ... ... ... 92 

Pitaria romeri Tomlin and .Shackleford (new name for Caryatis belcheri 

Romer) ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 96 

Marginella pachista Tomlin ... ... ... . . ... i o i 

JMarginella aphanospira Tomlin ... ... ... ... ... loi 

Mytilus ednlis L. ss^x. pallida Marshall ... ... ... ... 126 

Axinus croulinensis Jeff. var. triincatjis Marshall ... ... ... 186 

Helicella crayfordensis Jackson ... ... ... ... ... 199 

Vemcs fasciata daC. var. pallida Marshal) ... ... ... ... 200 

Pholas Candida L. var. cylindracea Marshall... ... ... ... 207 

Helicella heripensis Mab. var. f rwa/« Jolliffe and var. y///»a Jolliffe ... 213 
Bursa Jiibeta Bolten var. lissostouia Smith, var. gigantea Smith, and var. 

tenidi;ranosa '6vi\\\S\ .. ... ... ... ... 230, 231 

/ainiiiia cylindracea (\a.C v&x. bigr anal a ]o\\iiiQ ... ... ... 236 

Marginella triticea Lam. var. alba Tomlin and Shackleford ... .. 244 

Khodinoliotia nov. gen. ... ... ... ... ... ... 267 

6y;7^///«/(?/j/a?</aa- Tomlin and Shackleford {=Tellina senegalensis Hanley 

nee (imelin) ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 276 

Helicella gigaxii Pfr. var. alba Oldham and var. hyalozonata Oldham ... ^06 

Tropidorissoia nov. gen. ... ... ... ... ... ... 307 

Tropidorissoia taphrodes 'YovaXxw 2L\\A'i\\2.(^<.\tioxA ... ... .. 307 

Leiostraca diani;es ToxxiVm and Sha.c\i]e{oxd ... .. ... ... 308 



JOURNAL OF CONCHOLOGY, VOL. I4, NO. 12, OCTOBER, I915. 



Syniola tJiomensis Tomlin and Shackleford 

Odostomia pithiis Tcmlin and Shackleford 

Tu7-boniUa py^-gidium Tomlin and Shackleford 

Kissoina miltozona'YovaWn ... 

Cypraa variolaria Lam. var. aviiges Melvill and .Standen 

Lacuna pallidtila <\^C var. ii/ipeifo7ata'Nl?.\shz.\\ 

Spo7idyhis reevei Fulton {=S. Jivstryx Reeve nee Bolten) 

Spondylus sowerbyi Fulton ( = .S'. digitatus Sow. nee Perry) 

Spondylus imperialis Chenu var. punts Fulton 

Spondylus ekciits YwXion 

Spondylus lamyi ¥u\ion 

Spo//dy/us depressus Fahon .. ... ... ... 

Spofidylus gravis Fu\ton 

Spondylus igneus YwXion 

Spondylus iredalei Yvi\\.on 

Spondylus sniithi Fulton ( = 5. radula Rve. nee Lam.). ... 

Strigilla toinlini Smith ( = Tellina splendida Hanley nee Anton) 

Astyris caletce Preston 

Asty I is lioneli Preston 

Litiorldi na liviosa Fresion ... 

Litioriditia lioneli Vxziiaw ... 

Litloridina fa?>iinensis Ytesion 

Litloridina aiigustiarum Preston 

Colunihella misera Sow. var. niproinaculata Tomlin 



ADDITIONS TO THE BRITISH LIST IN THIS VOLUME. 

Land and Freshwater. 

Li/nax cinereoniger'yVoM V&.X. strobeli l^ess. 

Helicella candidula Stud. var. alpicoln Stab. (Pleistocene fossil — identification 

doubtful) 
Clajtsilia ventriiosa 'Dxo.'p. (Pleistocene fossil) ... 
Claus/l/a parviila Stud. (Pleistocene fossil) 
/'a///<:/£rj'/;ma o'fja;;/ Kendall (Pleistocene fossil)) 
Li max ail>o/-um B.-Ch. var. albinos Koehncli ... 
Helicella crayfordensis Jackson (Pleistocene fossil, -candidula vox. alpicola 

Stab, above) ... 
Helicella heripensis Mab. var. o?iiata Jolliffe and var. _/}^/z'« JoUiffe 
Janiinia cylindracea AkC vax. bigranata ]o\\{^tt 
Helicella gimxiiVix. var. alba Oldham and var. hvalozonata Oldham 



page 
308 
308 
30Q 
321 

323 
328 
332 
335 
335 
336 
338 
353 
358 
354 
358 
357 
339 
351 
351 
351 
352 
352 
352 
363 



57 



90 

92 

199 

213 
236 
306 



Marine. 

Mytiltis edidis L. max. pallida Marshall 
Axinus croulinensis Jeff. var. truticaius Marshall 
Venus fasciata (S.Z.Q. var. pallida Marshall 
Pholas Candida L. var. cylindracea Marshall 
Lacuna pallidula daC. var. iviperforala Marshall 



126 
186 
200 
207 
328 



Vol.. 141 



JANUARY 1st, 1913. 



[No. 1. 



THE 



JOURNAL 

CONCHO LOG Y. 

FOUNDED 187^. 

BEING THE ORGAN OF THE CONCHOI.OGICAL SOCIETY 
OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 

PUBLISHED QUARTERLY. 



Hon. EuiTou : 
J.R.i.kB.TOMLIN,M.A.,F.E.S., 
Lakefoot, 
Hamu.ton Rd., Reading. 



Hon. Seckktaky: 

Rev. L.J.SHACKLEFORD, 

66, Gkanville Road, 

Klackpooi.. 



Hon. Tkea.su kek : 

!■:. D. BOSTOCK, 

OuLTON Cross, 

Stone, Stai^fs. 



page 
I 
2 

3 

lO 
lO 



CONTEITTS. 

Constitution of the Conchological Society of Great Britain and Ireland 

List of Officers and Council for 1912-1913 

List of Members 

Council Minute respecting IJranch Societies 

Helix cantiana Eaten by Birds— J. R. B. Masefiei.d 

Helix cantiana Eaten by Thrush — L.E.Adams... 

Descriptions of Two New Species of Marginella from San Thome 
Island — J. R. le B. Tomlin and L. J. Shackleford ... 

Note on Urocoptis lata C. B. Ad. van producta C.B. Ad.— G. C. 
Spence (with figures) 

Obituary Notice : The Rev. R. Ashington BuUen — Canon Horsley 

Census Authentications — W. D. Roebuck 

The Sense and Nonsense of the Names of the British Land and Fresh- 
water Shells — Canon Horsley (to be concluded) 

Bibliography 

Cypr^ea caurica L. var. rosea nov.— J. K. Taylor 

Proceedings: Oct. 12, 1912 (Annual Meeting) ; Nov. 13, 1912 



13 



15 
22 

24 
25 



LONDON: Dulau & Co., Ltd., 37, Soho Square, W. 

LEEDS: Taylor Brcs., Sovereign St. | MANCHESTER: Sherratt & Hughes, 

v.x^r.T.»T T, St. Ann's St. 

BERLIN : Friedlaender & Sohn, Carlstrasse it. 



Special Exhibits. 

January 8— Lanistes and Marisa. 
February 12— Trochatella and Eutrochatella. 
March 12 — Helix, section Tachea. 



BRITISH NON-MARINE MOLLUSCA. 



Prepared by B. B. WOODWARD, F.L.S., 
and a COMMITTEE of the CONOHOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

3d. eacli ; 2s. 6d. per dozen. 



LIST c:>:h' 
BRITISH MARINE MOLLUSCA. 



PREPARED EV A COMMITTEE 
OF THE CONCHOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 



Second Edition, Revised. 



4d. each ; 3s. per dozen. 

THE CENSUS OF BRITISH 
LAND AND FRESHWATER MOLLUSCA. 

By LIONEL E. ADAMS, B.A. 
Published by authority of the Coneholog-ieal Society. 

Price 3d. each ; 2s. 6d. per dozen. 



The above may be had from Messrs. DuLAU & Co., Ltd., 37, Soho Square, W., 
post free if cash is sent with order. 



The Lancashire Naturalist, 

A Monthly Journal of Natural History for the County of 

Lancashire, and for the adjacent districts of Cheshire, 

Derbyshire, Westmorland, North Wales & the Isle of Man. 

Conducted by MR. W. H. WESTERN, 

Assisted in Special Departments by Competent Referees. 

The Journal, which is supported by many prominent Naturalists of the District, 
deals with all branches of Natural History, and is rapidly increasing in circulation. 
Amongst the Conchological Notes and Papers which have already appeared are : 
" Notes on the Freshwater Mussels of Lancashire and Adjacent Counties" ; "On 
the Mollusca from the 'Cave-Earth,' Dog-Holes, Warton Crag"; and others, 
which contain much valuable information of local and general interest, 

Annual Subscription, 5/- post free, should be sent direct to the Editor, 
Mr. W. H. Western, 139, Beatrice Terrace, Darwen, Lancashire. 



w 



EXCHANGE COLUMN. 

EST African Shells of various genera for Marginella, Mitra or /Vc/£« species - 
Lists to Lewis J. Shackleford, 66, Granville Road, Blackpool. 



WANTED Urocopthiie and Obbas. Exchange various land shells. Lists — 
G. C. Spence, 27, Pine Grove, Monlon, L^ancs. 



JOURNAL OF CONCHOLOGY. 



Vol. 14. JANUARY, 1913. No. i. 



CONSTITUTION OF THE 

CONCHOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF GREAT BRITAIN 

AND IRELAND. 

I.— This Society shall be called *' JTbC COllCbOlOgiCal SOClCtg Of ©I'Cat 

JSvitain anO JrelanO." 

2. — Its object shall be the promotion of the science of Conchology, by the hold- 
ing of Meetings for the reading and discussion of original papers, by the 
publication of Proceedings, and by the formation of a Library and Collec- 
tions illustrative of the science. 

3. — It shall consist of Ordinary and Honorary Members. 

4. — Ordinary Members shall be proposed by two Members at one meeting, and 
balloted for at the next. They shall pay, in advance, on the 1st January 
in each year, a subscription of 5/-) or may compound for life by the pay- 
ment of Three Guineas. If on December 31st of any year a member shall 
be three or more years in arrear with his or her subscription, the Council 
shall erase his or her name from the list of members, and shall take what- 
ever steps seem desirable for recovery of the arrears. The Council shall 
further report the erasure of such names to the next meeting of the Society 
with a view to their publication in the Journal. 

5. — Composition Fees shall be invested in Books, Cabinets, or other permanent 
property, or in such other manner as the Council may think most conducive 
to the benefit of the Society. 

6.— The number of Honorary Members shall be limited to ten, and they shall be 
exempt from all payments and have the privileges of Ordinary Members. 

7. — It shall be governed by a Council, consisting of a President, two elected Vice- 
Presidents, a Treasurer, a Secretary, a Curator, a Recorder, a Librarian, 
an Editor, and six other members, who shall be elected annually by ballot ; 
the voting paper issued to be returned to the Secretary, under cover of 
sealed envelope, addressed to the Scrutineers. Any two of the following 
offices may be held by one person, viz. : — Treasurer, Secretary, Curator, 
Recorder, Librarian, and Editor. The President and Secretary of the 
Leeds and London Branches and such other branches as may afterwards 
be accepted at an annual meeting shall, ex officio, also be members of 
the Council of the Society. 

8. — The Presidency shall not be tenable for more than two years continuously, and 
the President is expected to give an address. On the conclusion of his term 
of office, he shall become an ex officio Vice-President of the Society and an 
ex officio Member of the Council. 

9. — The meetings shall be held monthly, at the time and place fixed by the 
Council, who shall also have power to arrange such additional meetings 
as they may think desirable. 



2 JOtJRNAL OF CONCHOLOGY, VOL. 14, NO. 1, JANUARY, IQIj. 

XQ. — Three shall be a qjjorum at all meetings. 

II. — The Annual Meetinj^ shall be held at such time and place as may be fixed at 

the previous Annual Meeting, to receive the Reports and Balance Sheet 

of the out-going Council, and to elect a Council and Officers for the 

ensuing year. 
12. — Til?* accounts, before being presented, shall be audited by two members, 

appointed at a previous meeting. 
13. — The Proceedings shall be published periodically, under the direction of the 

Council. 
14. — The Capital and Property shall be vested in two Trustees, elected by the 

Society. 
15. — No alterations in the rules shall be made, unless by a majority of three-fourths 

of the members present at a meeting which has been specially summoned. 



The Annual Subscription is Five Shillings, due on the ist January in 
each year. 

♦•••♦ 

LIST OF OFFICERS AND COUNCIL FOR 1912-1913. 



PRESIDENT : 

Rev. Professor H. M. GWATKIN, D.D., M.A. 



EDWARD COLLIER 1 ,,, , 
B. R. LUCAS / ^'^"^^• 

L. E. ADAMS, B.A. 
WILLIAM CASH, F.G.S., F.R.M.S. 
W. E. COLLINGE, M.Sc, F.L.S., 

F.E.S. 
Lt.-Col. H. H. GODWIN-AUSTEN, 

F.R.S. 
Prof. S. J. HICKSON, D.Sc, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Rev. Canon J. W. HORSLEY, M.A. 



ESIDENTS : 

W. E. HOYLE, M.A., D.Sc. 
|. R. B. MASEFIELD, M.A. 
J. C. MELVILL, M. A., D.Sc, F.L.S. 
Kev. Canon A. M. NORMAN, 

D.C.L., F.R.S., etc. 
W. DENISON ROEBUCK, F.L.S. 
R. F. SCHARFF, Ph.D., M.R.I.A. 
EDGAR A. SMITH, I.S.O., F.Z.S. 
E. K. SYKES, B.A., F.Z.S. 
JOHN W. TAYLOR. 



HON. TREASURER : 

E. D. BOSTOCK. 



HON. EDITOR : 

R. LE BROCKTON TOMLIN. M. A. 
F.E.S. 



HON. CURATOR : 

ROBERT STANDEN. 



E. C. STUMP. 

R. WELCH, M.R.LA. 

CHARLES OLDHAM. 



HON. SECRETARY : 

Rev. LEWIS J. SIIACKLEFORD. 



HON. LIBRARIAN : 

J. WILFRID JACKSON, F.G.S. 



HON. RECORDER : 

W. DENISON ROEBUCK, F.L.S. 



COUNCIL : 

JOHN RAY HARDY. 
FREDERICK TAYLOR. 
G. C. SPENCE. 



LEEDS BRANCH. 
Pkesidknt - J. W. CARTER, F.E.S. 
Hon. Secretary F. BOOTH. 



LONDON BRANCH. 



President - 
Hon. Secretary 



J. C. DACIE. 
J. E. COOPER. 



LIST OF MEM BERS 

Corrected to Dec. 25th, T912. 



(With year of election; O = founder, or original member; L = Life Member ; P = has filled 
the office of President ; *post packets have been returned undelivered). 



HONORARY MEMBERS. 
(Limited to ten in number). 

1889. Binney, Win. G., 222, E. Union St., Eiirlinglon, New Jersey, U.S.A. 

1889. Cossmann, Maurice, 95, Rue de Maubeuge, Paris. 

1897. Dall, Wm. Healey, A.M., D. Sc, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, 

D.C., U.S.A. 

1878. Kohelt, Dr. Wilhehn, Schwanheim, Frankfurtam-Main. 

1905. Pelseneer, Prof. Paul, 53, Boulevard Leopold Grand, Ghent, Belgium. 

1906. Pilsbry, H. A., Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, Pa., U.S.A. 
1889. Sars, Prof. G. O., Universitet, Christiania, Norway. 

1889. Simroth, Dr. Heinrich Rudolph, Kregelstrasse 12, Leipzig-Gautsch. 

1905. Strebel, Dr. Hermann, Nalurhistorisches Museum, Hamburg. 
O /^Taylor, John W., North Grange, Horsforth, Leeds. 

ORDINARY MEMBERS. 

1903. Abbott, G., 83, Russell Street, Kettering. 

1906. Adams, F. E., St. Milburga's, Kingsland, Shrewsbury. 

1885. /'Adams, Lionel Ernest, B.A., Oak Hill, Chart Road, Reigate, Surrey. 

191 1. Allan, Harry, jr., Glenfield, Edgeley Road, Stockport. 

1895. Arnold, Bernard, F. L.S., Milton Lodge, Gravesend. 

1908. Bacchus, A. D. R., National Provincial Bank of England, Roalh, Cardiff. 

1907. Baily, Joshua L., jr., Haverford, Pa., U.S.A. 

1908. Balch, F. N., 60. State Street (Rooms 504-507), Boston, Mass., U.S.A. 

1911. Barnard, K. K., B.A., South African Museum, Capetown. 

1907. Bartsch, Dr. Paul, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., U.S.A. 

1907. Bavay, A., 82, Rue Lauriston, xvi", Paris. 

1905. Becker, Dr. H., F. L.S., F.S.A., Grahamstown, Cape Colony. 

1901. Beeston, Harry, Sunnymead, South Street, Havant, Hants. 

1904. Bellini, Prof. Rafifaello, R. Scuola Tecnica, Chivasso, Torino, Italy. 
1904. Benn, C. A., M.A., F.G.S., Rodwell Hall, Trowbridge. 

1901. Bentley, R. H., 60, Rosebery Road, Muswell Hill, N. 

1897. Blackburn, Rev. Ed. Percy, Epworth Villa, New Road, Windsor. 

1899. Bladen, W. Wells, Stone, Staffordshire. 

1897. Blake, Wm. Charles, 2, Acacia Villas, Ross, Herefordshire. 

1895. Bles, Edward J., M.A., D.Sc, The Mill House, Iffley, Oxford, 

1897. Bliss, Joseph, Boar Bank Hall, Grange-over-Sands. 

1907. Bloomer, H. IL, 35, Paradise Street, Birmingham. 

1899. Blundell, Mrs. Jessie M., Argyll House, Cirencester. 

1912. Bonner-Chambers, T., Huccombe, Stokenham, Kingsbridge. 
1910. Booker, H. H., 153, Albert Road, Heeley, Sheffield. 

1904. Booth, Fred, 18, Queen's Road, Shipley, Yorks. 



4 JOURNAL OF CONCHOLOGY, VOL. 14, NO. 1, JANUARY, I913. 

1884. Bostock, Edwin D., Oulton Cross, Stone, Staffordshire. 
1906. Boult, J. W. , 50, Washington Street, Newland, Hull. 
1897. Z Boycott, Arthur Edwin, 4, Burgh Park, Banstead, Surrey. 

1908. Brainerd, Mrs. H. D., Captiva, Lee Co., Florida, U.S.A. 

1879. *Brazier, John, F.L.S., C.M.Z.S., Curacoa House, 82, Windmill Street, 
Sydney, N.S.W. 

1909. Brindley, G. W., Milford, near Derby. 

1900 L Broadbent, Dr. G. H., 8, Ardwick Green, Manchester. 
1899. Brooksbank, Hugh, M. B. , College Road, Windermere. 

1905. Bromehead, C. N., Beverston Rectory, Tetbury. 

191 1. Brown, Edmund R., 235, Brunswick Street, Manchester. 

1897. Burnup, Henry Clifden, Box 182 P.O.-, Maritzburg, Natal. 

1879. Butterell, J. Darker, Manor House, Wansford, Hull. 
190'^. Butterfield, W. Ruskin, Corporation Museum, Hastings. 

1902. Button, Fred. L., Bacon Building, Oakland, California, U.S.A. 

1906. Carpenter, Geoffrey D. H., B..-\., c/o The Secretary to the Administration, 

Entebbe, Uganda. 
1893. Carphin, Mrs. Janet, 7, I^ockerbie Cottages, Liberton, Edinburgh. 
1901. Carter, Chas. S., 8, Bridge Street, Louth, Lines. 
1878. /'Cash, William, F.G.S., F.R.M.S., 35, Commercial Street, Halifax. 

1903. Cattell, W. Chas., The Poplars, Montagu Street, Kettering. 

1892. Champ, Hy., c/o S. & J. Watts & Co., Portland Street, Manchester. 
1905. Charnley, Jas. Roland, F.Z.S., F.E.S. , The Avenue, Moor Park, Preston. 

1889. Christy, Robert Miller, F.L.S., The Blue House, Chignal St. James, 

Chelmsford, Essex. 

1904. Clapp, Geo. H., 325, Water Street, Pittsburgh, Pa., U.S.A. 
1886. Coates, Henry, F.R.S.E., Balure, Perth. 

1880. Collier, Edwd., Glen Esk, Whalley Range, Manchester. 

1898. PL Collinge, Walter Ed. , M. Sc. , F. L. S. , F. E. S. , 55, Newhall St. .Birmingham. 

1910. Colwell, David, Heathcote, Lavender Vale, W'allington, Surrey. 
1901. Cooke, Rev. Alfred H., M.A., Aldenham School, F'lstree, Herts. 
1892. Cooper, James Eddowes, Cadboro, 53, North Road, Highgate, N. 

1890. Crawford, James, c/o J. C. Kemsley and Co., Port Elizabeth, Cape Colony 
1910. Cribb, C. Theodore, The Vicarage, Shipley, Yorks. 

1899. Crowther, J. E., Portland. Street, Elland, Yorks. 

1879. Cundall, Jas. W., 3, Orlando Road, Clapham Common, S.W. 

1897. Dacie, John Charles, 30, Montserrat Road, Putney, S.W. 
1904. *Dalgliesh, Gordon, 29, Larkfield Road, Richmond, Surrey. 

1899. Darnbrough, Frederick, 12, West End Terr., Yarm Rd., Stockton-on-Tees 
1897. Z; Dautzenberg, Ph., 213, Rue de 1' Universite, Paris. 
1909. Dawes, L., Hambledon, Hants. 

1898. Dean, J. Davy, 84, Dale Street, Lancaster. 

1909. Dickson, Robert Cecil, M.B., Ch.B., 31, Castle Street, Dumfries. 

1909. Diver, Cyril, The Birches, Haslemere. 

1907. Dupont, Evenor, Hell-Bourg, Reunion. 

1910. Dyke, F. M., B.Sc. (Lond.), Fairlawn, Spital Road, Bromborough. 

1908. Edgar, li. F., 14, Woodside Park Gardens, North Finchley, N. 
1895. Edwards, Thos., 247, Narborough Road, Leicester. 

1901. Edwards, W. H., Hastings Museum, Victoria Institute, Worcester. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 5 

1891. Elgar, Hubert, Museum and Public Library, Maidstone. 

1904.Z Eliot, Sir Chas., K.C.M.G., Endcliffe Holt, Endcliffe Crescent, .Sheffield. 

1S84. Elliot, Edward J., High Street, Stroud, (Jloucestershire. 

1910. Elliott, W. T., b.D.S., F.Z.S., 63, Temple Row, Birmingham. 

1901. *Ensor, A. R. , 60, Lumley Road, Skegness. 

1894. Evans, Wm., F.R.S.E., 38, Morningside Park, Edinburgh. 

1897. Z Farquhar, John, 3, Rose Terrace, African Str., Grahamstown, Cape Colony 
1891. Farrer, Captain Wm. James, Chapel House, Bassenthwaite, Keswick. 

1897. Fielding, Clemeni, M.P.S., Clover Hill, Halifax, Yorks. 
1890. Fierke, Frederick Wm., 581, Anlaby Road, Hull. 

1884. /.Fitzgerald, Rev. H. Purefoy, F.L.S., Lidwells, Goudhurst, Kent. 

1898. Fitzsimons, J. B., M.D., 6, San Remo Terrace, Dawlish. 
1906. Fogerty, Harry, Chamber of Commerce, Limerick. 

1905. Foster, Miss Amy C. S. , Hendra, Alum Chine, Bournemouth. 
1912.Z Frames, P. R., P.O. Box 148, Johannesburg, S. Africa. 

1905. Freeman, William, Hawkhurst, Milton Road, Oundle. 

1906. Freyberg, Cuthbert, 27, Hawker Street, Wellington, New Zealand. 
1S92. Fulton, Hugh, River Side, Kew, near London. 

1907. Z Gabriel, Charles J., 297, Victoria Street, Abbotsford, Victoria, Australia. 

191 1. Geiser, Samuel W., Upper Iowa University, Fayette, Iowa, U.S.A. 
1887. Gerland, Conrad, M.Sc, Ph.D., F.C.S., Meadow Bank, Accrington. 

1908. Gill, Mrs. A. E., Dinant Cottage, l, Claude Road, Chorlton-cum-Hardy. 
1910. Gnosspelius, Miss Hilda T. , Silver Holme, Newby Bridge, Ulverston. 
1S86.Z Godlee, Theo., Whips Cross, Walthamstow, Essex. 

1897./" Godwin-Austen, H. H., Lt.-Col., F.R.S.,etc. ,Nore, Hascombe,GodaIming. 

1906. Gomez, A. da Costa, 201, St. James' Place, Brooklyn, N.Y., U.S.A. 

1902. Gower, Harry D. , 55, Benson Road, Croydon. 

1904. Gray, Arthur F., 509, Exchange Buildings, Boston, Mass., U.S.A. 

1905. Green, Wm. A., 4, Salisbury Terrace, Chichester Park, Belfast. 
1904. Grierson, P. H., Kilcarberry House, Clondalkin, Dublin. 

1907. Gripper, F. H., Springfield, Camden Park, Tunbridge Wells. 
1890. Gude, G. K., F.Z.S., 45, West Hill Road, Wandsworth, S.W. 

1886. /'Gwatkin, Rev. Prof. H. M., D.D., M.A., 8, Scrope Terrace, Cambridge. 
1907. Gwyer, C. D. , 303, Putnam Avenue, Brooklyn, N. Y., U.S.A. 
1907. Gyngell, Walter, 51, Gladstone Street, Scarborough. 

1909. Haas, Dr. Fritz, Senkenbergisches Museum, Victoria Allee, 7, Frankfurt- 

am -Main. 

1910. Hadden, Norman G., St. Audrey's, Priory Road, Malvern. 

1895. Hann, Rev. Adam, i. Park Terrace, Halifax. 

1895. Hardy, John Ray, The Museum, The University, Manchester. 

1887. Hargreaves, J. A., 2, Stepney Road, Scarborough. 

1907. Harrington, Chas. P., Langlands, King's Avenue, Clapham Park, 

London, S.W. 

1909. Harrison, Richard, 28, Allen Street, Hulme, Manchester. 

1904. Harrison, Russell C, 117, Tooting Bee Rd., Upper Tooting, S.W. 

1889. Hartley, Alfred, 19, Thorpe Garth, Idle, near Bradford, Yorks. 

1887. Harvard, T. Mawson, 4, Queen's Leaze, Forest Hill, S.E. 

1907. Hawkins, H. L. , University College, Reading. 

1903. Hawkins, John, J. P., 35, Avenue Road, Grantham. 



6 JOURNAL OF CONCHOLOGY, VOL. I4, NO. I, JANUARY, I913. 

1887. Heathcote, Wm. Henry, F.L.S., 119a, Fishergate, Preston, Lanes. 

1907. Henderson, J. B., jr., i6th Street and Florida Avenue, Washington, D.C., 

U.S.A. 
1887. Hey, Thomas, 8, Bloomfield Street, Derby. 

1895. Hibbert, Charles R. C, Riccard's Down, Abbotsham, Bideford, Devon. 
i895.iP Hickson, Prof. Sydney J., D.Sc, M.A., F.R.S., University, Manchester. 
1893. Hill, John, Pike's Villa, Little Eaton, near Derby. 

1886.Z Hillman, Thomas Stanton, Eastgate Street, Lewes, Sussex. ' 

1907. Hindley, R. T., Langham, Kenley, Surrey. 

1906. Hirase, Y., Karasumaru, Kyoto, Japan. 

191 1. Hitchon, Mrs. Susan A., Rhyddington, Oswaldtwistle, Lanes. 
iSgi./'Horsley, Rev. Canon J. W., Detling Vicarage, Maidstone. 

1907. Horwood, A. R., Ivanhoe, Gwendolen Road, Leicester. 
1907. Howard, Vernon, Carlton Lodge, Eastgate, Louth. 

1884. Howell, George O., 210, Eglinton Road, Plumstead, Kent. 

1892. Howorth, Sir Henry Hoyle, K.C.I.E., M.P., F.R.S., etc., 30, CoUingham 

Gardens, London, S.W. 
1886. /"Hoyle, W. E., M.A., D.Sc, The National Museum of Wales, Cardift. 
1895. Hudson, Rev. Hy. A., 445, Stretford Road, Manchester. 
1909. Huggins, Henry C, 17, Clarence Place, Gravesend. 
191 1. Humphreys, Griffith, i, Belsize Avenue, London, N.W. 
1905. Hutton, W. Harrison, 44, Dial Street, Leeds. 



1901. Jackson, J. Wilfrid, F.G.S., The Museum, The University, Manchester. 

1912. Jenkinson, Charles, I, High Street, Kettering. 

1891. Jenner, James Herbert Augustus, F. E. S., 209, School Hill, Lewes, Sussex. 

1904. Jennings, F. B., 152, Silver Street, Upper Edmonton, N. 

1912.Z, Jewell, Miss F. , Emsworlh, Hants. 

1906. Johnson, Chas. W., Boston Society of Natural History, Boston, Mass., 

U.S.A. 
1908. *Jolliffe, J. E. A., 93, Dorchester Road, Weymouth. 
1894. Jones, Staff-Surgeon K. H., M.B., Ch.B., F.Z.S., R.N., c/o Admiralty, 

London, S.W. 
1901. Jukes Browne, A. J., F.R.S., F.G.S., Westleigh, Ash Hill Road, Torquay. 



1907, Kendall, Rev. C. E. Y. , S. Mark's Vicarage, Peterborough. 
1897.Z Kennard, A. S., Benenden, Mackenzie Road, Beckenham, Kent. 
1902.Z Kensett, Percy F., Broadmeadow, Coombe Lane, Wimbledon, S.W. 
1897. Kenyon, Mrs. Agnes Fleming, 291, Highett St., Richmond, Melbourne, 

Victoria. 
1889. Knight, Rev. G. A. Frank, M.A., F.R.S.E., St. Leonard's Bank, Perth. 



1901 
1899 

1879 
1894 

1905 
1900. 
1911 
1910, 



Laidlaw, F. F. , AL A. , Cranston's Ivanhoe Hotel, Bloomsbury St. , London, W.C. 
Lancaster, Ernest Le Cronier, B.A., M.B., Winchester House, Swansea. 
Laver, Henry, M.R.C.S.. F.L.S., Head Street, Colchester, Essex. 
Lawson, Peter, Je.smond Dene, 87, Finlay St., Fulham, S.W. 
Laycock, John, Sidney, Manitoba, Canada. 

Lebour, Miss M. V., Radcliffe House, Corbridge-on-Tyne, Northumberland. 
Leman, George C, Wynyard, 152, West Hill, Putney, S.W. 
Levett, Rev. T. T., F.Z. S. , Frenchgate, Richmond, Yorks. 



1899 
1909 
1908 
1912 
1898 
igio 
1891 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 

Lightfoot, Robert M. , South African Museum, Cape Town. 
Linton, Mrs., Ye Olde Mill House, Castle Hill, Northallerton. 
LongstafF, Mrs. G. B., Highlands, Putney Heath,' S.W. 
Loyd, L. R. W. , 17, Sandringham Court, Maida Vale, W. 
Lucas, B. R., Winnington Park, Northwich, Cheshire. 
Lucas, F. R. Tindall, Tewin Vale, Welwyn. 
Lyons, Lady, Kilvrough, Parkmill, R.S.O., Glamorganshire. 



1889. MacAndrew, James J.) F.L.S., etc., Lukesland, Ivy Bridge, Devonshire. 

1906. Macindoe, Dr. A., D.P. H., Sidmouth, Devon. 

191 1. MacLeod, D. J. j Hof Ter Meere, 13. Reigerstraat, Ghent, Belgium. 

1884. Madison, James, Turves Green, West Heath Rd., Northfield, Birmingham. 

1911. March, Miss M. C, M.Sc, Healey Grove, Burnley, Lanes. 

1885. Marquand, Ernest D., A.L.vS., 46, Kimbolton Road, Bedford. 

1906. Marshall, Arthur G., 66, Victoria Street, Westminster, S.W. 
1887. Marshall, J. T. , c/o Editor oi Journal of Co7ichology. 
i887./'Masefield, John R. B., M.A., Rosehill, Cheadle, Staffordshire. 

1904. Massy, Miss A. L. , 9, St. James's Terrace, Malahide, Dublin. 

1905. Maxwell, Mrs. Miller, Bangholm Bower, Goldenacre, Edinburgh. 
1889. Mayfield, Arthur, Mendlesham, Stowmarket, Suffolk. 

1903. McClelland, Hugh, Stretton, Balsall Street, Berkswell, Warwickshire. 

1886. McMurtrie, Rev. John, M.A., D.D., 13, Inverleith Place, Edinburgh. 
1880. iPMelvill, James Cosmo, M.A., D.Sc, F.L.S., Meole Brace Hall, Shrewsbury. 
1909. Mercer, Jas. W., 611, Chorley Old Road, Bolton. 

1904. Milne, James N., Foylemore, St. Jude's Avenue, Belfast. 

1907. Milner, Miss Lucinda, Clevclands, Ellesmere Park, Eccles, Manchester. 

1909. Milton, J. W. , Harrison House, Crosby. 

1906. Monterosato, II Marchese di, 2, Via Gregorio Ugdalena, Palermo, Sicily. 

1910. Moorcock, J., gt, Broadfield Road, Catford, S.E. 
1902.Z Moore, Chas. H., 103, Mottram Road, Stalybridge. 

1908. Moore, Albert J., 9, Brook Street, Hull. 

1907. Morey, Frank, F.L.S.,Wolverton,Carisbrooke Rd., Newport, Isle of Wight. 
1891. Moss, William, F.C.A., 13, Milton Place, Ashton-under-Lyne. 

1912. Murdoch, G. H. 49, Parliament Hill, Hampstead, N. W. 

1906. Murdoch, R., Wanganui, New Zealand. 

1907. Musham, J. F., F.E.S., Haylands, Brook Street, Selby, Yorks. 

1905. Napier, H. C, 15, The Common, Woolwich. 

1911. Nash, Rev. E. H., M.A., Wetley Rocks Vicarage, Stoke-on-Trent. 
1903. Nash, P. B. , Bruce Mines, Algona, Ont., Canada. 

1887. Newstead, A. H. L., B.A., 38, Green Street, Bethnal Green, E. 

1891. Newton, Richard BuUen, F.G.S., 11, Twyford Crescent, Acton Hill, 

London, W. 
1891. /'Norman, Rev. Canon Alfred Merle, D.C.L., F.R.S., etc.. The Red 

House, Berkhamsted. 
1901. Norton, Miss E. M., 20, Eastfield Road, Westbury-on-Trym, near Bristol. 

1887. Oldham, Charles, Kelvin, Boxwell Road, Berkhamsted. 

1910. Oliver, A. M. , West Jesmond Villa, Newcastle-on-Tyne, 

1899. Orr, Hugh Lamont, 29, Garfield Street, Belfast. 

1896. Overton, Harry, The Newlands, Bosvvell Road, Sutton Coldfield. 

1905.Z Owston, Alan, Yokohama, Japan, 



1903 

IQOO 
1904 
1902 
1886 

I90I 
1907 
1908 
1906 
1904 
1886 

1905 
1903 

1897 
1907 
1906 



JOURNAL OF CONCHOLOGY, VOL. I4, NO. I, JANUARY, I9I3 

Pace, S., Milneholme, Hounslow. 

Panqell, Chas., 13, East Street, Haslemere, Surrey. 

Parritt, H. W., 8, Whitehall Park, Upper HoUoway, N. 

Pattison, Ernest, 52, Saxe Coburg Street, Leicester. 

Pearce, Rev. S. Spencer, M.A., Long Combe Vicarage, near Woodstock, 

Oxfordshire. 
Penrose, G. , Royal Institution of Cornwall, Truro. 
Petty, S. L. , Dykelands, Ulverston, Lanes. 
Phillips, R. A., Ashburton, Cork. 

Plant, James R., M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P., 107, Hinckley Road, Leicester 
Piatt, Thos. H., Harpurhey Mill, Rochdale Road, Manchester. 
Ponsonby, John H., F.Z.S., 15, Chesham Place, London, .S. W. 
Poole, W. G., South Lawn, Godalming. 

Preston, Henry, F.G.S. , Hawthornden Villa, Spittlegate, Grantham. 
Preston, Hugh Berthon, F.Z.S., 53, West Cromwell Road, London, S.W. 
Priske, R. A. R., 9, Melbourne Avenue, West Ealing, Middlesex. 
APritchard, G. B., F.G.S., 38, Mantell Street, Moonee Ponds, Victoria. 



1906.Z Radley, Percy E., F.R.M.S., 30, Foxgrove Road, Beckenham, Kent. 
1896. Ragdale, John Rowland, The Beeches, Whitefield, near Manchester. 

1899. Ramanan, Vedaraniam Venkata, M.A., F.Z.S., 12, Sami Pillai Street, 

Triplicane, Madras, S. India. 
1906. Reynell, Alexander, Caerleon, Whyteleafe Road, Caterham. 
1905. Reynolds, Laurence R. , 233, Aspinwall Avenue, Brookline, Mass., U.S.A. 

1905. Reynolds, W. G., 15, Alfoxton Avenue, West Green, London, N. 

1900. Richards, C P., Mission House, Stenalees, St. Austell, Cornwall. 

1906. Ritchie, John, jr.. Box 2795, Boston, Mass., U.S.A. 
1898. Roberts, A. William Rymer, The Common, Windermere. 

O P Roebuck, Wm. Denison, F.L.S., 259, Hyde Park Road, Leeds. 

1907. Rolle, Hermann, Koniggratzer Str. 89, Berlin, S.W. 

1901. Rooth, J. A., M.R.C.S., 6, Richmond Terrace, Brighton. 

1905. Rope, Geo. T. , Blaxhall, Tunstall, Suffolk. 

1893. Roseburgh, John, Market Square, Galashiels, Roxburgh. 

1892. Rosevear, John Burman, 109, New King's Rd., Fulham, ,S.W. 
i9io.Z.Rowe, A. W., M.S., M.B., M.A.C.S., F.G.S., Shottendane, Margate. 

1910. Saggu, M. K., M.R.A.S., etc.. Common Room, Lincoln's Inn, W.C. 

1906. Salisbury, Albert E., Bradgate Villa, 102, Park Road, Loughborough. 
i877.i"Scharff, Robert F., Ph.D., M.R.I. A., Tudor House, Dundrum, Dublin. 

1906, Schepman, M. M., Bosch en Duin, Huister Heide, Utrecht, Holland. 
i895.ZSchill, C. H., Crosten Towers, Alderley Edge. 

1886. Scott, Thomas, LL.D., F.L.S., 280, Victoria Road, Torry, Aberdeen. 

1893. Shackleford, Rev. Lewis John, 66, Granville Road, Blackpool. 

1907. Shaer, Kidore, B. A., 3 2, Seymour Road, Crumpsall, Manchester. 
1906. Sharp, C. J., M.R.C.S., 2, Wellington Avenue, Liverpool. 
igio.ZShaw, H. O. N., F.Z.S., Skreens Park, Roxwell, near Chelmsford. 
1904. Shaw, Rev. W. A., Peper Harow Rectory, Godalming. 

1906. Sheppard, T., F.G.S., Municipal Museum, Hull. 

1906. Shopland, Commander E. R., i, Estivals, Oulton Broad. 

1910. Shrubsole, George, EUesmere, Fields Park Road, Newport, Mon. 

1895. Sich, Alfred, F.E.S., Corney House, Chisvvick, W. 

1906. Sikes, F. H., M.A., F.L.S., Burnham Abbey, Bucks. 



LIST OF MEMISERS. 9 

1905. Simpson, James, c/o G. Sim, Esq., A. L.S., 52, Castle Street, Aberdeen. 

1902. Smallman, Raleigh S., Homeside, Devonshire Place, Eastbourne. 
i886./'Smith, Edgar A., I.S.O., P\Z.S., Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, 

London, S.W. 

1892. Smith, Mrs. Louisa J., Monmouth House, Monmouth St., Topsham, Exeter. 

1899. Z, Smith, Mrs. Lucy A., Cricklade Street, Cirencester. 

1907. Smith, Maxwell, c/o Farmer's Loan and Trust Co. (of New York), 41, 
Boulevard Haussmann, Paris. 

1894. Smith, Wm. Chas. , 7, Vanston Place, Walham Green, S.W. 

1900. Solly, E. H., 3, South Street, Deal, Kent. 

1886. Sowerby, Geo. Brettingham, F.L.S., River Side, Kew, near London. 
1907. Spence, G. C, 27, Pine Grove, Monton, Eccles, Lanes. 

1906. Stalley, Henry J., Thorntona, Oxted, Surrey. 

1886. Standen, Robert, The Museum, The University, Manchester. 

191 1. Standish, C. M., Prospect House, Weldbank, Chorley. 

1903. L Stelfox, A. W., Delamere, Chlorine Gardens, Belfast. 
1906. Step, Edward, F. L.S., Oak wood House, Ashstead, Surrey. 
1910. Stephenson, H. L., 73, Colwyn Road, Dewsbury Road, Leeds. 
1908.Z Stobart, H. J. S., Belbroughton, Stourbridge. 

1896. Stonestreet, Rev. W. T., B.D., F.R.S.L., c/o The New Church Book 

Depot, 18, Corporation Street, Manchester. 

1897. Stracey, Bernard, M.B., Priory Lodge, 16, New Walk, Leicester. 
1890. Stubbs, Arthur Goodwin, The Meads Cottage, Hailey Lane, Hertford. 

1893. Stump, Edward Consterdine, 13, Polefield Road, Blackley, Manchester. 

1912. Sturt, E. G. M., Lismore, Cavendish Road, Weybridge. 
1912. Sturt, G. L. , Lismore, Cavendish Road, Weybridge. 

1895. Swanton, E. W., The Educational Museum, Haslemere, Surrey. 
i888./'Sykes, Ernest Ruthven, B.A., F.L.S., 8, Belvedere, Weymouth. 



1910 

1895 
1907 
1904 
1907 
1901 
1903 
1908 
1907 
18"' 
1906, 

1907 

1899 
1897 
1902 

1898 
1891 
1907 
1905 
1909, 



Tattersall, W. M., D. Sc, The Museum, The University, Manchester. 

Taylor, Frederick, 32, Landseer Street, Park Road, Oldham, Lanes. 

Taylor, G. H., School House, Higher Blackley, Manchester. 
ZTaylor, Gerald Medland, Rossall School, Fleetwood. 

Taylor, J. Kidson, 45, South Avenue, Buxton. 

Taylor, Thos. , Tainui Street, Greymouth, New Zealand. 

Thaanum, D., 5, Church Street, Hilo, Hawaiian Islands. 

Thomas, Rev. R. E., M.A., St Martin's Clergy House, Salisbury. 
A Thornton, H. G., Kingsthurpe Hall, Northampton. 
ATomlin, J. R. le Brockton, M.A.,F.E.S., Lakefoot, Reading. 

Turton, Lt.-Col.W. H.,D.S.O., R.E.,80, Caledonia Place, Clifton, Bristol 

Upton, Charles, Honiebush, Listow, N. Devon. 

Vaughan, J. Williams, J. P., Pen-y-maes, Hay, via Hereford. 

Vignal, Louis, 28, Avenue Duquesne, Paris. 

Vincent, W. C. W., 39, West Bank, Stamford Hill, London, N. 

Wakefield, H. Rowland, 7, Montpelier Terrace, Swansea. 
Walker, Bryant, 205, Moffat Building, Detroit, Michigan, U.S.A. 
Wallis, E. A., Springfield, West Parade, Scarborough. 
Walton, H. Maurice, Goodburne House, Richmond, Yorks. 
Ward, J. S. M., B.A., The Whym, Gomshall, Surrey. 



lO JOURNAL OF CONCHOLOGY, VOL. I4, NO. I, JANUARY, I913. 

I900.Z Watson, Hugh, Bracondale, The Avenue, Cambridge. 

1908. Weaver, G. H., 31, Devonshire Road, Palmer's Green, N. 

1900. Webb, Walter F., 202, Westminster Road, Rochester, N.Y., U.S.A. 

1902. Weeks, Wm. H., jr., 508, Wiljoughby Avenue, Brooklyn, N.Y., U.S.A. 
1895. Welch, Robert John, M.R.I. A., 49, Lonsdale Street, Belfast. 

1907. Wheat, Silas C, 987, Sterling Place, Brooklyn, N.Y., U.S.A. 

1886. Whitwell, Wm., F.L.S., Brookside, Darley Knowle, Warwickshire. 

191 1. Williams, James M. M., Imperial House, Pontlottyn, Cardiiif. 

1889. Williams, John M., 31, Grove Park, Liverpool. 
1906. Winkworth, John F., 290, Burdett Road, London, E. 

1890. Wood, Albert, Midland Lodge, Sutton Coldfield. Warwickshire. 

1910. Woodcock, R. , Fauvic, Jersey. 

1901. Z Wood ruffe -Peacock, Rev. E. A., F.L.S., etc., Cadney, Brigg, Lines. 

1911. Woods, Rev. F. H., B.D., Bainton Rectory, Driffield. 
1898. Woods, Henry, M.A. , F.G.S., 39, Barton Road, Cambridge. 
1886. Z Woodward, Bernard B., F.L.S., etc., 4, Longfield Rd., Ealing, W. 

1903. Worsdale, R. , 102, Dudley Terrace, Dudley Road. Grantham. 
1906. Wragge, Clement L., F.R.G.S., etc., Perth, Western Australia. 
1895. Wright, Charles East, Woodside, Rockingham Road, Kettering. 



COUNCIL MINUTE RESPECTING BRANCH SOCIETIES. 



At the Annual Meeting on Oct. 12th, Mr. Masefield raised the question of 
Branches of the Society, and asked what were the regulations regarding such, 
and if any affiliation fee was necessary. The Council replied that there were 
no special regulations, and no fee was required ; the only understanding was that 
the Branches should be officered by members of the parent Society. It was 
suggested that a note be put in the Journal urging the formation of Branches 
under the above rule. 



Helix cantiana Eaten by Birds. — I can confirm Mr. Oldham's and Mr. 
Leman's notes as to H. cantiana forming part of the food of birds. In Sussex, in 
June last, although I could not find any living specimens, I found plenty of the 
remains of recently killed ones around " Thrush-stones." — John R. B. Masefield 
{Read before the Society, Nov. 13th, 1912). 



Helix cantiana Eaten by Thrush.— The only occasion on which I have ob- 
served H. cantiana to be preyed upon by Thrushes was at S:. Margaret's, Kent, 
where on September 6th, 1897, I found seveial broken shells of this species by a 
" Thrush - stone." This was not a case of " Hobson's choice," as the district 
abounded in H. minoralis, broken shells of which were also round the stone. — 
Lionel E. kY)kWS, {Read before the Society, Nov. 13th, 1912). 



II 

DESCRIPTIONS OF TWO NEW SPECIES OF MARGINELLA 
FROM SAN THOME ISLAND. 



By J. R. LE B. TOxMLIN, M.A., and L. J. SHACKLEFORD. 



(Read before the Society, Sept. nth, 1912). 



Plate I (delayed till next number). 



Marginella eveleighi n.sp. 

Shell somewhat stout, fusiform, shining, white, very finely longitu- 
dinally striate ; aperture long, narrow ; posterior canal somewhat 
deeply notched ; columella strongly four-plaited, the two posterior 
plaits almost straight, the anterior ones very oblique ; outer lip 
incrassate, broadly margined, rather coarsely denticulate within. Spire 
rather short, four to five whorled, the apical whorls being vitreous. 
The suture is well-marked and flattened. The body-whorl is orna- 
mented with eight or nine transverse brown lines continued to the 
margin and crossed by six undulating longitudinal lines, broadening 
every now and then into blotches. These also are of a chocolate 
brown and there are irregularly shaped triangular blotches of the 
same colour on the upper whorls. The base of the anterior canal is 
also slightly stained with brown. 

Long., 7*25 mm. ; diam. max., 4 mm. 

Hab. : S. Thom^ Island, Gulf of Guinea. Scarce, in coral gravel. 

This shell is named after the Rev. G. S. C. Eveleigh, of St. Vincent, 
C.V., who has rendered us good service in getting West African 
material. 

M. melvilli n.sp. 

Shell fusiform, elongate, shining, smooth; sjnre blunt, three to four 
whorls; suture hardly apparent ; aperture narrow at posterior end, 
and broadened at the anterior end. Columella strongly four-plaited, 
the two posterior plaits being nearly straight, the third slightly, and 
the fourth — the anterior plait — very oblique. Outer lip pure white, 
incrassate, and very slightly arcuate with fine sage-green markings 
across the margin, which is somewhat broad. The body-whorl is 
ornamented with two scalloped bands of clouded brown of varying 
tints, the tips of the projections being of a deeper brown. Between 
these two coloured bands at a little below the level of the posterior 
canal, the pure porcelain white of the ground colour of the shell 
shows as an apparent white band scalloped on each border. On the 
penultimate whorl the colour of the band becomes sage-green — the 
tips of the projections only being brown. 

Long., 8-9 mm. ; diam. max., 4-5 mm. Hab. : S. Thome, very rare, 



NOTE ON UROCOPTIS LATA C.B. Ad. var. PRODUCTA 
C.B. Ad. 



By G. C. SPENCE. 



(Read before the Society, September nth, 1912). 



Form "much more elongate [than typical form], sub-conic. A 
specimen is 1*23 inch long and "34 inch broad" (Adams). 

Pilsbry in Tryon's Manual, vol. xv., page 116, adds " Known to 
me by above note only. It is larger than any form of the species I 
have seen, measuring about 3o|- x 8^ mm." 

In face of the above meagre notes I was pleased to come across 
shells labelled " Cylindrella lata var. producta C. B. Ad., Jamaica," 
in an old collection of Jamaican land moUusca now deposited in the 
Manchester Museum. This collection was made by John Jay and 




Fig. I. Fig. II. 

many of the specimens probably came from Professor Adams himself, 
although I do not think there is any documentary evidence of this. 
It would, therefore, appear that these shells are worth figuring, as 
unfortunately, in common with many of Adams' species, the description 
is so inadequate that identification without figures is very difficult, if 
not impossible. 

In the shells under notice the colour and sculpture are as in the 
typical form. The internal pillar of the specimen examined is also 
identical, being stout within the last four whorls, with a weak spiral 
tendency, above which the column rapidly becomes very slender with 
a slight twist — resembling fig. 51 on Plate 30 of Tryon's Manual, 

vol. XV. 

Figures I. and II. measure 25 x 7-25 mm. and 26'5 x 8 mm. 
respectively. 



13 
OBITUARY NOTICE. 

THE REV. ROBERT ASHINGTON BULLEN, B.A., F.G.S. 

By the rev. canon T- W. HORSLEY, M.A. 



(Read before the Society, Sept. nth, 1912). 



On August 14th, the Rev. Robert Ashington BuUen, of Hilden Manor, 
Tonbridge, died suddenly, shortly after leaving home for a visit to the 
Continent. Taking a B.A. degree at the University of London in 
1873, he entered Holy Orders in the diocese of Canterbury, and 
served three curacies at St. Peter's, Croydon, Farleigh, and St. Marga- 
ret's, Westminster, the last being under Archdeacon Farrar, who was 
subsequently Dean of Canterbury. He was afterwards Vicar of 
Shorehara in Kent, Rector of Lower Stukeley in Hants., and Rector 
of Wisley with Pyrford in Surrey, resigning this in 1905 and devoting 
his means and leisure largely to natural history and archccological 
matters. 

The writer's first acquaintance with him was when Mr. Bullen, as a 
young London clergyman, was profoundly interested in the Social 
Purity question, and later their meetings and correspondence were 
chiefly due to their membership of the Conchological Society, and his 
last letter to the writer was a few months ago as to the occurrence of 
Helix poviatia in Shoreham. 

A good and interesting man, he took up Conchology with some 
enthusiasm, and also made an especial study of Holocene deposits, 
and of British flint implements. In the field he was a painstaking 
and accurate observer. 



CENSUS AUTHENTICATIONS. 



By W. DENISON ROEBUCK, F.L.S., Hon. Recorder. 

All ihe records here given are based upon examples sent to the official 
authenticators : myself for slugs only ; Mr. Fred Taylor for Paludestrinids ; and 
Mr. John W. Taylor for all other species. 

Co. Carlow : Mr. R. A. Phillips has submitted a dead example of Planorbis 

fontanus, taken at Tinnahinch, March, iqi2. 
Carnarvonshire : On 12th December, 1910, Mr. Harold King, of Upper Bangor, 

sent specimens of Testacella sctilu/uiii, of which he had found five at that place. 

This is a new record, not only for Carnarvonshire, but for the principality of 

Wales. At the same time he sent examples of Helix acuta, found in 1907, on 

the sandhills at Nevin. 
Channel Isles : We have seen examples of Phytia niyosotis from Guernsey 

(Sowerby and Fulton), in the Essex Museum. 



14 JOURNAL OF CONCHOI.OGY, VOL. I4, NO. I, JANUARY, I913. 

Cheshire : Mr. J. Davy Dean has sulmnitled several examples of Pupa anglica, 
collected at Compstall, in 1903, by Mr. J. W. Jackson. 

Cheviotland : Mr. A. M. Oliver did good work in August, 1912, near Bamburgh, 
and sent Zonitoides niiidus and Vertigo fusilla from Spindlestone ; Vertigo 
pygniaa, one from Glororum, and a large colony under stones by roadside near 
Twizel House, Belford, and one Sfhy radium edentuhini fiom the last-named 
locality, Acanthiiitila lamellata, near Twizel House, and Spharium laaistie 
from a pond at Beadnell. He also sent Anodonta anatina, Pisidiu?>i amnicuin, 
and Plaiioiins alines, all common in the river Coquet, near Wark worth, the 
Anodonta being all of small size and brown in colour. As the river Coquet is 
here the dividing line between Cheviotland and Northumberland South, the 
species taken are referable to both vice-counties, and therefore they are new 
for Cheviotland. 

He also sent a number of Hygromia rn/escetis, hem a garden in Bamburgh 
village. This completes the range of this species for England, except that 
we have not seen it from Essex South, and that it does not seem to occur at all 
in Nottinghamshire, despite the numerous conchologists who have from time to 
time so thoroughly investigated that county, thus making it a case of real 
absence, not merely want of record. 

Co. Clare : Mr. R. A. Phillips has sent Palndestrina confiisa, a few, Phytia 
myosotis, numerous, and Ovatella bidentala, numerous, all taken at Kilrush, April, 
1 912. These have been duly verified by Mr. Ered. Taylor. 

Devon South : Mrs. Longstaff has sent Hyalinia radia/ula and its var. virides- 
centi-alba, one exami:)Ie of each, taken at Chagfoid. Mr. J. E. Cooper collected 
Valvata cristata at Colyford, in June, 1912, and sent several examples for 
authentication. 

Durham : Mr. B. R. Lucas has submitted examples oi Hygromia rjifescens taken 
by him in 1896, near Darlington, where it is very common. 

Essex North : Through the kindness of Mr. W. Cole and Mr. H. Whitehead, 
B.Sc, curators of the Essex Museum, w'e have seen Vivipara contecia and 
Palndestrina stagfialis, taken at Colchester by Mr. H. Laver ; Enconiiliis 
ftilvHS, West Bergholt and Leigh Wick ; and Ovatella bidentata, Wyvenhoe. 

Essex South : Through the kindness of the same gentlemen, we have been able to 
authenticate the following species : Testacella haliotidea, Widford (W. M.Webb); 
Ovatella bidentata, Eoulness (Dalton) ; Assiminia groyana and Palndestrina 
stagnatis, Tilbury Marshes (A. J. Jenkins) ; P. ventrosa, Thurrocks Marsh 
(A. J. Jenkins); and Vertigo pygmcea, Ingrave (W. M. Webb). 

Flintshire : Miss A. Steele Peikins, of Mount Road, Rhyl, sent me two consign- 
ments of slugs on the 5th and 12th June, 1912, which included three species not 
hitherto seen and authenticated for Flintshire. These were Limax 7iiaxitJiiis, one 
type and one adult var. obsctira, very dark uniform colour, with the keel only 
slightly paler; L.Jlavus, several typical adults; Aricn intermedins, a few. 
Along with these were examples of the already recorded Arion hortensis, A. 
circiimscriptus and var. neitstriaca, Agriolimax agrestis in both its common 
forms, and a very minute example of Milax sownbyi var. fallidissima sub-var. 
insolita, this last being the Striking form of which Miss Perkins sent me so many 
fine examples in 1904. 

Forfarshire : The Conchological Society's voucher-collection at Manchester con- 
tains the following in a collection made by Dr. Thomas Scott: Planorbis 
fontanus, one juv., Pisidiitm nitidiim, one, both from Balgavie Loch ; and 
Pisidiiim snbtrtmcatiD/i, one from Rescobie Loch. 



IS 

THE SENSE— AND NONSENSE-OF THE NAMES OF THE 
BRITISH LAND AND FRESHWATER SHELLS. 



(Presidential Address delivered at the Annual JNIeeting, Oct. i2> 1912). 



By The Rev. Canon J. W. HORSLF.Y, M.A. 



Twice already has a Presidential Address dealt with the question of 
the nomenclature of molluscs. In 1896 Mr. J. Cosmo Melvill most 
learnedly gave an historical sketch of the work of Pre-Linntean writers 
on shells, and shewed how the great Swedish naturalist had not only 
been preceded, but taught, by others who laboured in the field of 
classification and nomenclature, although the tenth and the twelfth 
editions of his Sysfe/na Natiiriv, published respectively in 1758 and 
1767, are usually regarded as the starting point. The increasing 
number of observers and their descriptive writings led, however, to 
such confusion in the way of synonyms, that in 1842, in Manchester, 
a committee of naturalists, eminent in various branches, was formed, 
and they produced the same year what is called the Stricklandian 
Code — from the name of the reporter or secretary. This Code laid 
down priority of nomenclature as the basis, adopted binomial 
nomenclature, and restricted names to Latin or Latinized Greek. 
It also deprecated the use of barbarous and mythological terms ; of 
comparative names, such as those ending in ides, oides, forntis ; 
severely discountenanced hybrid and corrupt names, derived partly 
from Latin and partly from Greek, or partly from English and partly 
from Latin, and also what they called ' nonsense names ' ; and 
advised that names should be derived from persons, only when the 
persons have deserved such commemoration. Then in 1865 a new 
and important committee on the subject revised the Stricklandian 
Code, and inter alia gave a list of no less than sixteen classes of 
objectionable names. Much attention has subsequently been given 
to the matter in England, America, France, and Germany, and while 
Mr. Melvill said " the whole array of animated nature is before us, 
awaiting patiently a valid enrolment and arrangement systematically 
and physiologically, and the day is sure to dawn when this will be 
done ; " it is satisfactory to note that he also said " the moUuscan 
branch of zoological nomenclature, as regards the genera, seems to 
be in better case than many of the other sciences." Those of 
species, and perhaps still more of recognized varieties, may still 
require attention. 

The other, and prior, Presidential Address was that of Mr. Edgar 
A. Smith, in 1890, on the nomenclature of certain genera of British 
land and freshwater shells, in which he advocated, or, perhaps we 



l6 JOURNAL OF CONCHOLOGY, VOL. I4, NO. I, JANUARY, iqij. 

may say, established the generic names of Viviparus for Faludina, 
of Paludestrina for Hydrobia, of Vitiea for Zoniies, Aciciila for Acme, 
and CcecilioiJes for Cionella or Achatitia. 

It would be simply ludicrous if I attempted to give you a scientific 
address comparable in any degree to those of most of my predecessors; 
but as my delight has been to introduce children and working-men 
to the study of the shells of their neighbourhood, and then of their 
native land, it seemed to me that, bearing them, and not scientists, 
in mind, I might do a useful work by extending their interest and 
knowledge of the objects of their pursuit by letting them know the 
meaning of the names they have to use — which are entirely taken 
from two languages, of which most of them know nothing. Quite 
recently I had a fascinated small student who, when I found 
Cyciostoma, called it cyclometer, but when I repeated the name and 
gave its meaning his intelligence advanced, whereas otherwise only 
his memory would be burdened. It will not, however, be a mere 
glossary or list of meanings which I shall essay, since' history is 
sometimes wrapped up in appellations, or valuable faunistic informa- 
tion given. To those who know more than I do as conchologists 
this paper will be useless ; but they will bear with it for the sake of 
those who, as beginners, know less, and are sometimes even repelled 
at first by having to remember names which they can neither 
understand nor always pronounce. Help them to understand, and 
from their ranks will the more surely come those who will emulate, 
and even surpass, the teachers of to-day. 

I take, therefore, our Society's Name List of 1904, for which we 
are mainly indebted to Mr. B. B. Woodward, and I translate, 
interpret, and in some cases comment on, all the names therein given. 
- All our British non-marine shells belong to two great classes. 
Gastropoda and Pelecypoda, the former being univalves, the latter 
bivalves. Gastropoda means stomach-footed, because on the ventral 
side of the body a sole-like disc or foot exists, by the wavelike 
expansions and contractions of which the animal progresses. We 
begin with the division Fiihnonata, i.e., those breathing air, or 
obtaining oxygen by means of a lung or air sac. 

Of these the first division is that of Stylomviatophora, i.e., bearing 
their eyes on or near the tips of their tentacles. 

The first family on our list is that of TestacellidcB, represented by 
the single genus Testacella. Testa is Latin for a shell, testacella s. 
little shell, a name given by Cuvier in 1800, because this slug bears a 
small external shell. Its species tmnigei was first found at Teneriffe, 
by M. Mauge. Its var. viridans means greenish. The second 
species haliotidea means having a shell in the tSea, or form, of the 



HORSLEY : PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 17 

marine shell Haliotis, the meaning of which again is the ear-shaped 
sea shell. The third species scutulu?n derives its name from scutum 
a shield, scutulum a little shield. 

The next family is that of the Limacid<^, in which the first genus is 
Limax. This name was hardly " originated or instituted by Linn^," 
as Mr. J. VV. Taylor says. It was the old Latin name for a slug, 
derived from li?Hus, or mud. Thus Varro writes, limax a limo quod 
ibi vivit, and Festus, lunaces cochlece a limo appellatcB, " slugs are 
shells named from mud." The first species is juaxivms, i.e., the 
greatest. The variety first named on our list is cinereo-niger. This 
means ashy-black, but is one of those undesirable compound names 
which remind us of nurserymen's Latin. The name was given by 
Wolf in 1803, but its colour varies much — black, white, yellow, red, 
grey, and brown. The var. ferussaci was named by Moquin-Tandon, 
in compliment to Ferussac, another great French conchologist, 
whose son continued his work. Var. krynickii, named after 
Krynick, an authority on Russian non-marine shells. Var. fasciata 
= banded. Var. ?naculata = spotted. Var. rufescens = reddish 
entirely. Var. cellaria = found in cellars, though not so definitely 
or exclusively as to warrant the name. Var. Candida = white. 
This species — maxinius — belongs to the sub-genus Heynemannia, so 
named after the great limacologist of Frankfort. 

Of Lehniamiia, the first species is flavus, i.e., yellow. Its var, 
virescens means greenish ; but the coloured figure in Taylor's 
Monograph hardly bears out the name. Var. suffusa, i.e., suffused, 
the darker shade overspreading or suffusing, and so obliterating the 
spots which are characteristic of the normal L. flavus. The vars. 
rufescens and ??iaculata have already been interpreted, and only on 
the first occurrence of a name will its meaning be given. The next 
species is arborum, i.e., frequenting trees. Its var. nemorosa means 
inhabiting groves. Var. rupicola = inhabiting rocks. Var. pallens 
= pale, paler than the type. Var. alpestris = found in the Alps, or 
high places. 

The genus Agrioliniax comes next. The name means field-slug. 
Its first species is agrestis, inhabiting fields. Var. sylvatica = 
found in woods. Var. punctata = spotted, with black. Var. 
nigra = black. Var. lilacina, called by Mr. Taylor violacea. It 
is lilac or slate-coloured rather than violet. Named violacea by 
Gassies in 1849 \ t)ut Moquin-Tandon in 1855 more correctly called 
it lilacina. Var. albida = whitish. Var. reticulata — marked like 
network, or, as Mr. Taylor says, " with interstitial hneolation." 
Var. tristis - sad, i.e., sad-coloured. Var. obscura = hidden. 



16 JOURNAL OF CONCHOLOGY, VOL. I4, NO. I, JANUARY, I913. 

The next species is lavis. This spelling is an erroneous form ot 
the Latin levis, probably adopted to distinguish the two words levis 
smooth, and levis light. The epithet levis has priority, but the 
bruntteus (an unclassical name for brown) of Draparnaud in 1801 is 
more descriptive. 

The genus Milax is an utterly unmeaning and artificial word, made 
by Dr. Gray, who ought to have known better, by transposing the 
letters of Limax. The name Amalia (I presume from the Greek 
a/;iaAos, tender, soft) was given by Moquin-Tandon when he 
separated it from Limax. Its first species is sowerbyi, named in 1823 
by Ferussac, from specimens sent by Mr. G. B. Sowerby from near 
London. It has a var. carinata, i.e. keeled, with a ridge on its 
upper surface, and another nigresce?is, i.e., approaching black. The 
other species is gagates, from the Greek word for lignite or jet. It 
varies from black to brown. Var. plumbea — lead-coloured. 

We come next to the family Zonitidce. Zonites means girdle-like, 
i.e., circular. 

The first genus is Vitritia, from vitiuiii, glass. Its sole species is 
pellucida, i.e., transparent, an appropriate name, first given by Miiller 
in 1774. Its var. depressiuscnla bears a very unclassical name, 
denoting somewhat flattened. Its var. dilhvynii was named by 
Jeffreys after Dillwyn (1788-1855), a celebrated conchologist, who 
was M.P. for Glamorganshire. 

The genus Vitrea (glassy) is represented by the species crystallina, 
of which one variety is called co7Jiplanata = levelled, i.e., with the 
upper side quite flat, and the other cofitracta, i.e., with whorls little 
increasing in size. 

In the sub-genus Polita (polished) there is the species lucida, i.e., 
transparent, though the shell is scarcely semi-transparent, and 
comparatively thick and strong. Draparnaud (after whom this shell 
used to be called draparnaldi) is responsible for the name. It has a 
var. albina, i.e., whitish. The species cellaria is supposed, by its 
name, to inhabit cellars, which it occasionally does ; but in classical 
Latin a room, and especially a store-room or pantry, is meant by cella 
and cellariuin. I found it under the stone lid of a manhole in the 
drain of S. Peter's Rectory, Walworth — the only shell left in that part 
of London. 

Rogefsi, till lately known as glabra or helvetica, was so nanjed in 
1903 by B. B. Woodward, after Mr. Thomas Rogers, of Manchester, 
who first noticed the shell as differing from its related alliaria. Mr. 
Taylor, however, in his Monograph gives reasons for its being called, 
as before, helvetica, i.e., from Helvetia or Switzerland, where Dr. 
Blum, of Frankfort, first found it. 



HORSLEY : PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 19 

Alltaria, i.e., smelling of garlic, was so named by Mr. J. S. Miller, 
of Bristol, in 1822. It has a var. viridula, i.e., greenish. 

Nitidula, i.e., somewhat glossy, has a var. nitens, i.e., shining, 
though the differential character of the shell is not its lustre, but the 
greater amplitude of the last whorl. The species pu7'a derives its 
name from both the body and the shell being white. Its var. 
nitidosa is of a clear fawn or horn colour. The word is unclassical 
Latin for shining, and it is to be deprecated that in this small sub- 
genus we should have nitidula, nitens, nitidosa, and nitidus, as 
specific or varietal names, when the name of the sub genus — Polila — 
indicates for all that they are polished or glossy. 

The species radiatida is named from the shell being finely radiate 
in its striation. The var. viridescenti-alba, i.e., greenish-white, of 
Jeffreys, may be but a sub-variety of var. viridula, first described by 
Menke in 1830. 

The genus Zonitoides (" like Zonites ") contains nitidus and its 
var. albina and excavatus, i.e., hollowed out, with a very wide 
umbilicus. The genus Euconuliis means pretty little conical shell, 
while fulvus is tawny. The name Mortoni was given to a variety by 
Jeffreys, possibly in honour of the Rev. J. Morton, who wrote in 
1712 on the natural history of Northamptonshire; and that of var. 
Alderi by Gray in his 1840 edition of Turton's Manual after 
Joshua Alder, the great Newcastle authority on the Nudibranchiata 
or "sea-slugs.'' 

We come next to the family of ArionidcE. The Greek name Anon 
is historically given to a certain musician and a certain swift steed — 
neither of whom naturally suggest a slug. The ' i ' should be short 
by-the-bye, and the accent on the first syllable. People have been 
misled by recollections of the name Orion given to a constellation. 
The species ater, i.e., black, was named Limax ater by Dr. Lister in 
1674. It usually, in England, deserves its specific name, but is also 
white, red, lead-coloured, chocolate, and parti-coloured. Of the ten 
varietal names given in our catalogue (sixteen in Taylor's Monograph), 
those not already translated or explained are flagella, concerning 
which Mr. J. W. Taylor writes to me : " It was so named by Mr. 
Collinge, from his belief that this type specimen possessed a 
flagellum on the oviduct. I have pointed out the unlikelihood of 
this, and Dr. Scharff who examined the type dissection, denies that the 
so-called flagellum is anything but tissue;" lusitanica, i.e., found in 
Portugal ; bicolor, two-coloured ; sivamtnerdami of Kalaleniczenko, 
named after the German naturalist, whose Biblia Naturce was 
published in 1737. The species i'///y?/i'^//.$' — somewhat brown. Var. 
auraiitiara means golden-hued — aurata would be classical Latin. 
The species elongatus - lengthened — not classical Latin, 



20 JOURNAL OF CONCHOLOGY, VOL. I4, NO. I, JANUARY, I913. 

The species intermedins, i.e., intermediate, bears a name which says 
nothing, for one is not told between what species it was considered 
intermediate. The species hortensts, i.e., frequenting gardens, has 
two varieties named by PoUonera, celtica and cottiana, as having been 
first noticed in a Celtic region and in the Cottian Alps about Mt. 
Cenis. Another variety is c<Brulea, i.e., blue. The species fasciatus 
has a var. circumscriptus, i.e., trimmed round, perhaps in allusion 
to the footsole being white, which, however, is characteristic of the 
type, and not merely of the variety. 

The genus Geomalacus contains but one species, and the name 
means in Greek the earth-mollusc. The specific name maculosus 
means spotted. 

The family of Endodontida (having teeth within) has a jaw formed 
of a series of quadrate plates. The genus Punctum gets its name 
from its small size — a point, and its specific name pygfficsum denotes 
also its small size. The Romans used Aristotle's Greek name of 
Pygmcei for the dwarf tribes of Africa, of which he probably knew 
more than discoverers of the nineteenth century imagined. 

Sphyradium, a name given by Agassiz, may be derived from 
<T<f)vpa, a hammer, or from cr<^i;/oas, sheep's dung, but the connection 
or similarity is not plain. Meditating, however, on the subject in a 
sheep-pasture, 1 am inclined to adopt the latter derivation, since 
sometimes aggregated pellets of sheep's dung are not unlike a very 
much magnified Vertigo, with tumid whorls. Its specific name 
edentulu?n denotes the absence of teeth. Its var. colionella is 
lengthened, and so more columnar in shape. 

The genus Pyramidiila, i.e., pyramidal, contains in England only 
rupestris, i.e., rock-loving. A more descriptive name than many, 
although found also on stone walls, and in one case by me on a brick 
wall in Sussex. Its var. trochoides is like a Trochus in shape. 

The sub-genus Gotiyodiscus indicates that it is like the sub-genus 
Discus (disk-like), but the periphery of the whorls is angulated. 
Roiundata = rounded. Its var. tiirtoni was so named by Fleming 
in 1828, after Turton, who published his great Conchylia Insiilarum 
Britannicarmn in 1822. The "monster" scalaris, i.e., whorls 
mounting like a ladder. 

Next comes the great family of Helicidce. The genus Helicella 
was so named by Ferussac in 1819, who probably used the diminutive 
because most in this group are smaller than the true Helices. The 
section Heliomaties, i.e., mad for the sun, indicates the habit of not 
shrinking from the light and heat, while the old name for the genus 
was Xerophila, i.e., loving dry things, since as food dry stalks, and 
other dry things, such as printed matter, are often preferred to more 
succulent vegetation. 



ttORSLEY : PkESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. ^1 

Our species virgata bears the name meaning striped, a term 
applied by Da Costa to this member of the large group oi Pentatcfitia, 
or five-banded shells. Its varietal names not already explained are 
subaperta, somewhat open, i.e., with an umbilicus wider than usual ; 
subglobosa, somewhat globular ; carinata, with a (peripheral) keel ; 
lineata, marked with lines thinner than the usual bands ; lei/cosona, 
with a white (peripheral) zone, the rest of the shell being dark violet ; 
rufulozonata, with a reddish zone ; radiata, with bands broken up, so 
as to give a rayed appearance from the apex downwards ; luiescens, 
yellowish ; hypozotta, with bands only below the periphery ; epizona, 
banded (or blotched) above the periphery, but white below ; subalbida, 
the name given by Poiret to a variation not " rather whitish," but 
with one band on a white shell ; albicans, growing white (the nucleus 
is dark) ; var. alba is really white, including the apex. 

The subsection Helicella contains itala, i.e., Italian, so named by 
Linne who probably received it first from Italy. Miiller's later name 
oi ericetoriim (inhabiting heaths and downs) is more significant of its 
usual habitat. Var. instabilis, i.e., fluctuating, not adhering to the 
typical form in size, shape, or colour. Var. lentiginosa, not from 
lens, a lentil, as L. E. Adams says in his glossary in his " Collector's 
Manual," but from lentigo, a freckle, or a lentil-shaped spot. It has 
freckle-like markings, radiating from the centre. 

The genus Candidula (members mainly whitish) is represented in 
England by caperata, i.e., wrinkled, with a close and regular striation. 
The name is derived from the late Latin verb capero, to wrinkle, which 
probably was formed with reference to the wrinkled horns of a goat 
{caper). Var. subscalaris is somewhat scalariform. Var. bizonalis 
has two broad bands above the periphery. Var. ornata is orna- 
mented with one such band. Var. obliterata has markings absent 
or obliterated, translucent, but not coloured. Tiirricula means a little 
tower. Our species is elegans. The type has a chocolate band on each 
whorl ; the variety grisea, equally abundant, is yellowish grey. Well 
established near Dover, and first found by Capt. Dakin, by whom 
specimens were sent to me for identification. 

The genus Cochlicella (little shell) bears a Greek name with a Latin 
diminutive termination. Its English representative, barhara, i.e., 
foreign, is perhaps named from its being by origin not a northern 
shell. It has various varieties, inflata, inflated in the last whorl ; 
bizona, with two bands instead of the normal one on the last whorl ; 
flammulata, like the last but with the bands interrupted so that the 
markings are flame-like in shape ; strigata, which is supposed to mean 
streaked. Vitruvius has the word strix — " a furrow or groove " — 
from which comes the late Latin word strigatus, which however means 



2i JOURNAL OF CONCHOl.OGY, VOL. I4, NO. I, JANUARY, I9IJ. 

larger (from north to south) than broad. Var. articulaiir, i.e., 
jointed, was so named by Lamarck, who probably meant to indicate 
that it has alternate transverse ribs of white and violet-brown. 

The genus T/ieba Leach in his synopsis prints " Teba." It is 
suggested that it is named after Thebes; but then it would be Thebse 
or Thebe. It has two representatives, cantiana, which dtrives its 
name from having been first noticed in Kent. Var. gallop rovinciali<, 
i.e., found in the Gallic province, later called Provence. Var. 
albocincta, i.e., girdled with white, from the reddish colour being 
absent on the periphery. Cartusiana, i.e., found near a Carthusian 
monastery. Var. ladescens, i.e., becoming milky in colour ; var. 
leucoloina means bordered with white, i.e., having a white peristome 
or rib ; var. rufilabris^ i.e., with red lips. 

The genus Hygromia (i.e., frequenting damp places) has the section 
Fruficicola, orchard inhabiting, with the species fusca, i.e., dusky 
brown ; graniilata, i.e., minutely granulated, Uke shagreen where the 
hairs have worn off (named by Jeffreys sericea, i.e., silky, in allusion 
to the soft hairs it bears) ; hispida, i.e., hairy (the same as Jeffreys' 
co^icintia, i.e., neat). Var. depilata denoted that no hairs are found. 
Dr. Gray in Turton calls it the " bald snail." Var. nana is a dwarf, or 
smaller than the type. 

(To be concluded). 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. 



(limited to WORKS RECKIVED HY THE SOCIETY'S LIBRARIAN). 



Monograph of the Land and Freshwater Mollusca of the British Isles, 

part 19 (pp. 369-416, and 4 plates), by JOHN W. Taylor (Taylor Bros., Leeds). 

Every part of Mr. Taylor's work is eagerly welcomed, and none more than those 
dealing with the HelUida. Part 19 furnishes us with complete monographs of 
Helix pisana Miill. and Helicigona lapicida L. Of the four plates, No. 15 takes us 
back to the Zonitidce, and is Mr. Taylor's own attempt to give reliable figures of 
Hyalinia, Zonitoides and Eticoniiliis. We congratulate him on a very successful 
and artistic result. Another plate gives us the Distributional Map of H. pisana. 
We are a little surprised to see co. Kerry coloured in this map, when the 
authenticity of the record seems so doubtful. May it not be explicable on the 
same hypothesis as the West Galway record ? All collectors will welcome the 
two very beautiful coloured plates on which are figured the type and thirty-seven 
named varieties of //. pisana. Altogether, this part is an excellent piece of work. 



BIBLIOGRAI'HY. 23 

Clare Island Survey, part 23, Land and Freshwater Mollusca, by A. W. 

Stelfox (from Proc. Royal Irish Academy, vol. xxxi.), 64 pp., with 2 plates 
(Hodges, Figgis & Co., Ltd., Dublin : Price 2/-). 

The survey of Clare Island and the adjacent mainland of West Mayo was first 
undertaken in 1909, to " furnish a study of a typical area of the west coast of Ire- 
land." Sixty-eight parts have already been issued, all prepared by specialists, and 
dealing with practically every group of the fauna and flora. This particular mono- 
graph, although concerned with but a small area, discusses problems of intense 
interest to the student of the geographical distribution of the mollusca. We recently 
had occasion to congratulate Mr. Stelfox on his excellent Irish list, and we are now 
delighted to welcome another contribution on the Irish molluscan fauna — equally 
thoughtful, thorough, and exhaustive. 

One of the most attractive features of shell-collecting in Ireland is the com- 
paratively slight influence hitherto exercised by man on geographical distribution. 
The effect of man's presence on our land and freshwater shells is only just beginning 
to be taken seriously into account, but the importance of this line of study is well 
summed up in Mr. Stelfox's dictum that "the final aim of geographical conchologists 
is to determine the natural range of a species before man's influence acted upon it," 
and he is careful to eliminate all records for this area which are probably due to 
human agency. 

We are very glad to see separate lists of species given for every island that has 
been explored, as well as for the various mainland districts. We should like to give 
the most emphatic approval to another remark by the author, in describing the sub- 
division of the district. " Each island naturally forms a district in itself, no matter 
how small it liiay be in area." 



The Marine Mollusca of the Scottish National Antarctic Expedition, part 2 
(with I plate,) by J. CosMO Melvill, M.A., D.Sc, F.L.S., and R. Standen. 

The Brachiopoda of the Scottish National Antarctic Expedition (with 
2 plates,) by J. Wilfrid Jackson, P\G.S. (both from Trans. Roy. Soc, Edin., 
vol. xlviii. , part 2). Robert Grant & Son, 10;', Princes Street, Edinburgh. 

The first part of Messrs. Melvill and Standen's paper was published in Trans. 
Roy. Soc, Edin., vol. xlvi., in 1907. In the present part over twenty new species 
are described, a complete list is given of the species obtained by the expedition, and 
the bibliography is completed up to 191 2. 

Finally there is a plate of all the new species, which seems to us about the most 
successful specimen that we have seen of Mr. Searle's art. The whole part is a 
most valuable contribution to our knowledge of the fauna of the Antarctic and 
reflects great credit on the authors. 

The same may well be said of Mr. Jackson's paper on the Brachiopods. Only 
one species and one variety are described as new, but there is much valuable 
information as to the distribution of previously known forms, and especially as to the 
development of the internal structure of certain species at different stages of growth. 
We must congratulate Mr. Jackson on the excellence of his photos, which could 
hardly be improved upon ; we had the pleasure of examining the beautiful shell- 
mosaic of several of these species when the author was at work on his paper, and 
can testify to the thoroughness and soundness of his methods. 



24 / 

CYPR^A C AURIGA L. var. ROSEA nov. 



By J. KIDSON TAYLOR. 



(Read before the Society, November 13th, 1912). 



I HAVE what I believe to be an unnoticed and hitherto undescribed 
colour variety of Cyprcea caurica Linne, a generally abundant and 
common species in the eastern seas. 

In this variety the back or dorsal region of the shell is of a 
beautiful rosy-fiesh colour, quite distinct from the normal, typical 
colouring of this species. The ground-colour is profusely sprinkled, 
all over its surface, with minute dots of a deeper shade of the same 
rosy colour ; in shape this variety is that of var. oblongata Melv., but 
with slightly thicker side margins, which are ornamented by a few 
scattered reddish brown spots, some of which are partly obscured by 
the enamel. 

The base of the shell and teeth are white, the interstices of the 
latter being of a very faint tint of pale flesh colour. 

One of the specimens is very remarkable in being distinctly three 
banded ; these bands are quite sharply defined on the ground-colour, 
with the small dots almost obsolete, thus bearing quite a close 
resemblance to C. carneola Linn^. 

The three shells are quite full grown, and not immature as at first 
sight would appear. 

Their habitat is the Island of Mauritius, a locality from which so 
many beautiful, pellucid forms have been obtained. 

The dimensions of the largest of the three specimens, are: 
Length 51 mm.; diam. 27 mm. 

For this variety I propose the varietal name rosea, as indicating 
the general appearance of the shell. 

The typical form of C. caurica is oblong-oval, the lateral margins 
very strongly thickened, base flesh-coloured, with the teeth strong and 
white ; back whitish, with three more or less distinct bands irregularly 
speckled with fulvous small dots, occasionally forming a large central 
blotch ; the margins irregularly spotted with large purplish-brown 
blotches. 

There are five named varieties already described viz : — 

var. concava described in 1870, by Sowerby (from H. Owen's 

MSS.) in his "Thesaurus Conchyliorum;" a subrostrated monstrosity 

of small size from Gambia, W. Africa. 

var. obscura described in 1882, by Rossiter in Proc. Linn. 

Soc. N.S.W.; a blackish-brown, narrow-margined form from N. 

Caledonia. 



PROCEEDINGS : OCTOBER 12, I912. ±^ 

var. oblongata described in 1888, by Melvill, in Survey of ^ 
Genus Cypnea^ Proc. Lit. and Phil. Soc. of Manchester; an oblong 
tliinner shell, with less thickened sides, frequently of large size. 

var. cairnsiana described by Melvill & Standen, and named 
after the late Mr. Robt. Cairns, a small thickened shell, with bright 
orange base, from Persian Gulf, Borneo and East Indies. 

var. pallida described by Dautzenberg, in Revis. N. Caledonian '^ 
CypraeidcB in 1902, a white variety, from N. Caledonia. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE 
CONCHOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF GREAT BRITAIN & IRELAND. 



4iSth (Annual) Meeting-, Oct. 12th, 1912. 

Held in the Linnean Society's Rooms, Burlington House, London, W. 

The Kev. Canon J. W. Horsley in the chair. 

About 50 members and a few visitors signed the roll. 

Amongst those present were the following : — Rev. J. W. Horsley, Rev. E. W. 
Bowel), Messrs. L. E. Adams, H. Beeston, C. A. Benn, W. W. Bladen, E. D. 
Bostock, A. E. Boycott, C. N. Bromehead, R. M. Christy, J. E. Cooper, J. C. 
Uacie, W. J. Davey, H. J. Durrant, T. Edwards, W. T. Elliott, H. C. Fulton, 
(i. K. Gude, P. Harwood, G. Humphreys, B. D. Jackson, J- W. Jackson, F. B. 
Jennings, A. S. Kennard, P. Lawson, G. C. Leman, E. D. Marquand, J. R. B. 
Masefield, J. Moorcock, J. F. Musham, H. C. Napier, R. B. Newton, C. Oldham, 
A. M. Oliver. H. W. Parritt, H. B. Preston, P. E. Radley, W. G. Reynolds, 
W. D. Roebuck, A. E. Salisbury, A. Sich, F. H. Sikes, E. A. Smith, G. L. Sturt, 
J. W. Taylor, J. R. le B. Tomlin, W. C. W. Vincent, G. H. Weaver, R. Welch, 
and C. E. Wright. 

Appointment of Auditors. 

Messrs. F. Taylor and C. H. Moore were appointed Auditors. 

Appointment of Scrutineers. 

Messrs. J. R. B. Masefield and A. S. Kennard were appointed Scrutineers. 

New Members Elected. 
Miss Florence Jewell. 
Percival Ross Frames. 

Reports. 

The various Reports adopted at the Council Meeting were taken as read. 

Election of Officers and Council, 

The Scrutineers reported that the Officers and Council for the year 1912-1913 
had been elected as nominated by the Council (see p. 2). 

President's Address. 

The Rev. Canon J. W. Horsley, M.A., gave his Presidential Address on "The 
Sense and Nonsense of the Names of British Land and Freshwater Shells." 

Mr. J. R. B. Masefield was then voted to the chair. 

On the motion of Mr. J. W. Taylor, seconded by Mr. Peter Lawson, a vote of 
thanks was passed unanimously to Canon Horsley for his Address. 

Mr. A. S. Kennard proposed and Mr. W. C. W. Vincent seconded a vote of 
thanks to the Council of the Linnean Society and their Secretary, Dr. B. D. Jackson 
for the use of their rooms for the Annual Meeting. 



26 Journal of conchology, vol. 14, no. i, January, 1913. 

Mr. J. W. Jackson proposed and Mr. J. Moorcock seconded a vole of thanks to 
the Vice-Chancellor of Victoria University and the authorities of Manchester 
Museum for the use of rooms in the Museum for the meetings of the Society. 

A vote of thanks was also passed to the Vice Chancellor of the Leeds University 
for the use of a room in the University Buildings for the meetings of the Leeds 

Branch. 

Exhibits. 

By Rev. Canon Horsley : Map, probably incomplete, of the distribution of 
Helix poinatia in Kent, showing curious gap between the two centres, although the 
conditions of soil, aspect, &c., are the same. 

By Mr. W. D. Roebuck : (l) Four maps to show the boundaries of counties 
and vice-counties as employed in the census ; (2) Book of maps of authenticated 
records as far as the collation has gone ; (3) Various maps to show blanks that need 
filling up for various species, mostly of probably general distribution. 

By Mr. L. E. Adams: Helicella caperata from Reigate ; H. hoipensis Mab. 
from various English localities ; Melanopsis diifoiiri Fer. from Biskra_ 

By Mr. J. C. Dacie : Extensive series of Littorina rtidis and L. ohtttsala ; 
varieties o{ Pnrpu) a lapillus L. from Folkestone and elsewhere ; Cypnea decipiens 
Smith, and a very curious variety of C. arabica L. 

By Mr. W. J. Davey : Fine examples of several species of Spondyhts ; also large 
specimens of Pholas costata, Cai'dimn pseudolima, MaUeiis vulgaris, Fissiirella 
creniilata, and Miirex regiits. Several Species of Achatina and a series of Amphi- 
droinns. 

By Mr. Thomas Edwards : An exceptionally fine series of monstrosities of 
Buccinuni undatum, dredged off the Isle of Thanet, including m. sinistrorsitm, m. 
acuininatuni, ni. caritiatuiii, m. scala7-ifornie, m. bioperculatum, and ni. cm-inatum 
+ acuminatum. 

By Mr. G. K. Gude ; A very complete collection of Gorilla and Plectopylis. 
By Mr. H. C. Huggins : British Land and Freshwater Shells, including Z. 
stagnalis var. variegata and var. picla, Chesham ; Z. palustris var. albina. South- 
port ; B. teniaailata var. picta, Palmer's Green ; V. contecta var. atropurpurea, 
Wicken ; H. aspersa var. inonozona, m. scalariforme and var. exalbida, H. iieiiio- 
ralis m. sinisirorsuvi, Gravesend ; var. vinosozonata, Gravesend ; var. citrinozonata; 
H. hortensis var. roseozoiiata^ Eastbourne ; H. arbtistortim var. canigonensis, Ewell ; 
H. revelata, Porthcurnow ; and malformations of Clausilia hiplicata. 

By Mr. J. W. Jackson : Series of Pleistocene shells from Dog Holes Cave, 
Warton Crag. 

By Mr. F. B. Jennings : Helix nemoralis var. anraniia from Edmonton. 
By Mr. Peter Lawson : Two drawers of small shells, including A tf;7ViZ, Neritina 
and other foreign marine species, also a watch-chain made of shells. 

By Mr. J. R. B. Masefield : Testacella scuttihnii and Vertigo antivertigo from 
Cheadle, Staffs. 

By Mr. J. F. Musham : Shell necklaces, made by the children on the island of 
lona, and composed of PJelix nemoralis, Helicella itala, H. acuta, separate, as 
well as mixed with itala. These were formerly sold to the visitors and tourists, 
but are now seldom offered, and therefore scarce and difficult to procure. They 
are relics of an old-established custom dating from the time of the monkish occu- 
pation of the island, shells and jade pebbles being in great request as mementoes. 
A small collection of lona shells, shewing the more conspicuous varieties. Attention 
was drawn to their bleached appearance, through the continuous effects of wind- 
driven sand. 



fKOCKEDINGS : ANNUAL RErOR'i'. 2^ 

By Mr. W. G. Reynolds : Series o{ Helicella virgata from Rye, Sussex. 

By Mr. F. U. Sikes : Some remarkable forms of Heluigona arbtistoriiin ; 
varieties of Helictlla cantiana and H. cartiisiana ; non-marine shells collected in 
Iceland during August and September, 1912. 

By Mr. R. Standen : Aporrhais fespelicani from Soulhport, showing growth 
stages and A. serresianns from Tearaght (W. Ireland) ; "J'jivia eiiiopaa var. arctica 
and var. ntiiwr from Jersey ; also a series illustrating growth stages from Jersey and 
Plymouth ; Jaiiiinia cylindracea var. albina from Keswick and Blackington, and 
embryonic shells from Oban ; a series ol Sphariiiiii pallidum from various localities ; 
and a remarkable series of Dietssensia polynnoipha Pallas, from canal at Wood- 
plumpton, Lanes., especially selected to illustrate the extraordinary variation in 
shape occasionally assumed by this polymorphic mussel in certain localities (vide 
/. 0/ C, vol. xi., p. 84). 

By Mr. A. W. Stelfox : J-Jelicella heripensisMah., Plu iiorbis voriicitliis TxoschtX 
and Valvata macrostoina Steenlnich. 

By Mr. J. W. Taylor : Photomicrographs of radula and maxilla oi Flelicigona 
aibustoruiii (photos by Mr. VV. Bagshaw, F. R.M.S.). 

By Mr. J. R. le B. Tomlin : A series of about 35 Pholadidea loscombiana 
Goodall from Torbay, from very young examples upwards ; British examples of 
lanthiiia rotiindata Leach, /. exigtia Lam. and I. pallida Harvey ; " live " series of 
Scala clathrus\j., S. trevelyana Leach and S. clatliraliila Ad. ; Madeiran species 
and varieties oi Pupa, recent and fossil {P. degenerata Woll. only wanting), includ- 
ing P. abbreviata Lw. , P. gibba Lw. , P. cassidnla Lvv. , P. laviellosa Lw., P 
relevata Woll., P. linearis Lw., and P. defoi7nis Woll. 

By Mr. W. C. W. Vincent : Helicella capeiata, a sinistral specimen from Frinton- 
on-Sea, Essex ; Helix korlensis, a scalariform example from Lee, N. Devon. ; 
series of Ostrea edulis from Whitstable, to illustrate growth periods ; Olivida from 
Seychelle Is., and other shells. 

By Mr. R. Welch : Vertigos and other small non-marine shells from Holocene and 
recent " pockets" in the sand-dunes of North and North-west Ireland. 

By Mr. C. E. Wright : Series of Helicella caperata with some H. heripensis, 
from several localities ; Helicigoiia arbiistoruvi, a sinistral specimen from Denford, 
Northants. , also an example showing a second band ; series o{ Helix horteiisis from 
Hunts., and H. nemoralis from Northants. ; also a fine collection of molluscan eggs. 

By Mr. C. E. Wright (on behalf of Mr. C. P. Jenkinson) : Albino shells of 
Helicella cantiana, Plaiiorbis corneiis, Linincea stagttalis, L. pahisiris, L. peregia, 
and Z. auricularia all from Northants. 

By Mr. C. E. Wright (on behalf of Mr. M. H. Smith) : Helicella itala (sinistral) ; 
a monstrosity of Helix aspersa ; a beautifully banded Limncea stagnalis ; a scalari- 
form Planorbis carinattis ; series of Sphcerium lacustre and S. cornttini, all from 
Northants. 

By Mr. J. E. Cooper : Photomicrographs of molluscan radulse, and photos of 
various shells ; sixteen species of Obba ; Corasia psittacina, C. regince and its var. 
alfitce, Chlorcta ccerulea ; several of the rarer species of Zrij/?Vc5/y /a; also Choanopo/na 
puichnim, C. hystrix and C. echinus. 



ANNUAL REPORT. 



At the date 01 the last Annual Meeting the number of members, including 
Honorary Members, was 339. During the year six have been removed by death, 
and the names of two others have been struck off the list for non-compliance with 



28 lOURNAI, OF CONCttOI^OGY, VOL. 14, NO. I, JANUARY, IQI^. 

the conditions of membership. Nine new members have joined the Society, so that 
the list now stands at 340, this being a gain of one on the previous highest record. 
The members whose loss by death the Society deeply laments are Mrs. Fisher, 
Mrs. Powell, Miss Lodder, Robert Cairns, J. W. Baldwin, and the Rev. Robert 
Ashington Bullen. Obituary notices of the last three have appeared in the Tourval 
of Conchology, and in all cases the Council has sent letters of condolence to the 
relatives of the deceased. The loss of such men as Robert Cairns and J. W. 
Baldwin, is all :he more deeply deplored, because each had taken such a personal 
interest and active part in the affairs of the Society. To Miss Lodder's industry 
and intelligent collecting the list of the Tasmanian Marine Mollusca owes much of 
its completeness, a fact recognised in the founding of a new genus Lodderia, by 
Prof. Ralph Tate in 1899, for some species formerly placed under Liotia. 

The usual meetings have been held, and the attendances have been well 
maintained. Some thirty-one papers and notes have been read before the Society 
for publication in the Jotirnal at the Editor's discretion. At the meetings there 
have been the fo-llowing special exhibits: — The genus Eucalodiuin and its allies, 
Japanese Land Shells, varieties and locality sets of Hygromia riifescens, Coch- 
lostyla — sections Chlorcea and Corasia, Japanese and Chinese Clausilia, Scandina- 
vian Land Shells. 

One of the most noteworthy exhibits of the year has been that of the Marine 
Mollusca obtained by the Scottish National Antarctic Expedition, 1902-1904 
(S.Y. "Scotia"), examined and reported on by Dr. J. Cosmo Melvill and Mr. 
Robert Standen ; the Brachiopoda obtained by the same Expedition being 
examined and described by Mr. J. Wilfrid Jackson. Their papers appear in the 
Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 1912. Many very interesting 
Antarctic records are made for species previously known from other localities, and 
some twenty species, new to science, are described and figured. Valuable 
information as to the distribution of Mollusca has been obtained through the 
examination of these Antarctic collections. 

From the Gulf of Guinea four new species of Marginella have been described 
by Messrs. Tomlin and Shackleford, the types being exhibited at the May and 
September meetings. 

The February meeting was held at the Leeds University, at the invitation of 
the Leeds Conchological Club, an interesting address, illustrated by drawings, 
being given by Mr. J. W. Taylor, F.L.S., on the Life-history and Habits of 
Hygromia ritfescens. 

A field meeting was held at Grange-over-Sands, many members from Lancashire 
and Yorkshire attending. 

The lournal of Conchology has been issued quarterly, the thirteenth volume 
being completed with the October number. Many valuable articles and notes have 
been published, but the Council would again urge members to contribute more 
frequently the results of their researches and study, and especially to communicate 
any short notes of observations on the life-history, habits, and malacological 
characters of Mollusca. 

The Honorary Recorder presents his own report, but the Council desires to 
emphasize the necessity that all new records should be communicated to him as 
early as possible, that the census, when published, may be an exhaustive one. 

During the year a number of specimens has been added to the Society's 
collections by various members, including some of special interest, and a number 
of " Voucher " specimens have also been received through the Hon. Recorder. 



29 

TREASURER'S REPORT. 



The Statement of Accounts for the year 191 1 will be found printed on page 341 
oi t\ic Journal {ox the month of July, 1912, from which it will be noticed that there 
was a balance brought forward of some ^33 odd. 

Interim Statement of Income and Expenditure, 

From January 1st to September 30th, 1912. 
Receipts. ' Expenditure. 

£ s. d. 
Cost of Printing yi3/'/;-«a/ for 

October, 1911... .. 12 16 4 

Cost of Printing yb/^;7ia/ for 

January, 1912... 
Reprints 
Stationery ... 
Bookcases ... 

Library Expenses (Binding) 
Secretary's Expenses 
Recorder's, 1911 ... 
Cash in hand 



£ 


s. 


d. 


Cash in hand, Jan. ist ... 33 


12 


II 


One Life Composition Fee 3 


3 





Subscriptions ... ... 63 


5 





Advertisements i 


10 


6 


Sale of Publications ... 9 


16 


5 



;^III 7 10 



.. 14 


2 


6 


I 


3 


2 


2 


II 


6 


.. II 


2 


8 


2 


18 


6 


. 8 





II 





2 


6 


• 58 


9 


9 


;^III 


7 


10 



Liabilities for outstanding Accounts amount to £$2. 

It is much to be regretted that there is still a number of members in arrears 
with their subscriptions, and it is hoped that, for the sake of their own credit, such 
a condition of affairs will not continue any longer. 



LIBRARIAN'S REPORT. 



The most noteworthy addition to the Society's Library this year has been the 
large and valuable collection of conchological works from the library of the late 
Rev. Dr. Boog Watson, presented to the Society by his widow. 

For this exceedingly generous gift a special letter of thanks was sent by the 
Council to Mrs. Boog Watson, on November 22nd, 1911 {s&q /onrnal 0/ Co7jc/iolog)', 
vol 13, p. 314). 

As many of the works in this collection are very valuable and rare, it was decided 
by the Council that these should be specially marked as being "available for refe- 
rence only " in the rooms of the headquarters of the Society. 

The Society also sanctioned the construction of a special bookcase to house the 
books, as well as outside assistance in the preparation of a card catalogue. Both 
these have now been carried out, and it is hoped that the printing of the catalogue 
may be undertaken at an early date. 

This catalogue will be supplementary to that published by the Society in October, 
1907, and will include all additions to the Library since that date. 

Not counting the " Boog Watson" additions, some 350 contributions have been 
received since the printing of the above catalogue, the principal donors being Drs. 
W. H. Dall, H. Strebel, P. Bartsch, H. A. Pilsbry, Lt.-Col. H. H. Godwin- 
Austen, Messrs. J. W. Taylor, H. H. Bloomer, A. S. Kennard, B. B. Woodward, 
R. Welch, A. W. Stelfox, T. Sheppaid, and the Trustees of the British Museum 
(Natural History). 



30 JOURN.\L OF CONCHOLOGY, VOL. I^, NO. I, JANUARY, I9I3. 

As it might be of interest to mention a few of the more important works in the 
" Boog Watson " Library, a short list is given below. 
Poli : Testacea Utriiisque Siciliae, etc., 3 vols. 
Sowerby : Thesaurus Conchyliorum, 5 vols. 
Palaeontographical Society, 60 vols. 

Lamarck : IJistoire Naturelle des Animaux sans Vertebres, 2nd Ed., 11 vols. 
Ueshayes : Description des Coquilles Fossiles des Environs de Paris, 3 vols. 
Rellardi and Sacco : I Molluschi del Terreni Terziari del Piemonte, etc., 30 pts. 
Kiener : Species General et Iconographie des Coquilles vivantes, 12 vols. 
Hoernes : Die Fossilen Mollusken des Tertiser-Beckens von Wien, etc., 2 vols. 
Delessert : Recueil de Coquilles decrites par Lamarck, etc., et non encore 
figurees, i folio. 

RECORDER'S REPORT. 



The Recorder reports that a considerable number of records has been made and 
authenticated during the year, and some of them published and to be published in 
\\\& Journal of Conchology. 

Statistics are not now given, inasmuch as the Recorder is making a careful com- 
parison of the Census and the Record Books, with the view of ensuring that every 
entry in the Census is represented by a corresponding detailed entry in the books. 
It will be some time before this task can be completed and the Census made ready 
for publication. 

The Recorder has also devoted a considerable amount of attention to the work 
entrusted to him by the Council of the Society, of investigating and reporting upon 
the exact boundaries of the vice-counties where counties have been divided for the 
purpose of recording distribution. The work is now in active progress, and it is 
hoped to have a final report submitted before very long. 

The Recorder feels justified in recommending that a sub-division of five vice- 
counties be made, viz : that, in accordance with a suggestion made by Mr. J. R. le 
B. Tomlin, the Scilly Isles be separated from Cornwall West, they being sufficiently 
remote from the mainland to render a separate record interesting ; also that Donegal 
be divided into East and West, Kerry into North and South, East Galway into North 
and South, and North Cork into North-east and North-west, in accordance with the 
practice of the Irish workers. 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE LEEDS BRANCH 

For the Year ending 30TH Sept., 1912. 



Eleven meetings have been held during the year ; the August meeting being 
cancelled owing to it clashing with holidays. 

Five meetings have been held in the field, at the following places : — Heck- 
mondwike, in April and May ; these two meetings were devoted to a thorough 
investigation of the habitat of a peculiar inflated form of Linniaa pereger. It is 
hoped by a series of observations to obtain all the possible information as to the 
vegetation, microscopic and otherwise, analysis and temperature of the water at 
various times, a microscopic examination of the zoological life present, etc., in an 
endeavour to find some satisfactory solution to the many morphological phases in 
the shell of this species. These experiments are to be continued in the future. 
The other meetings were held at Tanfield in June, York in Jul)', and Grange-over- 
Sands in September. The September meeting was the sixth annual joint ramble 
with the members from Manchester, and was a most successful event. 



PROCEEDINGS : ANNUAL RF.PoRT OF THE LONDON BKANXH. 3I 

The six indoor meetings, as during past years, have been held alternately in the 
University, Leeds, and the Cartwright Hall, Bradford, and have for their object 
special exhibits of British species. Mr. J. W. Taylor has continued his interesting 
accounts of the life-history, habits, and distribution of each species exhibited. The 
winter meetings are well attended, a tribute to the value of Mr. Taylor's papers. 
Other interesting exhibits are shown from time to time, in addition to the special one. 

The meetings of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union continue to he) officially 
attended, of which Union, for this year, Mr. Taylor has the honour of being 
President. The membership at the present, time is twenty-four, with three 
corresponding members. Mr. J. W, Carter, F.E.S., of Bradford, is President. 

F. Booth, ffo/t. Sec. 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE LONDON BRANCH. 

Since our last report eleven meetings of this Branch have been held. 

The winter evening meetings (six in number) were well attended, and the 
exhibits in many instances were excellent : generally speaking, they were more 
numerous and of greater interest than during any past session. 

In connnection with these meetings, we are deeply indebted to Mr. J. C. Dacie 
for kindly placing a room at our disposal. As Canon Horsley accepted a country 
living last autumn, we were not only deprived of his genial company but also of the 
privilege of meeting at his house. 

The field meetings this summer were disappointing. On three occasions the 
weather was distinctly bad. The attendance was small and very little collecting 
was accomplished. J. E. Cooper, Hon. Sec 



416th Meeting-, held at the Manchester Museum, Nov. 13th, 1912. 

Mr. E. Collier in the chair. 

Additions to the Library announced and thanks voted : 

" Stephen Clessin : Nekrolog," by F. Borcherding. "The Terrestrial Mollusca 
of the Great Blasket and Beginish," by A. W. Stelfox. " Northern and Arctic 
Invertebrates in the collection of the Swedish State Museum : V. Prosobranchia : 
I Diotocardia," by Nils Odnher (from the respective authors). " Beilrage zur 
Meeresfauna der Insel Mauritius und der Seychellen ; Mollusken," by Prof. E. von 
Martens (from J. W. Taylor) ; and the usual periodicals received in exchange. 

Donations to the Cabinet announced and thanks voted : 

Voucher specimens, per the Hon. Recorder : Helicella caperata and H. nifescens 
from Currygrane, Co. Longford, from Mrs. A. Wilson ; Hygromia 7'ti/escens, Bam- 
burgh, from Mr. A. M. Oliver ; H. nifescens, Darlington, from Mr. B. R. Lucas. 

By Mr. E. D. Marquand : Vertigo siibsti-iata, from Guernsey. 

By Mr. R. Welch : A mounted series of Helicella heripensis, H. capeiata, 

Valvata cHstata, V. macyostoma, V. piscinalis, Planorbis vorticnlus and P. vortex, 

from which the photograph was taken for the plate illustrating Mr. A. W. Stelfox's 

papers dealing with these species in Proc. Mai. Soc. , vol. x., part I., March, 1912, 

P- 39- 

Candidates Proposed for Membership. 

Thomas Bonner-Chambers, Huccomhe, Stockenham, Kingsbridge, S. Devon. 
L. R. W. Loyd, 17, Sandringham Court, Maida Vale, W, 



32 JOURNAL OF CONCHOLOGY, VOL. I4, NO. I, JANUARY, I913. 

Member Deceased. 

Robert Middleton. 

A letter of condolence has been sent to the late member's family. 

Papers Read. 

" Further Notes on the Eucalodiidas," by G. C. Spence. 
"Land Mollusca of lona, N.B.," by J. F. Musham. 
" Some Shells from the Rhone Valley," by B. R. Lucas. 

" Testacella sciittdwn — another New Record for Staffordshire," by J. R. B. Mase- 
field, M.A. 

" Helix caniiana Mont., Eaten by Birds," by J. R. B. Masefield, M.A. 

" Vertigo antivertioo in Staffordshire," by J. R. B. Masefield, M.A. 

*' Cypraa caiifica var. rosea nov.," by J- Kidson Taylor. 

" Ancylns Jluviatilis var. gibbosa Bourg. in Derbyshire," by R. Standen. 

" Helicella itala m. sinistrojsum,'" by Rev. C. E. Y. Kendall. 

" Vertigo substriata in Guernsey," by E. D. Marquand. 

" Helix nemoralis m. sinistrorsum in West Kent," by J. W. Jackson, F.G. S. 

Exhibits. 

By Rev. C. E. Y. Kendall : Helicella itala m. sittistrorsn?n, to illustrate his note. 

By Mr. E. D. Marquand : Vertigo substriata from Guernsey, to illustrate his note. 

By Mr. R. Welch : Aporrhais pes-pelicani, in very perfect condition, from a 
"shell-pocket" in the estuarine clay of Belfast Harbour, co. Antrim. 

By Mr. R. Standen : Ancylus Jluviatilis var. gibbosa, from Dove Dale, Derby- 
shire, to illustrate his paper. 

By Mr. J. Kidson Taylor : An extensive series of locality forms and varieties of 
Cyprcea caurica, to illustrate his paper. 

By Mr. B. R. Lucas : A set of land and freshwater shells, from the delta of the 
Rhone, to illustrate his note. 

By Mr. J. F. Musham : Photographs of lona shells, to illustrate his paper. 

By Mr. G. C. Spence : A series of species and varieties of ^raz'z/j-, from Ceylon. 

By Mr. J. Wilfrid Jackson : Helix nemoralis m. sinistrorsum, from Ballycastle, 
CO. Antrim, and Otford, W. Kent, to illustrate his note ; Helicella virgata, Otford, 
Kent ; Pahuiestrina jenkinsi, near Shoreham, Kent ; Planorbis vortex (diameter 
10 mm.), PI. spirorbis (diameter 9 mm.), PI. contortus (diameter 6 mm.), Fl. 
uvibilicatus, PL corneas (white var. in pubescent stage), and Bythinia tentacitlata, 
from drains near river Cam, at Cambridge. 

By Mr. E. Collier : Two species of Clansilia from Tonkin — CI. proctostoma 
Mabille, CI. ardoniniana Heud., with wide, broadly expanded mouths, and in shape 
very much like 67. philippiana Pfr. from Burmah. 

It was decided to have the following special exhibits at future meetings : 

January 8 — Lanistes and Marisa. 

February 12 — Trochatella and Eutrochatella. 

March 12— Helix, section Tachea. 



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A Systema-tic, Illustrated Monography o-f the 
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Vol.. 141. 



APRIL 1st, 1913. 



No. 2. 



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FOUNDED 1874. 

BEING THE ORGAN OF THE CONCHOLOGICAL SOCIETY 
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COITTENTS. 

PAGE 

Additions to "British Concholbgy," part vii. (continued from vol. 13, 

P- 338)— J. T. Marshall .. ... ... ... ... 33 

Note on Helix rufescens of Pennant — E.A.Smith ... ... 36 

On the Pennant Collection of British Shells — Id.... ... ... 38 

Helix nemoralis m. sinistrorsum in W. Kent —J. W. Jackson ... 41 

Description of a new species of Adeorbis — J. R. le B. Tomlin ... 42 

Clausilia rolphii in Salop — -N. G. Haoden ... .. ... 42 

Descriptions of new species of Marginella and Mucronalia from Sao 

Thome — J. R. le B. Tomlin and L. J- Shackleford ... 43 

Notes on some types of Marginella in the Marrat Collection — J. R. le 

B. Tomlin ... ... ... ... ... ... 44 

Correction — J- D- Dean ••■ . ■-. ... ... ... 45 

The Sense — and Nonsense — of the names of the British Land and 

Freshwater vShells (concluded from p. 22) — Canon J. W. HoRSLEY 46 

Helicella virgata at Lowestoft — W. Gyngell ... ... ... 53 

The Non-Marine Mollusca of Iceland — F. H. SiKES ... ... 54 

Limax cinereo-niger var. stroljeli Less, new to Britain — W. D. 

Roebuck ... ... ... ... ... ... 57 

Census Authentications — Id. ... ... ... ... ... 57 

The Land and Freshwater Mollusca of lona — J. F. MusHAM ... 58 

Conchological Notes from Algeria and Tunis — L. E. Adams ... 61 

Proceedings: Dec. II, 1912 ; Jan. 8, 1913; Feb. 12, 1913 ... 62 

PLATE I. 

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Notice,— April Meeting-. 

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Members a joint Meeting with the Members of the 
Leeds Branch will be held at Manchester Museum, 
on Saturday, April I2th. The Afternoon Session will 
commence at 3 o'clock. Demonstrations by Mr. R. 
Standen and Mr. J. E. Crowther. This will take the 
place of the April Monthly Meeting. 



33 



JOURNAL OF CONCHOLOGY, 



Vol. 14. APRIL, 1913. No. 2. 



ADDITIONS TO "BRITISH CONCHOLOGY." 



By J. T. MARSHALL. 



Part VII. [continued from vol. ij, p. 338). 



P. angulata Jeff. — The animal of this species has hitherto been 
undescribed. The following description was taken from several 
specimens procured from fish stomachs, and necessarily in a more or 
less collapsed state — Body oblong, completely covering the shell ; 
colour dirty white with a tinge of red ; hinder part lobed; margin of 
mantle plain; gizzard very minute. 

From low water of spring tides to 80 fathoms. Southport (Chaster)! 
Brora, from haddocks (Baillie)! off St. Martin's Point, Guernsey, 
2 2f. ; Scilly Isles 35f. ; St. Ives and St. Mawes, Cornwall; Eddy- 
stone 3of. ; Livermead, Torquay, a live specimen from weed; Tenby; 
off Southport i2f. ; Skegness, Killala Bay, Portrush, off Loch Ryan 
27f; Mull of Cantire 4of.; Dornoch Frith; West Orkneys 45f.; 
East Shetland 8-1 of. 

var. circumlustra Marsh., Journ. of Conch., 1893, vol. vii., 
p. 264. — Scilly, Eddystone, Tenby, Killala Bay, Portrush, Dornoch 
Frith, West Orkneys, 45f. 

P. angiilata would now appear from the above records to be 
generally diffused on our coasts, but it is everywhere rare, although 
my cabinet contains nearly 100 specimens. Mr. William Baillie, of 
Brora, writes me that he finds a specimen in almost every batch of 
haddock offal he examines, "generally associated with starfish 
remains," and that "it occurs on all the fishing-grounds frequented 
by the Brora and Golspie fishermen." It is possible that they are 
commensal or parasitic on starfish, either on the latter's body or on 
its rays, and are thus carried over the sea-bed and become a prey to 
the haddock. The lines of growth on the shell are rather con- 
spicuous, and aged specimens become thickened by additional layers; 
they are otherwise very fragile and brittle, and the extended wing- 
like outer edge of the crown is rarely present in dead specimens. 
The young are smooth and glossy, and the apex is partially intorted, 
as in the next species. 

c 



34 JOURNAL OF CONCHOI.OGY, VOL. I4, NO. 2, APRIT,, I9I3. 

The published figures are not good, nor correct. Jeffreys' is not 
square and open enough, the pillar is too large, the extremity of the 
QUter lip is not sufficiently pointed, and it does not exhibit the con- 
spicuous inner lip folded back on the pillar, as in Sowerby's; the 
latter is quite difference from Jeffreys', and still further removed from 
the type; the spire, though pointed as in this figure, should be bent 
downward and not show above the crown. 

Although P. angidata and various other species are recorded in 
these papers as derived from Sutherlandshire haddocks, it only means 
that the haddocks were caught in Sutherlandshire waters, but it will 
be obvious that the actual habitat of the molluscs is problematical. 
Mr. William Baillie of Brora, who died in 1906 in his 77th year, 
was an adept at the work of examining the offal of haddocks, and he 
found it a most fertile field. He was a superannuated schoolmaster, 
familiarly known in Sutherlandshire as "Teacher Baillie,'' and a good 
local naturalist somewhat after the manner of the well-known Thomas 
Edwards of Banff. It was his habit to go to the haddock-curers' 
sheds and bring away buckets full of fish offal. The examination of 
this was really a nauseous class of work, which would disgust most 
inquirers, but his repulsion was overpowered by his zeal for natural 
history, and he felt himself amply rewarded by the results. 

P. quadrata S. Wood. — Doggerbank, Scarborough, Filey, and 
Whitby, occasionally cast ashore on the latter coasts; North Rona 
45f., British Channel slope 69of. (Porcupine) ! Forbes and Hanley 
give the best figures; the others are not sufficiently square, as if the 
artist had drawn the shell from his right-hand side instead of directly 
in front of him. A description of the animal has been left by Gwyn 
Jeffreys among his notes.-' 

P. punctata Clark. — Low-water mark in places to 60 fathoms. 
St. Martin's Flats, Scilly, under stones at low water and dead in 
3o-4of. (Burkill and J. T. M.); Mayo and Sligo (Miss Warren) ! 
Sutherlandshire (Baillie and J. T. M.) ; Tenby, Aberdovey, Portrush, 
Lamlash 1 2-1 8f., off Loch Ryan 27f., lona i8f., Staffa 25f., Benbecula 
Sound lof., Minch off Barra 53f., W. Orkneys 45f. 

var. cingulata Marsh., y^z/r//. of Conch., 1893, vol. vii., p. 265. — 
Guernsey, Scilly, Land's End, Borough Island, Caldy Island, Tenby, 
Killala Bay, Portrush, Sutherlandshire, Benbecula Sound, Minch off 
Barra, and West Orkneys. Not the P. cingidata of Sars. 

Like P. catena, this appears to have its home along the Cornish 
and South Devon coasts, but is sparingly though widely diffused 
elsewhere. The shell varies in the degree of attenuation of the 
crown, and occasionally the apical nipple appears above it. It differs 

I Moll. 'Porcupine' Exp,, Proc. Malac. Soc, 1905, vol. vi., p. 325. 



MARSHALL: ADDITIONS TO "BRITISH CON'CHOLOGY." 35 

from p. catena in the top of the outer Hp being a little below the 
spire, the mouth less patulous or more closed in ; it is more tumid 
generally, and nevers grows so large ; only rarely does it attain a line 
in length, though I have one from Guernsey a line and a half. 

P. pruinosa Clark. — Guernsey i8f., one specimen; Borough 
Island, S. Devon; Caldy Island; Loch Linnhe i4f.; Dornoch Frith; 
E. Shetlands 8-iof. A scarce species. None of the British writers 
figure this truly, but Forbes and Hanley's is the best. Sars gives a 
very perfect figure.^ 

P. nitida Jeff. — This species, like P. a7t}^ulata, was almost un- 
known when " British Conchology " was published, and was recorded 
only from Skye and Unst. But although still rare, it will be seen 
from the following records that it is pretty generally diffused on our 
coasts: — Southport (Heathcote and Chaster) ! Isle of Man (Liv. Mar. 
Bio. Assoc.)! Aberdeenshire (Simpson)! N. and W. Sutherlandshire 
(Baillie) ! St. Magnus Bay 6o-8of. (Jeffreys) ; S.W. Ireland io-38f. 
(R.I. A. cruise) ; Penzance, Cawsand Bay, Eddystone 3of., Babba- 
combe Bay, Torbay, Pendine, off Southport i2f., Killala Bay, 
Portrush, Oban 2of., Dornoch Frith. Also British Channel slope 
69of. and Adventure Bank 92f. ('Porcupine')! off Tunis 50-ioof. 
(Newport) ! 

I have taken altogether about 70 specimens of this little shell from 
the above localities. It particularly affects a muddy habitat, and 
some of the above specimens were dredged almost in liquid mud. 
The young have a square outline and resemble P. afigiilata of the 
same size; but this is smooth and glossy, with a larger pillar. From 
a similar stage of P. apcrta, which is also smooth and glossy, this 
is more square than round, it is much less open, and the outer edge 
does not extend beyond the crown. 

P. aperta L. — From Jersey, where it is rare, to East Suther- 
landshire. 

var. patula Jeff. — Torbay, Weymouth Bay, W. Ireland, and 
Sutherlandshire. This variety has scarcely any pillar. 

The shell is occasionally solidified by internal layers or pearly 
excrescences. Several specimens of a curious monstrosity dredged 
outside the Portland Breakwater has a nipple or spike projecting 
beyond the crown. 



(To be continued). 



X Moll. Reg. Arct. Norv., tab. i8, figs. 8, Sa. 



36 

NOTE ON HELIX RUFESCENS OF PENNANT. 



By E. a. smith, I.S.O. 



From the Annals and Magazine of Natural History 
(Ser, 8, Vol. xi., February, 1913). 



The object of the present note is to show that the shell 
universally regarded as the Helix rufescens of Pennant is not the 
form which was described and figured by that author. 

The description appeared in the fourth volume of his ' British 
Zoology' (published in 1777) on page 134, and the figure of the 
specimen described is given on pi. Ixxxv. fig. 127. His species is 
included in his second group, " Ventricose," and the description 
runs thus. 

" Snail with four spires, and minutely umbilicated ; the exterior 
spire sub-carinated. Of a pale brownish red mottled with white. 
Inhabits woods. 

' ' Tab. Lxxxv. fig. 127." 

It must also be observed that he referred to Lister's work of 
1678, 'Hist. Anim. Anglise,' quoting Lister's Latin diagnosis and 
referring to his figure. 

Lister's shell^ I believe, from his description, to be the rtifescens 
of authors, and Pennant was wrong in supposing that it was the 
same species as that which he himself was describing as Helix 
rufescens. 

The actual shell described by Pennant is now in the British 
Museum, and proves to be merely a young example of the 
common Arianta arbustorum. 

Pennant, having quoted Lister's description and figure as 
representing his own species, it seems probable that subsequent 
authors adopted that conclusion without ever seeing Pennant's type, 
and consequently this wrong identification has been perpetuated. 

Da Costa in 1778 was the first to adopt the Listerian shell as 
the rufescens of Pennant. He was followed by Donovan in 1802, 
Montagu in 1803, and by nearly all subsequent authors up to the 
present time. 

Although it may seem to some inadvisable to alter a well- 
established name, it appears to me that in the present case there 
is no help for it. I might here observe that, in addition to the 
type of Helix rufescens, the ATuseum has recently acquired fourteen 
other types from the Pennant collection, besides sixty-one specimens 
which, although not types, are of historic interest, being the actual 
shells figured in Pennant's classic work. 

I Lister referred lo cantiana Montagu, as "vel varietas vel alia species." 



SMITH : NOTE ON HELIX RUFESCENS. 37 

Since Pennant's death his collection has remained at Downing 
Hall, Holywell, Flintshire, where he resided all his life, from 1726 
to 1798. The property subsequently came into the possession of 
the Denbigh family, and it is the present Earl of Denbigh to whom 
the Museum is indebted for the specimens here referred to. 

It now becomes necessary to determine what name must be 
assigned to the Helix rufescens of authors. 

It certainly is the Helix turiurtim of Gmelin ^ in part, since he 
quotes the reference to Lister, but his other references to 
Schlotterbeck and Martini have nothing to do with the Listerian 
shell. In Gmelin's diagnosis the word rotundata occurs, which is 
applicable to the figures of Schlotterbeck and Martini, and even 
to that of Lister, which is drawn sinistral, and might be described 
as rotundata, for it resembles very little the shell {rufescens, auct.) 
which he evidently had before him. 

Considering the confusion surrounding Gmelin's Helix turturum, 
I am inclined to disregard it entirely. 

Helix circinata, H. ntontana, and H ccelata, described very briefly 
(but not figured) by Studer in 1820", are said to be the same as 
rufescens, auct., but from the very short descriptions they are certainly 
not identifiable. Subsequently, in 1828, Carl Pfeiffer united 
inontana and circinata, and the shell he described and figured^ is 
evidently the same as the British species. I would, therefore, 
suggest that the shell in question should at present ■* bear the 
name of Hygromia montana (Studer) Pfeiffer. Helix striolata 
C. Pfeiffer is apparently a synonym, and although the description 
of it appeared on p. 28, and that of inontana on p. 33 of the same 
work, I prefer to suggest the adoption of the latter name, since 
it was proposed by Studer eight years before the appearance of 
PfeifFer's book. 

The Helix corrugata Hartmann with the varieties clandestina, 
corrugata, ccelata, and charpentieri, described and figured in the 'Neue 
Alpina,' 1821, vol. i. p. 236, are not identifiable with certainty from 
Hartniann's description and the figure of the var. ccelata, and therefore 
cannot be considered as antedating the H. montana properly 
established in 1828. 

r Syst. Nat. p. 3639. 

2 Syst. Verzeich. Schweizer-Conch. p. 12. 

3 Naturgesch. Land- und Siisswasser Moll. Abtheil. iii. p. 33, pi. vi. fig. 9 (fig 10 by 
mistake in text see p. 53). 

4 Should H. glabella of Diapainaud eventually prove to be the same species, as is stated 
to be the case by some authors, that name should be retained instead of montana. 



38 
ON THE PENNANT COLLECTION OK BRITISH SHELLS. 



By EDGAR A. SMITH, I.S.O. 



(Read before the Society, March 12th, 1913). 



The collections described and figured by Thomas Pennant in his 
work entitled " British Zoology " have recently been presented to the 
British Museum (Natural History) by the Earl of Denbigh, C.V.O. 

This collection has, since Pennant's death in 1798, remained at 
Downing Hall, Holywell, Flintshire, where he resided all his hfe, and 
it does not appear to have been consulted by subsequent writers upon 
British shells. It is, therefore, very satisfactory, that, after lying more 
or less undisturbed for over a hundred years, the collection has now 
become National property. 

Pennant does not definitely state whether the specimens described 
and figured were in his own or some other collection, but occasionally 
they are said to be from that of the Duchess of Portland. It is, there- 
fore, possible that some of the shells described may have belonged to 
other collectors, although the fact is not stated, and hence they have 
not been found among the Pennant specimens. 

The volume containing the moUusca was published in 1777. Some 
of the species are wrongly identified, and the majority of those 
described as new belong to well-known species founded by Linnaeus, 
Miiller, etc. 

Of the shells received 18 are actual types of Pennant's new species 
and 64 are figured specimens. 

The following list shows at a glance the species as given in Pennant's 
work, and the names by which they are now known : — 

I. Types. 

(i'Ennant's nomenclature.) (modern nomenclature.) 

I. Helix rufescens = Helicigona {Arianta') arbusiorum, 

juv. 
= Helix {Helicigona) aspersa Miiller. 
= Flanorbis {Coretus) coriieus, juv. 
= Helicella {Cochlicella) barbara 

(Linn.). 
=■ Poniatias elegans (Miill.). 
= Paludestrina ulvce (Pennant). 
= Tyjiipanotomtis radtda (Linn.). 
= Bullinella cylindracea (Pennant), 
^ Patella vidgata Linn., var. 
=■ Tapes virgitieus (Linn.) 
= Venus ovata Pennant. 



2. 


Helix hortensis 


3- 


Helix nana 


4. 


Turbo fasciaius 


5- 


Turbo tuniidus 


6. 


Turbo ulva 


7- 


Turbo tuberculatus 


8. 


Bulla cylindracea 


9- 


Patella depressa 


0. 


Venus rhomboides 


I. 


Venus ovata 



SMITH : PENNANT COLLECTION OF BRITISH SHELLS. 



39 



12 

13 

14 

16 

17 
18 



Veinis undata 
Tellina crassa 
Soldi pelliicidus 
Mytilns pellucldus 
Mytihis iimbilicatus 
Pecteii subrufus 
Peden obsohtiis 



Luchiopsis ttndata (Pennant). 
Tellina crassa Pennant. 
Cultelhis pellucidtis (Pennant). 
Mytihis edulis l^inn., var. 
Modiolus 7//odioljiS (Linn.), monstr. 
P. {/£qiiipecte7i) opercularis (Linn.). 
P. {PalliolufH) tigriuus (Miill.). 



It will be noticed that only six in the above list can be retained as 
valid species, the remaining twelve becoming mere synonyms of 
species previously described by Linn?eus and Miiller. One of them 
(Turbo tuberculatus) is not a British species, but belongs to a common 
West African form. The most interesting shell is the type of Helix 
riifescem\<\\\(:\\ is merely a young example of H. {Arianta) arbusloriiiii 
and shows that the H. rufescetis has been wrongly identified by all 
authors since Pennant's time. A note upon this subject by the 
writer has appeared in the "Annals & Mag. Nat. Hist., 1913, vol. xi., 
pp. 263-4. 

II. Figured Specimens. 



(pennant's NOMENCLATURE.) 

1. Pholas crispata Linn. = 

2. Mya trimcata Linn. = 

3. Mya arenaria Linn. = 

4. Mya 7iiargaritifera Linn.= 

5. A'lya pidoruin Linn. = 

6. Solen vagina Linn. = 

7. Solen legicnien Linn. = 

8. Soleji cultellusYQ.nn.{non 

Linn.) = 

9. Tellina cornea Linn. = 
I o . Cardiiwi aculeatum Li n n . = 

11. Cardium edule lAnn. = 

12. Cardium ciliare = 

1 3 . Cardium Iczvigatuin Pen n . = 

(Linn.?) 

14. Macira solida I^inn. = 

15. Mactra stultorum Penn. 

(non Linn.) = 

i6. Mactra liitraria Linn. = 

17. Venus niercenaria Penn. 

(non Linn.) = 

18. Venus erycina Penn. 

(non Linn.) = 

19. Donax trunculus Penn. 

(non Linn.) =: 



(MODEKN NOMENCLATURE. ) 

Zlr/iea crispata 

Mya trnncata 

Mya arejiaria 

Margaritana margaritifera 

Unio pictoriim 

Solen vagina 

Pharus legumen 

Solecurtus antiquatus Pult. 
Sphieriuui corneuin 
Cardium aculeatum 
Cardium edule 
Cardium aculeahan, juv. 
Cardium {Lcevicardium) norvegicum 

Spengler 
Spistila solida 

Spisula subtruncata DaCosta 
Lutraria lutraria 

Cyprina islandica (Linn.) 

Venus verrucosa (Linn.) 

Donax vittalus (Da Costa.) 



JOURNAL OF CONCHOLOGY, VOL. I4, NO. 2, APRIL, I9I3. 



40 

20. Donax dentiadata Penn. 

(non Linn.) = 

21. Verms exoleta Penn. 

(non Linn.) = 

22. Venus litterata Penn. 

(non Linn.) = 

23. Area glycimeris Vl\\\\\. = 

24. Pecte)i maximiis Linn. = 

25. Peden jacobams Linn. = 

26. Pecten varlus Linn. = 

27. Mytihis niodiohis Linn. = 

28. Mytilus edulis lAnn. = 

29. Mytilits eygneus Linn. = 

30. Cyprcea pedictiliis Penn. 

(non Linn.) = 

31. Bulla lignaria Linn. =^ 

32. Volnta tornatilis Linn. = 

33. Bueciimm pullus Penn. 

(non Linn.) = 

34. Buccimini lapillus Linn. = 

35. Buccijium reticidatutii 

Linn. = 

36. Strombus pes-pelecani 

Linn. = 

37. Murex corneus Penn. 

(non Linn.) = 

38. Murex erinaceus Linn. =^ 

39. Murex despectus Penn. 

(non Linn.) = 

40. Turbo littoreus Linn. = 

41. Turbo duplicatus Penn. 

(non Linn.) = 

42. Turbo terebra Penn. 

(non Linn.) = 

43. Turbo iimscoruin Penn. 

(non Linn.) = 

44. Trochus umbilicaris 

Penn. (non Linn.) = 

45. Trochus magus Linn. ^ 

46. Turbo clathrus Linn. = 

47. Helix lapicida Linn. = 

48. Helix planorbis Penn. 

(Linn.?) = 



Donax rugosus (Linn.) 

Dosinia lincta (Pulteney.) 

Tapes pullastra (Montagu.) 
Glycimeris glycimeris 
Pecten niaxinius 
Pecten jacobceus 
Pecten {Chlaniys) varius 
Modiolus modiolus 
Mytihis edulis 
Anodonta cygnea 

Trivia arctica (Pulteney) 
Scaphander lignarius 
Actceon tornatilis 

Nassa antillarum (Philippi.) 
Thais lapillus 

Nassa reticulata 

Aporrhais pes-pelecatii 

Tritonofusus gracilis (Da Costa) 
Ocinebra erinacea 

Neptunea antiqua (Linn.) 
Littorina littorea var. 

Turritella torulosa Kiener 

Turritella communis Risso 

Cochlicopa lubrica (Miiller) 

Gibbula umbilicata (Montagu) 

Gibbula magus 
( Epitoniutn clathrus, and 
yEpitonium turtonis Turton 

Helicigona lapicida 

Planorbis umbilicatus Miill. 



SMITH : PENNANT COLLECTION OF BRITISH SHELLS. 



41 



49 
5° 
51 

52. 

53 

54 
55 
56 

57 
58 
59 

60 
61 
62 

63 
64 



Helix cornea Linn. 
Helix arbustorum Linn. 
Helix vivipara Linn. 
Helix zonaria Penn. 

(non Linn.) 
Helix no name, pi. Ixxxv., 

fig. at top = 

Helix aiiricularia Linn. = 
Helix stitgnalis Linn. 
Helix putris Penn. 

(non Linn.) = 

Helix tentaciilata Linn. = 
Nerita littoral is Linn. = 
Nerita glaticina Penn. 

(non Linn.) 
Nerita fluviatilis Linn. = 
Patella pellucida Linn. = 
Patella vulgata Linn. = 
Patella hungarica Linn. = 
Deiitalium entails l^inn. = 



= Planorbis corneas 

= Helicigona (^Arianta) arbi/storuin 

= Vivipara vivipara 

= Helix {Eiiparypha) pisana Miill. 

Vivipara vivipara juv. 
Linincea aiiricularia 
Li/iincea st agnails 

Liinncea pains tris (Miiller) 
Bithynia tentaciilata 
Littorina littoralis 

Natica catena (Da Costa) 
Merit in a {Theodoxia) fluviatilis 
Patina pellucida 
Patella vulgata 
Capulus hiingaricus 
Dentaliuni entails 



Twenty-two of these species are wrongly named, namely : -Nos. 8, 
13, 15. 17. iS) 19. 20, 21, 22, 30, 33, 37, 39, 41, 42, 43, 44, 46 part, 
48, 52, 56 and 59. Three of them, Nos. 33, 41 and 45 part, are not 
British species, and nine of the figured shells (Nos. 8, 17, 18, 30, 37, 
42, 46 part, 52 and 59) although British, appear under names belonging 
to non-British species. 

Many of these wrong identifications have already been noted by 
Forbes & Hanley, and Jeffreys in their works on British mollusca, 
but some are now indicated for the first time, and this has only been 
possible through an examination of the actual specimens referred to 
by Pennant. 



Helix nemoralis m. sinistrorsum in West Kent. — Whilst on a conchological 
excursion with Messrs. R. Welch and A. S. Kennard, to the valley of the Darenth, 
on October 13th last, I had the good fortune to find a fine adult specimen of the 
above monstrosity, which, though dead, is in quite fresh condition. The specimen 
was obtained whilst searching a hedgerow in a lane leading into the Pilgrims' Way, 
between Otford and Kemsing. The other forms of mollusca noticed at this place 
were Helix aspersa, Helicella vh-gata, H. caperata var. heripensis, H. cantiana, 
Hygromia hispida, Helicigona lapicida and Clausilia laminata, — J. Wilfrid 
Jackson {Read before the Society, Nov. 13th, 1912). 



45 



DESCRIPTION OF A NEW SPECIES OF ADEORBIS. 



By J. R. LE B. TOM LIN, M.A. 



(Read before the Society, March 12th, 1913). 



Adeorbis platymma^ n.sp. (pi. i., f. 12). 

Shell much flattened, elliptical in shape, disk-like, acutely keeled, 
thin, white, with extremely fine, close and not very evident spiral 
sculpture; hroadly and profoundly umbilicate; periphery simple; 
spire small, and but slightly projecting; whorls 4I in number, 
the last occupying most of the shell ; aperture very large ; 
columella very straight, forming a chord to the circular outline 
of the lip ; base convex, marked with more or less concentric 
lines of growth which are much plainer in the young shell than 
in the adult. 

Diam. max. 4 mm.; diam. min. 275 mm. 

Alt. I "25 mm. 

Aperture — diam. max. 275 mm.; diam. min. 2 mm. 

Hab.: Singapore (Archer). 

Type in Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.). 

In form this shell somewhat resembles planulata^ Sow. from 
the Cape (described as a Cyclosirevid) and angasi^ A.Ad., in fact 
Tryon^ records these Singapore shells as aiigasi. A. plaiymma is, 
however, easily distinguished by the absence of crenulation on 
the periphery. From planidata Sow. it differs by its shape, which 
is not circular, its convex base, by the absence of a raised line 
round the umbilicus, and by the character of the sculpture on the 
upper side, which consists of extremely fine and close lines. 

1 7rXttTi/;ti/ia, a flat cake. 

2 Mar. Shells S. Afr., p. 46, pi. 2, f. 49. 

3 P.Z.S. 1863, p. 424, pi. 37, figs.- II, 12. 

4 Manual, vol. x, p. 86. 



Clausilia rolphii (Leach) in Salop.^In May of this year (1912), while 
visiting Linley Woods in Salop with the British Mycological Society, I had the 
good fortune of finding a solitary specimen of Clausilia rolphii (Leach). C. latniii- 
ata Mont, was plentiful in the same wood. C. rolphii has not previously been 
recorded from this county, and it seems likely that careful search would reveal 
its presence in parts of Worcestershire lying between Linley (which is not far 
from Bridgnorth), and its well-known stations in Gloucestershire. Mr. E. W. 
Swanton has kindly identified the shell for me. — N. G. Hai:)DEN {Read before the 
Society, December lith, 1912). 



4j 

DESCRIPTIONS OF NEW SPECIES OF MARGINELLA AND 
MUCRONALIA FROM SAO THOME. 



By J. R. i.E B. TOMLIN and L. J. SHACKLEFORD. 

(Read before the Society, March 12th, 1913). 



Marginella liparozona^ nsp. 

This name is proposed for the species figured by Reeve in the 
Conch. Icon., pi. xix, fig. 93, as M. /estiva Kiener. The 

latter, however, is a narrower, longer and more fusiform shell, which 
we figure from a S. Thome example. Both species have three 
narrow red bands, the colour in fresh examples of festiva Kien. 
being rather deeper, but apparently more fugitive, and the figure 
we give was taken before a really fresh specimen came to hand 
(pi. i., i. 3, 4). The outer lip of M. liparozona has somewhat of a 
curve and the lower half of the aperture is much broader than in festiva. 
Between the red bands the pattern in both species is variable, but there 
always seems to he a well marked broader white band or area in 
festiva through which the central red band passes, whereas the 
longitudinal dark markings in liparozona usually come close up to 
the red. The confusion of these two species seems to have been 
general, at any rate since Reeve's time. To Kiener and Sowerby 
(who figures the xeaX festiva in his Thesaurus) the locality oi festiva was 
unknown, while Reeve gives the probably incorrect one of " East 
Africa'' for liparozona. We can now record the occurrence of both 
these species at the Island of S. Thome. 

Type of M. liparozona in coll. Tomlin, as aie also those of 
M. eveleighili. & S. (pi. i., f 5, 6), and M. melvilli T. & S. (pi. i., i, 2). 

Mucronalia leucophaes' n.sp. (pi. i., f. 7, 8). 

Shell oblong-ovate, acuminate, imperforate, highly polished, of a 
shining vitreous white, so transparent that the whole length of the 
columella can be seen through the shell ; whorls 9 (?), moderately 
convex ; suture, rather slightly impressed ; aperture small, sub- 
quadrate, two-fifths of the length of the shell; peristome simple, 
acute ; columella slightly arcuate. 

Long. 10 mm.; diam. max. 5*5 mm. 

Aperture — diam. max. 4 mm. ; diam. min. 3 mm. 

Hab.: S. Thome. Type in the Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.). 

This shell bears a strong resemblance to M. philippinaruni' Sow. 
from Cebu. It is, however, broader in proportion to its length, the 
suture is much less impressed, the aperture is different in shape, 
and the shell has a thinner, more transparent texture. The apical 
whorls are unfortunately gone in the few examples so far received. 

I XiTra/aOJ'oj^/os, bright-girdled. 2 Xei/KO^a?;?) white-gleaming. 3 Pro. l\lal. Soc, iv. p.127, pi. 11. 



44 



NOTES ON SOME TYPES OF MARGINELLA IN THE 
MARRAT COLLECTION. 



By J. R. 1.E B. TOMLIN, M.A. 



(Read before the Society, March 12th, 1913), 



By the courtesy of Mr. J. A. Clubb, the Curator, I have recently 
received from the Liverpool Free Public Museum certain species of 
Marginella for examination. I have taken the opportunity of figuring 
several practically unknown species which were briefly described in 
the first volume of this Journal. The following notes are the result 
of my examination. 

Marginella pellicula Weinkauff. — This Cape species has gener- 
ally been credited to Marrat and specimens in his collection are so 
labelled, but without locality. I cannot, however, ascertain that 
Marrat ever described it, and AVeinkauff,' the first monographer to 
include it and figure it says : "J/, pellicula Marrat, teste Sowerby in 
litt.," so it is most probably only a MS. name. Fortunately the point 
is of small importance as Weinkauff^ is certainly right in his subse- 
quent surmise that it is a synonym of Incida^ Marrat. The description 
of the latter is unmistakable, and the shells distributed as pellicula 
are merely worn, bleached lucida. The Curator has failed to find 
the types of lucida in the Marrat Collection. 

M. OVUloidea Marrat. — Purely a MS. name. The two examples 
are immature and much worn M. maculosa Kien. 

M. warrenii^ Marrat. — This splendid species is described as 
having been collected by a Capt. Warren in lat. 50° 23' 5" N., long. 
64° o' 4" W., a locality somewhat inland from the northern coast of 
the Gulf of St. Lawrence ! One of the specimens measures 23 mm. 
I have selected for figuring the only one which exactly coincides with 
Marrat's measurements, and which is presumably the type (pi. i., f. 9). 
The aperture measures 15 mm. in length. The two bands have 
apparently faded as they are now of a very pale, dirty yellow. It is 
impossible to conjecture the real origin of this species; it is so 
different from any other known species. I am inclined to think that 
it has affinities with the W. Indian ave/ia group. 

M. praecallosa" Higgins.— The unique specimen of this species 
(pi. i., f. 10) from an unknown locality has an unusually thick outer 

1 Kii.ster, Conch. Cab. Marg., p. 123 (1879). 

2 Ibid., p. 137. 

3 /. o/C, i., p. 205 (1877). 

4 /. o/C, i., p. 137. 

5 /. o/C, i., p. 136. 



TOMLIN : MARGINELLA IN THE MARRAT COLLECTION. 45 

lip, as its name is intended to point out. I have no hesitation, how- 
ever, in calHng it a somewhat abnormally callused M. undulata Ch. 
The lower of the two bands referred to in the original description is 
of the faintest. The upper band is more or less interrupted after the 
usual fashion in undulata. The abnormal thickening of the outer lip 
has lengthened out the usual internal denticulation till it forms a series 
of what Higgins calls sinuous plications. 

M. callosa' Marrat (i876)=M. carneola Petit (185 1). 

M. nana^ Marrat (pi. i., f. 13). — This is a very pretty and distinct 
little species of which there are several examples. It has narrow but 
well marked red lines on a shining yellowish white ground, and ought 
really to be called quadrifasciate as there is a fourth very short linear 
band which only shows round the columellai callus. The suture is 
also marked by a red line, and there is a well marked red spot at 
the top and bottom of the aperture. 

M. davisiana^ Marrat (pi. i., f ii)=M. bellii Sow. — I fail to see 
how Marrat could describe the longitudinal lines as distant. There 
are about 35 on the body whorl. The locality is Cape Blanco. The 
locality of M. bellii, when described, was unknown. M. bellii has 
priority. 

M. tyermani'* Marrat. — The type specimen is rather worn and has 
an unusually thickened outer lip, a feature which always seems to 
emphasize the internal denticulation. The other specimen, which 
Marrat calls the variety, has not got the lip smooth inside but plainly 
denticulate, and is a nice fresh normal specimen which, though 
smaller, would have been far more suitable for the type, I am not 
figuring this as it is well represented in Proc. Malac. Soc, vi., pi. 17, 
fig. 3 — the figure of M. keppeli Sykes, which is the same species. It 
has recently been dredged off Cotonou and Libreville, on the West 
African coast, in i3|f. M. tyermani ha.s priority. 

1 Ibid., p. 137. 

2 Ibid., p. 205. 

3 Ibid., p. 205. 

4 Ibid., p. 136. 



Correction. — A correction in the nomenclature of the Lapp shells mentioned 
in vol. 13, p. 358 of this Journal, seems to be necessary. Instead of Plattorhis 
albtis \RY. drapartialdi Beck, and P. rossvtaessleri h.\\(txi,\\'., read for both Planojins 
borealis Loven. I have to thank Mr. A. S. Kennardfor this identification. I 
had previously remarked on the extreme likeness in these two sets, butvvas un- 
able to do anything at the time I wrote the paper. — J- D. Dean. 



46 



THE SENSE-AND NONSENSE— OF THE NAMES OF THE 
BRITISH LAND AND FRESHWATER SHELLS. 



(Presidential Address delivered at the Annual Meeting, Oct. 12, 1912). 
(Conchidcd fi-om p. 22) 



By The Rev. Canon J. W. HORSLEY, M.A. 



The species jevelata = discovered ! ritfescens is reddish. 

The genus Acanthimila, tlie " small thorny one," contains lafiiel/atcr, 
i.e., having plates, the epidermis being raised into ridges ; and aadeata 
i.e., spiny, in which the ridges are produced into spines. 

The genus Vailoni'a, perhaps after Vallonia, the goddess of valleys, 
contains pulchella, i.e., small and beautiful ; costata, i.e., ribbed ; and 
excentrica, in which the whorls are not concentric round the umbilicus. 

The genus Helicodotita (toothed snail) contains with us only obvo- 
luta. The word means wrapped up. 

Helicigona, i.e., the Helix with angles, is represented only by lapicida 
i.e., the stone cutter. Its var. siibangnlata means with a somewhat 
sharp angle. Mr. Knight thinks that Arianta may be named from 
Ariantas, a Scythian king, mentioned by Herodotus. It contains only 
arbitstorum, i.e., frequenting shrubberies or copses. The var. 
canigonensis is named from having been noticed first at Mt. Canigou 
in Spain. The var. cincta is also called /(^///Va by Taylor, the former 
name denoting that it has a peripheral band, the latter that its colour 
is pale yellow. Var. j^^^^wi-^-^/w— somewhat yellow. 

The genus Helix (the old Greek word for a coil) is divided now 
into several sections of which Helicogena^ Cepcea^ and Enparyplia are 
alone known to Britain. The first name denotes " of the same race 
as Helix " ; the second, I presume, is derived from the Greek K7/7rei!aj, 
" to rear m a garden" ; and the third comes from the Greek for having 
a handsome border, an allusion I suppose to its definite white lip. 
Aspersa means besprinkled. Var. tenuior, i.e., thinner, has a much 
thinner shell than usual, probably only a matter of diet. Var. exalbida, 
not "very white" (some nomenclators think the prefix ex denotes 
excessive) but becoming white (by loss of pigment). The name 
qiibiqiiefasciata of Requien, the Corsican conchologist, is better and 
the equivalent of the var. zofiata in our list, which has five separated 
dark bands on a yellowish ground. Var. flammea, i.e., flame-shaped, 
has the bands broken transversely. Var. unicolor, i.e., of one colour, 
which is fawn. Var. tindulata, i.e., undulating — marked with oblique 
dark streaks across the whorls. 



HORSI.EY : PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 47 

H. p07naiia is named from the Greek 7rw/xa, an operculum, and not 
from the Latin pomum, an apple. Nemoralis, i.e., inhabiting woods. 
Compressa, i.e , with depressed ■s.^^w^t; ponderosa^ shell more ponderous 
and thick, up to thirty grains as against an average often ; bifiiaroinata, 
i.e., double margined, when the dark peristome is bordered within by 
a white rib; rubella in somewhat late Latin means reddish. Var. 
libellula. The word is unknown to classical Latin. There is indeed 
libella, which means an as. In the Latin of Natural History, however, 
libellula appears, and means a dragon-fly. Var. castanea = chestnut 
coloured. Var. olivacea = olive brown. Var. albolabiata = with a 
white peristome. 

C. /lorlensis, i.e., the garden snail. As to var. Incarnata, to classical 
Latin this word is unknown. In mediaeval Latin it would, of course, 
be common from theology, as meaning ' having become flesh.' 
What was running in the namer's mind was apparently the idea of 
flesh-coloured. Var. aietiicola, i.e., the denizen of the sands. 

Euparypha contains only pisajia, i.e., collected near Pisa in Italy. 
So named in 17 ii by Petiver, an Aldersgate apothecary, who 
bequeathed his collections to Sir Henry Sloane, the founder of the 
British Museum. 

We come next to the family of Enidce. The species moutmia I 
have found in the Swiss mountains on or under trees, but as found 
in our south and west countries it does not justify its name. The 
other species obscura was so named from its habit of covering itself 
with earth, or other substances, by way of protection. 

The family oi Slenogyr/dcs = naiTOVf whorled. 

The genus Cochlicopa (named from Kox^^as, a spiral shell, and 
KOTTTw, to cut, as having a notch in the lip) gives us l//br/ea, i.e., 
slippery. Var. viorseana commemorates Prof Morse, who established 
the American Naturalist in 1862. Var. exigua, i.e., smaller than the 
type. Var. hyalina, of Jeffreys, should mean glassy. The Rev. G. 
A. F. Knight (/. of C, vol. ix. p. 275) suggests that Azeca is named 
from a town of the tribe of Judah. The only species is iridens, although 
the number of denticles is not always three. Var. nouletiana, named 
after the director of the Nat. Hist. Museum at Toulouse (died 1890), 
has only one, and var. alzenensis has five. 

. The next genus is Ccecilioides. If this word is supposed to be 
Latin it would mean either like to a blindworm or like to a lettuce. 
C(zcus, however, being Latin for blind, the allusion, no doubt, is to 
the fact that this subterranean species is eyeless. The specific name 
aciaila means a hair-pin. 

The n:imQ Jann/iia is said by Dupuy to be derived from the Greek 



48 JOURNAL OF CONCHOLOGY, VUL. I4, NO. 2, APRIL, I913. 

word lafievt], a moist place. But there is no such word. There is, 
however, eta/xemy, a riverside pasture. 

Abida was a son of Midian, mentioned in Genesis and I. Chronicles. 
The species secn/e is named from the Latin for rye, a grain which the 
shell more or less resembles. 

In the sub-genus Lauria was a typical species found in the laurel zone 
in Madeira or Teneriffe by WoUaston ? It has the species anglica, so 
named by Ferussac. The other species is cylindracea, though most 
Pupce are cylindrical. The var. cin'ta is named from being shorter, 
and var. gracilis from being more slender. 

The sub-genus Jaffiinia contains muscorum, " inhabiting moss." 
The var. bigranata has two denticles and var brevis is short. 

The genus Vertigo was so named from vertigo a turning round or 
twist, the Latin equivalent of the Greek Helix. 

Isthmia probably commemorates the Isthmian games at Corinth. 
Dupuy derives Al(Ba from cxAatos, blind, but this word is aAads, which 
would not make Alasa. And is the animal blind? Lempriere gives 
"Alsea, a surname (sic) of Minerva in the Peloponnesus." Mr. Ponsonby 
sends me the ingenious suggestion that the name is derived from the 
(I negative and Xatos left, as most species in this section are not sinistral. 

Antivertigo = with a reversed twist. Snbstriata, i.e., slightly striated. 
Var. quadride?itatcj, with four denticles. Moulinsia?ia, named after 
Des Moulins, an excellent French conchologist. Alpestris, i.e., 
inhabiting high places. /'/m//a = minute, a diminutive from the rare 
piisus, " a little boy." 

F^/V///^, i.e., small and twisted. Afigiistior—nsixxower. Possibly 
the name refers to the mouth being more contracted than that of V. 
fusilla, of which it was sometimes thought to be the young. 

Next comes the family of Clausiliidce, the name derived from 
clausiliu?n, a little door, i.e., possessing a contrivance (not an opercu- 
lum) to close the mouth. The difficulty of finding the meaning or 
derivation of the names given by some naturalists is well illustrated 
by Balea. Dr. Gray is responsible for it, but deigns no interpretation 
in his edition of Turton, while in a later work he writes Balgea. 
Jeffreys suggests that Balea is a printer's (or author's) error for badia, 
i.e., bay - coloured. M. Bourguignat thought it came from /3aAios, 
spotted, but Jeffreys rejects this " as the shell is not spotted." True, 
but he goes on in his description of the animal to say " body — dark- 
brown with a shade of grey, covered with minute black tubercles and 
specks." In this case it should be Balia and not Balea or Balcea. 
Very far-fetched is D'Orbigny's derivation from an obsolete Latin 
word balea, signifying a boat or vessel. The sole species perversa is 



HORSLKY : PRESIOENTIAI, ADDRESS. 49 

turned the wrong way, i.e., sinistral. It has a var. simplex^ i.e., 
without denticle. 

In the genus C/aiisilia, Marpessa is a faithful matron mentioned in 
-Homer. Pirosioma is formed from the Latin for pear and the Greek 
for mouth ; laniinata is so named from having three or four laminse or 
plates, visible through the shell. Biplicata is named from having two 
folds. The var. nelsoni was named by Jeffreys in honour of Nelson, 
one of the founders of our Society. Bidentaia, i.e., with two teeth. 
Var. cravenensis, first described from Craven in Yorkshire. Var. 
everetti, named by Miller after an English conchologist, who travelled 
in Borneo and the east generally. P. rolp/iii, named i)y Gray after 
Rolph, a contemporary English conchologist. 

The SucciiieidcE are represented only by Sucd/iea, i.e., amber- 
coloured, from sucdmtt/i, amber. S. ptitris, i.e., stinking, is a 
somewhat libellous term given it by I.inne. Var. stagimlis, i.e., 
inhabiting marshes. Var. solidiila, i.e., somewhat solid, or thicker in 
shell. S. eiegafis, elegant in form. Var. longiscata, i.e., lengthened, 
from a late Latin inceptive verb longisco, to become long. Var. 
pfeifferi^ named after Pfeiffer, the great German conchologist. Var. 
ochrocea, i.e., yellow. Not a pure Latin word, but formed from ochra, 
our ochre. S. oblotiga, having a longer spire in proportion to its size. 
Var. arenaria, named by Bouchard from being often found on sand- 
hills near the sea. 

We come now to the Basomniaiophora, which have the organ of 
vision at the base of the tentacles. 

The first family is that of the Aurici/lidce, so named from the mouth 
being more or less ear-shaped. The genus Carychium Gray and 
Turton call the minute sedge shell, as if the name was derived from 
Carex, sedge, which can hardly be, as the 'y ' suggests a Greek origin. 
Jeffreys says it is named " from its resemblance to a Murex or kind of 
whelk" — which is vague. Dupuy gives three Greek words as its 
possible origin, none of them applicable according to sense, and all 
of them inapplicable as beginning with a x and not a k, and so the 
word would be Chaiychium and not Carychiuvi. Its specific name 
.is minimum^ i.e., smallest. The genus Phytia is, probably the Greek 
cj!)VTios, meaning generative. Ph. myosotis was named from its mouth 
being like a mouse's ear. Ovatella may mean the small egg-shaped 
shell. 

The next family is LimiueidcE, i.e., living in stagnant water, from 
the Greek Xifivi], a lake, although by no means unknown in rivers. 

The first of its genera is Ancylus, from its recurved form at the 
apex — the Greek dyKuAos, hooked. Pluviatiiis, i.e., inhabiting rivers, 
rarely in still water. Var. capjiloides, a mongrel word for like a 

D 



50 JOURNAL OF CONCHOLOGV, VOL. I4, NO. 2, APRII , I9I3. 

handle, from the Latin cafuhis. Var. giblosa is more swollen in 
appearance, and var. stricta has the sides more compressed or 
restricted. 

The next genus Acroloxus (from two Greek words which, in combin- 
ation, mean slanting at thetop)has the species lacustris inhabiting lakes. 
Its var. 7iioquifiiana was so named by Bourguignat, after the great French 
conchologist, Moquin-Tandon. 

In the genus Lhn/icEa the species auriadaria is named from 
the supposed likeness of its large mouth, with widely reflected 
outer lip, to the human ear. The var. reflexa has the outer lip more 
reflected than usual. The species peteger, i.e., wandering, a good 
name for a shell found practically over the whole of the Eastern 
Hemisphere ; or it may be named from its almost amphibious habits. 
Var. obtusa, blunt. Stagnaliformis is like Liiiivaa stagvalis in shape. 
Vulgaris is a name that should be given, if at all, to the type. 
Maritima=-{oviv\di near the sea. Microstoma, i.e., small mouth. 
Diaphaiia, i.e., transparent, from the thinness of the shell. Pida, 
painted, i.e., marked spirally by alternate bands of brown and white. 
Labiosa, i.e., with a large lip, expanded and reflected, so as to resemble 
auriadaria. Buruetii is named after its discoverer, a Newcastle 
naturalist. Involuta is supposed to convey the information that the 
spire is enveloped by whorls. The species falustris (marsh-inhabiting) 
has the vars. corva, i.e., a crow (not that corvus has a female form), 
from its dark purple colour : ohesa, i.e., fat ; iincta, i.e., dyed, from 
the mouth being purplish; lanawsa, i.e., with flattenings, depressions, 
and protuberances, making lacuuce or gaps in the surface. 

Z. truiicahila, i.e., somewhat truncated. Var. veniricosa, from 
ventruj/i, a belly, having the whorls tumid. 

L. stagnalis, i.e., inhabiting swamps. Var. vatiegafa, i.e., with 
whorls varigated with white growth markings. Leptolimnxa is named 
from AeTTTos trim. Glabra, i.e., smooth. Aviphipeplea, i.e., covered 
with a mantle — when young. Glutitiosa indicates that to the touch 
it is glutinous from the expansion of the mantle over the shell. Var. 
mucronafa, i.e., pointed like a sword. 

Planorbis is a coined compound, a non-classical word, meaning a 
flat coil. Its species cortieus is horn-coloured. Gyraulus is from the 
Greek words for round and a tube. Its species albus has the var. 
sulcata, i.e., furrowed ; C7'ista has the ridges of the epidermis exagger- 
ated into crests, while the var. Icevigafa (which should be spelled with 
an ^ not an ce) is smoothed, i.e. without ridges ; dilatatus, i.e., expanded 
(as to its mouth). Cariiiatiis, i.e. keeled, with its var. discifortnis, i.e. 
disk-like, which is flatter ; uwbilicaius, i.e., with an umbilicus ; 
rhonibea, i.e. four-sided, refers to the appearance of a section of the 



HORSLEY : PRESIDENTIAI. ADDRESS. 51 

last whorl ; vortex, i.e. a whirlpool, from the appearance of the very 
flat whorls ; spirorbis, i.e. circular coil. Its var. ecarijiata has not the 
faint keel of the type. Section Bnthyoiiiphalus — deep umbilicus — 
contains only contortus, i.e. twisted up. Hippeiitis is a Greek word 
and means a horseman and the connection of ideas is not patent. 
Its s'pQCx&'sfontanus bears a name indicating its love of springs — and 
watercress beds. Segmentiua was named from the nautilus-like septa 
or divisions which are visible through the shell. 

The name Physa means in Greek a pair of bellows, or a blast from 
the bellows. Aplecia seems to be the Greek for unplaited. Its 
specific name hypnorum means inhabiting the moss Ilypman, which is 
terrestrial. 

Now we come to the Prosobraiichia, meaning that the branchiffi, 
or breathing apparatus, are in front of tlie heart. 1 he first family is 
Pahidestrinidce, the marsh living shells. The species jenkhisi was 
named after Mr. Jenkins, a working upholsterer at Greenwich, with 
whom I sought and studied it in the Plumstead marshes in 1889. 
Var. carif?ata has a marked keel in the centre of the whorls, but few 
seem to have noticed that sometimes the keel bears bunches of spines 
at equal distances. Ventrosa, i.e. with a belly. Tay!ori\s the species 
differentiated by Mr. F. Taylor. Stag7ialis has a variety harleei 
named by Jeffreys after his friend Mr. Barlee, a west country con- 
chologist, and another var. ociona, so named from its having eight 
whorls. The genus Pseudamnicola meaning False Amnicola. Anatiua 
means belonging to ducks. 

Bithynia, Bithinia (Gray), Bythinia (Jeffreys) — which is the right 
spelling ? If Bythinia, the author meant to derive it from a Greek 
word denoting deep water — which it does not inhabit. But there is 
little doubt that Leach named it after the province in Asia Minor. 
The specific name tentaculata means having tentacles. Its var. pro- 
diida is more produced and the var. excavata has a deeper suture. 
The other species leachi was named by Sheppard after Dr. Leach. 

The family Viviparidce, i.e. producing young alive. The var, 
efasciata has no bands and was named unicolor by Jeffreys. Cotitecta, 
i.e., mouth covered with an operculum. 

The family Valvatidce was so named from the possession of a valve 
or operculum. Valvata piscinalis gets its specific name from inhabit- 
ing fish-ponds. Why atitiqua or ancient was considered a good name 
for a variety by Sowerby I cannot find, possibly as found in Holocene 
deposits. The other species cristata is so called from its having a 
branchial plume like the crest of a helmet. 

The family Assemaididce — Jeffreys calls Assiminea "a ridiculous 
name" and adds "the author ought to have borne in mind one of 



52 JOURNAL OF CONCHOLOGY, VOL. I4, NO. 2, APRIL, I913. 

Linne's laws of scientific nomenclature — 'Idiotse imposuere nomina 
absurda.'" The Rev. Frank Knight, however, suggests very plausibly 
that Leach called it after a great oriental scholar the Abbe Simon 
Assemani, who died in 182 1 at Padua, Leach being in North Italy in 
the same year— contains but the one estuarine species grayana, so 
named by Leach in honour of Dr. Gray, of the British Museum. 

The family Fomatiidce has in England but one species, better 
known as Cyclostoma. The name is derived from the Greek Trwjua, a 
cover, i.e. here an operculum. Its var. mariiioi-ea has marble-like 
markings and is free from striation ; its var. ochroleuca is whitish- 
yellow. 

The family AcicuIidcB {acicula a hair pin — the priniccval straight and 
white bone pin being in mind) contains only the very minute A. 
litieafa, lined or striated in the line of growth. 

The family of Neritidce has with us but one genus Neritina and one 
section of that genus, Theodoxia, and one species, y7«w«//7/V. Nerita 
is the name given by Pliny to a sea-shell, which Smith's Latin 
Dictionary describes as "a sea-muscle {sic) resembling the nautilus" ! 
The word is originally Greek and probably derived from Nereus, the 
sea-god. Its var. cerina is named from ceriim wax, as being ) ellow. 

Passing now to bivalves or Pehcypoda (axe-footed, from the sup- 
posed resemblance of the protruded foot to an axe) the group to 
which all our British species belong is that of the Eulaineliibriuichiata, 
i.e. having well laminated branchiae or gill plates. Our fluviatile 
bivalves also belong to the division Subi/iytilacecE or connections of 
the Mytilus or mussel. 

The name of the genus Dreissensia was originally Dreissena. The 
origin of the name is the commemoration of M. Dreissens, a druggist 
of Mazeyth, a place in Holland. Our only species is called poly- 
inorpha or many shaped. It has a var. angusta (narrow) and a var. 
dilatata (broadened) and these practically comprise all the variations 
of form. 

The family Unionidx derives its name from Unio, a pearl, because 
British pearls have for ages been chiefly obtained from a U7iio. The 
species pictoruni, " the painter's mussel " (or, as in Gray's Turton "the 
thin painter's Utfion") is so named because sometimes gold and silver 
paint was sold in the shells for illuminating work. It has a var. 
iiifvirostris, i.e. with curved beaks ; another latior, i.e. broader than 
usual ; another radiata, i.e. with yellow and green radiations ; and 
:ix\oih&v platyrhyjichoidea, i.e. in form like Unto platyrhynchus (hxosid 
nosed) of Rossmassler found in S.AV. Austria. Ufii'o tumidus (swollen) 
is broader and thicker than the preceding species. Its var. nuilleri, 
named after the Danish naturalist of the eighteenth century, is more 



HORSLEY : PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 53 

oval Var. ponderosa is heavier from the soHdity of its shell. Alar- 
garitatui from the Greek for a pearl. The species margaritifer = 
pearl-bearing. Its var. sinuatci, i.e. curved, has the lower margin of 
the shell incurved. 

The genus Anodonta is named from the absence of lateral teeth at 
the hinges. A. cygncea and A. anatina were so named by Linne as 
eaten by swans and eaten by ducks respectively. Scliroter's variety 
arenaria probably means " found on a sandy bottom." Var. rostrata 
= beaked ; var. incrassata=-\}mQk.&w&di. 

The genus SphcBriuvi {ce not ce) is so called from the spherical or 
rounded character of the shell. S. co7-tieum var. nucieus is especially 
suggestive of a ball. Gray's var. pisidioides gets its name from being 
somewhat triangular like tlie Pisidia. Rivicola^iviS\dXy\\\\\% rivers. 
Cor7ieti7n=\\ox\v^ in colour. Lacusire lias a var. ryckhoiti, named 
after Baron P. de Ryckholt. The type is round, but var. rotunda is 
more round, and var. ovalis more oval than the type. Pallidum is 
pale grey. 

The genus Pisidiiim was named from its likeness to a pea, pisutn in 
Latin. The species avinicum is named from its inhabiting rivers. 
The var. Iceviuscula is, I presume, bad Latin and bad spelling for 
levior, i.e. smoother, the striae being faint. Ifenslowanuin was 
named by Sheppard in honour of Prof. J. S. Henslow, of Cambridge 
( 1 796-1 86 1 ) j subtruncatu/n, somewhat truncated ; pulchelhim is glossy 
and therefore perhaps more worthy of its name "pretty little one" ; 
pusillum, i.e. small; nitiduni, i.e. shiny, is the most glossy of its con- 
geners; obtusale, i.e. blunt; gassiesianum was named after M. Gassies, 
a contemporary French conchologist who collected chiefly in New 
Caledonia. 



Note. — I find that I was misled as to the quantity of the / in Arion 
(see p. 19, line 27), and that it is long after all. 



Helicella virgata at Lowestoft. — On the 21st January of this year this species 
was crawling freely on a sloping bank of the south promenade at Lowestoft. Quite 
twenty-five per cent, were of the varieties alba and hyalozonata, a larger proportion 
than I have seen anywhere else, except near Dublin. — W. Gvngei.l {Read before 
the Society, Sept. nth, 1912). 



54 

THE NON-MARINE MOLLUSCA OF ICELAND. 



By F. H. SIKES, M.A., F.L.S. 



(Read before the Society, Jan. 8th, 1913). 



The authorities on this subject are Westerlund (Synopsis Mollusc. 
Extramarin. Scand., 1897) and Morch (Faunula Mollusc. Islandiae, 
1868), from which it would appear that there has not been any recent 
investigation, inasmuch as the excellent Museum at Reykjavik con- 
tains only seven or eight species. 

Dr. Morch, whose list is almost identical with Westerlund's, 
certainly gathered together a considerable number of records, when 
one takes into account the barrenness of the land, and though, in a 
recent visit, I almost literally left no stone unturned, I can only sup- 
plement his list by three species. As they are all Pisidia, it is probable 
that even one or two of these were found by Morch and wrongly 
identified, a lot of water having flowed under the Pisidian bridge 
since 1869. 

In my eleven days' voyage I practically circumnavigated the island, 
and called in at ten fjords, afterwards spending a fortnight in the 
interior. It seemed to me a curious fact that such results as I got are 
almost entirely due to prospecting in the north, as at Reykjavik, and 
from there up to the geysers, via Thingvellir, nothing except a Vitrina 
of the land molluscs turned up. At Hafnarfjordr, however, which is 
six miles from the capital, I found among the lava crevices Arion ater 
and sub/uscus, and Hyalinia alliaria in some quantity. Helix aspeisa 
seems to be non-existent; all my solicitous enquiries after it only led 
me into wild goose chases (if one can use this expression about a 
country where these birds are plentiful) and consequent 'bagging' of 
A. ater, which was the nearest that my informants could get to my 
description of aspersa. 

I was interested to find that Hdix hortemis, which has long been 
of rather doubtful authenticity, is not only confirmed by a mouse- 
nibbled specimen I got at Seydisfjordr, but also by a var. kleinia 
taken by Mr. B. Sammundssen in 1896 at Drangshted. 

Though one quarter as large again as Ireland, one-eighth of Iceland 
is under lava and one-ninth covered with glacier. When one adds to 
this the precipitous mountains in the proportion of 15 to i of level 
ground, it will be seen that it is not a very likely recruiting ground 
for land and freshwater mollusca. 

According to the learned geologist, Dr. Pjeturrs, of Reykjavik, 
Iceland is a tableland built up of basalts with intercalated beds of 
sedimentary rock. The thickness is estimated at 12,000 to 14^000 ft., 



SIKES : NON-MARIXE MOI.LUSCA OF ICELAND. 



and about one-third of this consists of shale and Hgnite, together with 
indurated moraines, claystones with glacial and interglacial shells, and 
fluviatile and lacustrine conglomerates. There are many remains of 
pleistocene volcanoes, while the oldest basalts are probably oligocene. 
Throughout the island are innumerable hot springs (Laugar) and in 
the best known ones near Reykjavik I found Limncp.a pereger var. 
geisericola Beck, living in water so hot that I could only just bear to 
put my hand in it, and at a distance of about forty feet from the 
source, where the water bubbles out of the ground at a temperature of 
250° Fahr. To excuse the apparent unscientific treatment of this 
phenomenon I must plead in defence that I took a thermometer down 
with me which shivered into atoms in the hottest water. Alas ! for it 
was borrowed. As there are now three lists of Icelandic shells, I have 
thought that a better ' conspectus ' would be gained by putting the 
results in parallel columns; the "ditto," of course, must be treated 
horizontally. I owe many sincere thanks to Mr. A. S. Kennard, who, 
with Mr. Woodward {Pisidia), and Mr. Roebuck (slugs), has verified 
or altered my conclusions. 



N.B. 

MORCH, 1868. 

A Hon ater (L.). 



Arion cindus Miill. 



Arion horteusis Fer. 
Li max agrestis (L.). 



=not found. 



Do.^=found. 



WESTERLUND, 1897. SIKES, 1912. 

do. do. var. atra Hafnar- 

fjdrdr (S.). 
Arion riifus=^\ciX. rufii — 

— Arion std)fusais(V>xviiy.) 

— var. aurantiaca Loc. 
Reykjavik (S.) 

— var. fniiginea Morelet 
Hafnarfjordr. 

— Agrioliinax agrestis 

Reykjavik. 

— — var. reticulata Moq.- 

Tand. 
Limax marginatus (Miill.). do. — 

Vitrina beryl Una Pfr. — — 

— Vitrina angelica Beck. do. common. 
Hyalinia alliaria Mill. do. do. Hafnarfjdrdr, Isa- 

fjordr (N.W.) 
Hy.h.ininwnis^^radia- 

titla (Alder) do. do. Akureyri (N.) 

— Conulus fabriciiiWvW.) do. Isafjordr, Seydis- 

fjordr (N.E.). 



56 JOURNAI, OK CONCIIOLOGY, VOL. I4, NO. 2, APRIL, I913. 

Conulus irochiformis 

Mtg. Comdiisfidvus{Mx\\\). -- 

Ariantaarbiistorutn(l^.) do. 



do. Seydisfjordr, Nord- 

fjordr (E.). 
var. alpestris 



Helix h or ten sis Miill. 


do. 


do. 


Nordfjordr. 


— 


Helix hispida (L). 




■ — . 


Cochlicopa lubrica 








(Miill.). 


do. 


do. 


Akureyri. 


Pupa arctica (Wall). 


— 


Vertigo arctica Isa^ . 








fjordr. 


— 


Pupa mnsconan (L.). 




— 


Siicd?iea grosniafidica 








Beck. 


do. 


do. 


common. 


— 


S. altaica ^Vest. 




— 


Limncea truncahila 


do. 


do. 


Akureyri and 


(Miill.). 






geysirs. 



LiinncEU vulgaris C. Pfr. 

Li7nucBa geisericola L. pereger var. geiseri- 
Beck. cola. 

— Littmcea ovata Drap. 

— do. var. steenstrupi 

Ciess. 



Pisidiiim pulchellum 

Jenyns. 
P. pusillufti (Gmelin). 
P. persojiatuin Malm, 
P. nit id u in Jenyns. 
P. amuicuvi (Miiller). 



do. Reykjavik, hot 

springs. 
L. pereger var. ovata. 
do. Laugarvatn. 

var. fofitinalis Stud. 
Laugarvatn. 



do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 

Pisidium lilljeborgi 
Clessin. 



do. Thingvellir and 
Rautharvatn. 

P. casertafium Poli. 
Isafjordr. 

P. obtusale Pfr. Thing- 
vellir. 

P. steenbuchi Moll. 
Thingvellir. 



Planorbis rotundatus Platiorbis leucostoma 

— Planorbis spirorbis (L 

— Platiorbis glaber Jeffr. 



57 



LIMAX CINEREO-NIGER van STROBELI Lessona, 
NEW TO BRITAIN. 



By W. DENISON ROEBUCK, L.F.S. 

(Read before the Societj', Decemlier iilh, 1012). 



On the 30th September, Mr. Charles Oldham sent me various slugs, 
amongst which was an example taken the same day in a wood near 
Marlin Chapel, Berkhamsted, Herts., which is the first I have seen 
of this variety. It is entirely ashy-grey and corresponds to the 
description on p. 59 of Mr. Taylor's Monograph, the ground colour 
showing as paler maculations on the darker surface-coloration. There 
is also a variety strobeli of Pini, but this is a subvariety of var. 
cinerea, and has the shield bluish-black instead of the ash-grey of 
Lessona's variety of the same name. 



CENSUS AUTHENTICATIONS. 



By W. DENISON ROEBUCK, Hon. Rkcorder. 



All the records here given are based upon examples sent to the official authenti- 
cators : myself for slugs only ; Mr. Fred. Taylor for PaludestrinidcE ; and Mr. 
John W. Taylor for all other species]. 



Cambridgeshire: Mr. Geo. S. Carter on the 17th of April, 1912, sent me living 

examples oi Agrioli?nax lains, which he had, on the 14th, found in the Rectory 

Garden, Castle Camps, and in a wood close by. 
Galway South-East : Mr. R. A. Phillips has sent the following : two Vertigo 

pygmcea, and one Acroloxus lactistris, taken at Lough Rea in May 191 1 ; 

and two Planorbis U7nbilicatus, dead, taken at Portumna, November 1909. 
Gloucester East : Mr. Charles Upton has sent his example of Spkcprhnii palli- 

dtt>/i, which he took in the Gloucester and Berkeley Canal at Sharpness. 

Mr. J. Davy Dean has submitted several examples of Clausilia bipluata, 

which were collected at Leckhampton Hill. 
Kent East : Mr. F. H. Sikes has submitted the following new county records : 

Hyalinia fiilva from Yalding, First Lock ; Aplexa hypnoniin from Hunton. 
Kent West : Mr. F. H. Sikes did good work whilst residing at Benover near 

Yalding, and, amongst numerous other species, sent for authentication : Pisidhifii 

pukhelhivi and P. subtruncatiim, from stream at Benover, the latter also 

from pond near Teston ; Bythinia tentaculala var. producta from Benover. 

In the Essex Museum are examples of Citcilioides acini la from Chiselhurst 

(Sowerby and Fulton). 
Co. Kilkenny: Mr. R. A. Phillips has submitted Pahidestrina cotifusa, of which 

he took several at Rosbercon, April 191 2. 
King's County : Mr. G. P. Farran has sent several examples of P.jipa anglica 

from Clonmacnoise, taken 27ih June, 1899. 



58 

THE LAND AND FRESHWATER MOLLUSCA OF lONA. 



By JOHN F. M US HAM, F.E.S. 



(Read before the Society, Octo1)er 13th, 1912). 



In addition to my own experiences, I have been enabled, through 
the kindness of Mr. J. R. le B. Tomlin, who drew my attention to 
the same, to make extracts from an earlier paper read by Mr. 
A. Somerville, B.Sc, F.L.S., before the Natural History Society of 
Glasgow on April 24th 1888, on the Land and Freshwater Mollusca 
of this island. 

Mr. Somerville writes thus: — -"On the occasion of a visit to the 
island of lona in October, 1887, I devoted a short time to the 
investigation of its Land and Freshwater Mollusca, and though I 
cannot claim to have exhausted the species occurring on the island, 
it may be of interest to mention that sixteen rewarded search, one 
being aquatic, and the remainder, including the slugs, terrestrial." 

Thus, after a lapse of 25 years, our experiences almost tally, each 
taking 16 species, though not quite identical. 

He further writes: "The western and uninhabited side of lona 
faces the Atlantic, and is rocky excepting towards the middle, where 
there is an open bay from which stretch up sandy, grass-covered 
undulations. Here Helix ericetorum ]\Iiill. and Bulhnus aaitus (Miill.) 
were swarming, as they do in many similar places on the west of 
Scotland from the Butt of Lewis to the Mull of Cantyre, and on 
the sandy Ayrshire coast. 

On the eastern or inhabited side of the island, under stones near 
human dwellings, most of the species were found,, and of these 
the most plentiful was Helix sericea Miill., a local, though widely 
distributed form, so named from its epidermic covering of fine white 
silky hairs, which do not easily rub off." 

Nowadays, however, one's attention cannot fail to be drawn, as 
soon as the village street is left behind, to the quantities of Zr^'//.:v 
aspersa, Helicella itaht, and H a ait a, which abound everywhere ; 
further added to on the eastern side, by quantities of dead and 
bleached Helix 7iemoralis L., H. horteiisis (Miill.), and a few H. 
arbustoritm (L.). 

This bleached condition of practically all the living shells noticed 
during my visit is not alluded to by Mr. Somerville. 

I found that living full-grown specimens of Helicella itala and H. 
acuta were scarce, though juveniles swarmed wherever it was sandy; 
incidentally I might allude to the partiality for old leather, beloved 



MUSHAM : MOLLUSCA OF lONA. 59 

of many of our land shells, twelve fine specimens of Helicella acufa 
turning up in an old boot ! 

The chief object of my visit, however, was to obtain if possible 
examples of the shell-necklaces, formerly sold here by the children 
to visitors, an old custom dating from the time of the monkish 
occupation of the island, shells and jade pebbles being in great 
request as mementoes, and alluded to by Wordsworth in his sonnets. 

These necklaces are nowadays seldom made and therefore diffi- 
cult to procure ; modern visitors preferring picture post cards and 
articles of pebble and marble, sold here, but made elsewhere. The 
necklaces were turned out in different sizes according to the shell 
used, some entirely made of H. nemoralis, others of itala or aatt.t, 
and again of all three together ; dead shells from the dunes were 
mostly used, mixed with any live ones picked up at the time of 
gathering, the animal not being removed. Mr. Welch informs me that 
the necklaces made from Helicella itala differ from the Donegal 
examples, in that these are threaded through the apex, and not 
through the mouth and upper part of the larger whorl. 

It is noticeable that they are invariably made up with black 
thread; on inquiring the reason, I was informed it was the custom, 
though no reason for it was forthcoming. Marine shells (periwinkles) 
would occasionally be used in the manufacture of these necklaces, 
but, requiring boring before threading, were only adopted by the 
more industrious. 

Mr. Somerville concludes his paper by stating that all his shells 
were submitted to Mr. J. W. Taylor for verification, and adds, — 
"lona consists chiefly of schistose rocks of the middle Silurian period. 
It is one of the mid Hebrides (or central group of the inner Hebrides 
which form tlie British Vice-County, No. 103), and which in addi- 
tion to Mull, includes Coll, Tiree, Ulva, and in the words of Sir 

Walter Scott— 

' All the group of islets gay 

That guard famed Staffa round.'" 

The following is a joint list of observations: — 

Arion ater (L.). — Very large and abundant, referable to var. ater- 
rima Taylor. Somerville, "our common black snail." 

A. bourguig^nati Mabille. — Somerville. 

Limax maximus L. — One or two near the Nunnery. 

Agriolimax agrestis (L.). — Pale forms abundant. Somerville, 
"the common pale-brown slug." 

Limnaea pereger (MiilL). — Somerville, "common in a stream in 
the middle of the island." 

Vitrina pellucida (Miill.).— Somerville. 



6o JOURNAL OF CONCHOLOGY, VOL. I4, NO. 2, APKIL, I913. 

Hyalinia cellaria (Miill.). — Generally distributed under stones by 
roadside. Found also by Somerville. 

H. ailiaria (Miller).— Somerville. 

Helix aspersa Miill. — Numerous on Yellow Iris, Stonecrop, 
walls of the ruins, and in the village gardens and high rocks. Somer- 
ville, "Found on the eastern side, but also in some abundance on 
the rock faces and in the crevices of the high shore rocks on 
the western side, where it seemed to be meditating hibernation." 

H. aspersa m. scalariforme. — A fine example was taken by 
me, crawling over a rock face on the western side. 

H. nemoralis L. — Dead shells occurred in quantities on the 
eastern .sand dunes, living ones far from numerous ; a solitary 
colony confined to the higher rocks on the western side, of much 
lighter texture than the dead ones above mentioned, many with 
white lips, small and horte/isis-WVQ in appearance, animals pale (the 
Donegal form). An examination of the darts soon proved their 
identity, whilst of interest was the deep Indian red colour of the 
liver of two thirds of the bodies examined. Somerville, "on both 
eastern and western sides." 

H, hortensis Miill. — One or two dead ones only on the east- 
ern sand dunes. Somerville, "on both eastern and western sides." 

Helicigona arbustorum (L.). — A few dead shells on the 
eastern dunes. 

Helicella itala (L.). — Abundant, especially juveniles ; adults 
scarce, two or three charming vars. Somerville, "abundant in most 
parts of the island." 

Hygromia granulata (Alder). — A few in a nettle bed near 
the hotel, and again in a similar habitat near the cable mark. Somer- 
ville, "common under stones on the eastern side." 

Pyramidula rotundata (Miill.). — Frequent in and around the 
village. Found also by Somerville. 

Helicella acuta (Miill.). — Swarming where sandy, especially in 
the juvenile stages. Somerville, "plentiful." 

H. caperata (Mont.) var. heripensis (Mab.). — Under a stone 
near the cable mark. 

Cochlicopa lubrica (Miill.) var. lubricoides Fe'r. — Sparingly 
under stones near the cable mark. Somerville records the species, 
but makes no mention of a var. 

Pupa cylindracea (DaCosta). — Numerous in ruins of a cottage 
and on boundary wall of Cathedral. Found also by Somerville. 

Clausilia bidentata (Strom). — Numerous on boundary wall of 
Cathedral, and in a cottage ruin near the landing slip. 



6i 
CONCHOLOGICAL NOTES FROM ALGERIA AND TUNIS. 



By LIONEL E. ADAMS, B.A. 



(Read before the Society, June 12th, 1912). 



To ANY one ambitious to collect land shells, especially Xerophiles, 
in bulk, I can recommend Algeria and Tunis. As one wanders 
among the scrub-covered sandhills along tlie coast, the booty need 
only be limited by the means of transport. Grass, bushes, and tree 
trunks are covered with shells, chiefly H. pisana, the general 
whiteness of which gives a curious appearance to the landscape. 
The. pisana were disappointing, being mostly of a dingy white colour 
with faint nondescript bands, though here and there I found some 
of the beautiful forms figured as Algerian in Taylor's "Monograph," 
pt. 19, forms of var. rosaceo-albida Bourg. being especially common 
throughout. 

Helix virga/a distributed throughout were mostly small and of 
the single banded form. 

Helix acuta has here a habit of jestivating in masses on tree trunks 
and bushes ; I never met with it far from the sea. 

H. caperata, which I only found at Bona and Tunis was not 
common. 1 found all these species somewhat smaller, on the average, 
than British specimens, and considerably more solid. 

Though I have often picked fine series of large Helix aspersa 
and H. bredeana Debeaux in the markets of i\.lgiers and Oran, I 
have never seen H. pisana exposed for sale on Algerian stalls as is 
commonly the case in France, Sicily, &c., and I can only account 
for its neglect by a people usually the reverse of fastidious, by 
supposing that the sciub upon which it feeds renders it unfit for 
human consumption.^ The markets at Constantine yielded a nice 
series of H. aspersa s.v. maxima Taylor, and also of the self-coloured 
bandless form, which is never as large, in Algeria, as that with 
bands. Among the ruins of Timgad var. conoidea Pic. was pre- 
dominant. 

At Biskra, among the scanty scrub at the edge of the Sahara, I 
found a few small H. virgata, chiefly dead shells, that looked as if 
they had been gnawed. It may be that the Jerboas, whose tracks 
were abundant, feed upon them ; I saw no tracks of any other 
animal at all likely to do so. Among a most interesting assort- 
ment of desert plants at the famous sulphur spring near Biskra, 
I found Lencocluoa candidissima Drap. in considerable numbers, a 
few H. vermiculata and H. virgata. Dr. LongstafF, however, in his 

I J. W. Taylor, in " Monograph," pt. 19, p. 375, speaks of its being "regularly brought to 
market." 



62 JOtfRNAL Of CONCHOLOGV, VOL. I4, MO. 2, APRIL, I913. 

charming book, ''Butterfly Hunting in many Lands," while minutely 
describing the same spot, with the Jackals, Jerboas, Snakes, &c., 
omits all mention of Snails ! Wandering in the Jardin Landon (made 
famous by Robert Kitchens in "The Garden of Allah") I only 
came upon a single snail, H. vermiadata, which had escaped the 
gardeners' vigilance. Near the garden runs a stream in which I 
found the only freshwater species that I saw in Algeria — Mehi7iopsis 
dactylophila Issel. It was amusing to be told by nearly every one 
of the numerous guides and touts that pester the traveller at Biskra, 
that they were personal friends of the author of the book that 
introduced Biskra to the tourist ! Some even produced a card with 
the author's name thereon, which some enterprising scamp had, 
doubtless, had printed for sale amongst the guides. 

One of the most interesting spots in North Africa is, of course, 
the Bay of Tunis and the ruins of Carthage. While basking in 
the warm sun in the amphitheatre, the scene of bloodthirsty displays, 
I came upon a small colony of curiously marked H. pisana — pure 
white above, darkly banded below. 

As a considerable amount of rain falls in Algeria, and deep snow 
renders the mountain roads impassable in winter, it is advisable for 
the conchologist to select the late autumn or early spring for a 
collecting tour. In the hot summer months the hotels of Biskra 
and other inland places are mostly closed, and the snails aestivating 
out of sisht. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE 
CONCHOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF GREAT BRITAIN & IRELAND. 



417th Meeting-, held in Manchester Museum, Dec. nth, 1912. 
Mr. B. R. Lucas in the chair. 

Additions to the Library announced and thanks voted : 

" The Cephalopoda of the Scottish National Antarctic Expedition," by Dr. 
W. E. Hoyle. " Die geographische Verbreitung der «estdeutschen Najaden," by 
Dr. F. Haas. " Descriptions of thirty-three New Species of Gasteropoda from the 
Persian Gulf, Gulf of Oman, and North Arabian Sea," by J. C. Melvill. " Manual 
of Conchology," part Ixxxv., by H. A. Pilsbry (from the respective authors); and 
tiie usual periodicals received in exchange. 

Donation to the Cabinet announced and thanks voted : 

By Mr. Chas. Oldham — Liinax cinoeo-niger var. luctuosa, with malformed and 
disjointed keel-line, from Berkhanisted. 

Candidates proposed for Membership. 

Ronald Winckworth, 37, Upper Rock Gardens, Brighton. 

J. W. Roberts, 145, Withington Road, Whalley Range, Manchester. 



Proceedings : janIjary 8, 1913. 63 

New Members Elected. 

Thos. Bonner- Chambers, Huccombe, Stokenham, Kingsbridge, S. Devon. 
L. R. W. l.oyd, 17, Sandringham Court, Maida Vale, London, W. 

Members Deceased. 
D. D. Baldwin. Rev. Thos. Cook. Rev. G. W. Taylor, F.R.S. (Canada). 
Resolutions of sympathy with the relatives of the deceased were passed, and 
obituary notices will be published as early as possible. 

Papers Read. 
" The Mollusca of Worcestershire," by N. G. Hadden. 
" Clatisilia rolphii Leach in Salop," by N. G. liadden. 

" Pathological malformation of keel-line in Liniax cinereo-niger " by W. Denison 
Roebuck, F.L.S. 

'^ Lif/iax cinereo-niger var. slrobeli Lessona — new to Britain," by W. Denison 
Roebuck, F.L.S. 

''Exhibits. 

By Mr. T. H. Piatt : A beautiful series of Opisthostonia mirabile, 0. fairbanki, 
and twenty other species of this remarkable genus. 

By Mr. G. C. Spence : A series of Hybocystis, with young of H. elephas, 
showing the wide difference in form between adult and juvenile ; Brachypodella 
dimintiata sectioned and contrasted with B. agnesiana. 

By Mr. IL Allan, jr. : A fine series of Land Shells from Tenby. 



418th Meeting, held in Manchester Museum, Jan. 8th, 1913. 

Mr. E. Collier in the chair. 

Additions to the Library announced and thanks voted : 

"Mollusca from the Lea Valley Arctic Bed," by A. S. Kennard and B. B. 
Woodward. "Marine Mollusker fra Indre Sogn," by James A.Grieg; and the 
usual periodicals received in exchange. 

Candidates Proposed for Membership. 

William H. Western, editor " Lancashire Naturalist," 9, Redearth Road, 
Darwen (recommended by R. Standen and J. W. Jackson). 

Bertram Bryan, 176, Uitoxeter Road, Longton, Staffs, (recommended by 
J. R. B. Masefield and E. D. Bostock). 

Henry Emmett, 156, Moston Street, Hanley, Staffs, (recommended by J. R. B. 
Masefield and E. D. Bostock). 

John Chalmers, Sao Thome, Gulf of Guinea (recommended by L. J. Shackleford 
and R. Standen). 

New Members Elected. 

J. W. Roberts, 145, Withington Road, Whalley Range, Manchester (recom- 
mended by T. H. Piatt and J. W. Jackson). 

Ronald Winckworth, 37, Upper Rock Gardens, Brighton (recommended by 
J. W. Jackson and L. J. Shackleford). 

Paper Read. 

"The Non-Marine Mollusca of Iceland," by F. H. Sikes, M.A., F.L.S. 

Exhibits. 

By Rev. L. J. Shackleford : Achat ina sinistra} sa Ch., from Sao Thome, Gulf of. 
Guinea (alt. 4,000 ft.). 

By Rev. Canon Horsley : Pliysa heteroslropha (?) from Savona Lake, British 
Columbia. 



64 JOURNAL OF CONCHOI.OGY, VOL. I4, NO. 2, APRIL, I913. 

By Mr. J. Davy Dean : Hyalinia ni/idiila var. litcens Pult. from Silverdale, 
var. niteiis Mich., Grange : Pupa anglica Fer. from Sawry-on-Windermere ; Eua 
obscura Mlill., Penrith ; Planorbis albiis L. and Valvata cj-is/a/a Miill. from Bank- 
well, Silverdale ; also interesting varieties of Helix neino'aUs and Helicigoiia 
aibiislonifii from the Furness district. 

By Mr. G. C. Spence : Helicella Jieripensis from Hambledon, Hants. ; scalariform 
H. neinoralis from Portrush, Ireland ; a small dark form of Cypraa anmiliis from 
Marquesas Islands ; and a nmnber of species of Choudropoma. 

By Mr. T. IT. Piatt : A fine series of about thirty species of Odontostoiiins, 
Toniii^ertis, Aiictiis and Anostoiiia from Monte Video, Rio Janeiro and ISahia. 

By Mr. F. H. Sikes : A collection of mollusca from Iceland, collected in 191 2, 
to illustrate his paper. 

The special exhibit of the evening was the genera Lanisles and Marisa, a 
number of species being shown by Mrs. Gill and Mr. C. II. Moore; whilst Mr. 
R. Standen showed shells and eggs of jMiiistes olivacea from Zanzibar, and Marisa 
f(?;7/«-a;7>//5 from Trinidad, from his own collection; also fine examples of many 
species from the " R. D. Darbishire Collection" and the " Neave Collection " in 
the Manchester Museum. 



419th Meeting, held in Manchester Museum, Feb. 12th, 1913. 

Dr. James Cosmo Melvill in the chair. 

New Members Elected. 
William H. Western, editor "Lancashire Naturalist," 9, Redearth Road, 
Darwen. 

Bertram Bryan, 176, Uttoxeter Road, Longton, Staffs. 
Henry Emmett, 156, Moston Street, Hanley, Staffs. 
John Chalmers, Sao Thome, Gulf of Guinea. 

Member Deceased. 

Mrs. Janet Carphin. 

Papers Read. 

^'' Eiitrochatella and its allies," by J. Cosmo Melvill, D.Sc, M.A., F.L.S. 

" Notes on three species of Cypraja," by J. Kidson Taylor. 

"The Non-Marine Mollusca of Touraine," by F. H. Sikes, M.A., F.L.S. 

Exhibits. 

By Mr. F. H. Sikes : Series of Land and Freshwater Shells from around 
Loches, Indre-et-Loire, to illustrate his paper. 

By Mr. J. Kidson Taylor : A fine series of the species of Cyprtea dealt with in 
his paper and a number of rare species for comparison. 

By Mr. J. Cosmo Melvill; Beautiful examples of the extremely rare Volutes — 
Volula conciiina Brod. from Japan, and V. irviiue from W. Australia. 

By Rev. L. J. Shackleford : Fine examples of Paryphanta busby i Gray, /'. 
hochstelteri Pfr. from New Zealand, /'. atra)iuiitaria Sh. from Australia, Voliita 
Uavicans Gmel., and the var. tissoiiana Crosse, V. iinperialis Lam., V. scapha 
Gmel., a fine specimen with puie white ground colour; V.pacifica Sol., a large 
aged specimen with margined lip nearly an inch wide; and V. lossiniana Bern, 
from New Caledonia. 

In the special exhibit oi Etctroiha/ella about two-thirds of the known species of 
this beautiful genus were shown by Mrs. Gill, Messrs. G. C. Spence, R. Standen, 
and J. Cosmo Melvill, who read an interesting paper dealing with the exhibit ; 
specimens from the Museum Collection were also shown. 



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MANUAL OF OONGHOLOGY: 

A Systematic, Illustrated Monography of the 
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Vol.. 141. 



JULY 1st, 1913. 



[No. 



THE 



JOURNAL 

CONCHOLOGY. 



FOUNDED 1874. 



BEING THE ORGAN OF THE CONCHOLOGICAL SOCIETY 
or GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 

PUBLISHED QUARTERLY. 



Hon. Editor : 
J.R.i.eB.TOMLIN,M.A.,F.E.S., 
Lakefoot, 
Hamilton Rd., Reading. 



Hon. Secketaky: 

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6G, Granville Road, 

Rlacki'ool. 



Hon. Tkeasukek : 

E. D. BOSTOCK, 

OuLTON Cross, 

Stone, Staffs. 



COUTEITTS. 

Additions to "British Conchology" — J. T. M.'^r.shall (continued) . 
Activity of Arion ater — Margaret M. Bliss 

Ancyhis fluviatilis var. gibbo.sa Bourg. in Derbyshire — R. Standen 
Testacella scutiUum in Staffs.— J. R. B. Masefield 

The Feeding Track of Oxystele impervia Menke — K. H. Barnard 

(with figure) 

Note on a Sinistral Specimen of Marginella zonata Kien.— B. R. Lucas 

Census Authentications — W. D. Roebuck 

Notes on some Pleistocene MoUusca in North Hunts. — Rev. C. E. Y. 
Kendall (with figures) ... 

Vertigo 'substriata in Guernsey — E. D. jNIarquand 

Perfect Albinism in Limax arborum Bouch. -Chant. — W. D. RoEHUCK 

Proceedings : March I2, 1913 ; April 12, 1913 ; May 21, 1913 

Note on the Caryatis belcheri of Romer — J. R. le B. Tomlin and 
L. J. Shackleford 



page 

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96 



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The Lancashire Naturalist, 

A Monthly Journal of Natural History for the County of 

Lancashire, and for the adjacent districts of Cheshire, 

Derbyshire, Westmorland, North Wales & the Isle of Man. 

Conducted by MR. W. H. WESTERN, 

Assisted in Special Departments by Competent Referees. 

The Journal, which is supported by many prominent Naturalists of the District, 
deals with all branches of Natural History, and is rapidly increasing in circulation. 
Amongst the Conehologieal Notes and Papers which have already appeared are : 
" Notes on the Freshvk'ater Mussels of Lancashire and Adjacent Counties" ; "On 
the Mollusca from the 'Cave-Earth,' Dog-Holes, Warton Crag"; and others, 
which contain much valuable information of local and general interest, 

Annual Subscription, 5/- post free, should be sent direct to the Editor, 
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65 



JOURNAL OF CONCHOLOGY. 



Vol. 14. JULY, 1913. No. 



ADDITIONS TO "BRITISH CONCHOLOGY." 



By J. T. MARSHALL. 
Part VII. {continued from p. J5). 



Aplysia punctata Cuv. — Between tide-marks during the spring 
months, when this species resorts among the seaweed-covered rocks 
for spawning, and may then be met with in large numbers, though 
their visits are capricious and their numbers varying. In Jersey, 
where an enormous extent of rocky coast is uncovered at low water, 
they may in some seasons be estimated at millions ! I have found 
the fry in dwarf sea-weeds during August and September; in October 
these had attained half-an-inch in length, with shells a line long. 

The shell consists of two layers, which in this species are both 
horny, except in aged specimens or to repair fractures, when they 
are semi-calcareous ; while in A. depilans, which it resembles, the 
inner layer is shelly, very fragile and brittle, and easily shed. The 
largest come. from St. Mary's Flats, Scilly, and measure i^in. by i|in. 

The animal is an easy and very interesting subject for dissection. 
After making an incision and removing the shell, the whole of the 
nervous system is exposed to view, and may be readily lifted out 
intact for examination. 

A. depilans L. — A very rare visitant to Guernsey and Torbay. 
In the former locality solitary specimens are obtained at wide inter- 
vals; but in Torbay a small fleet arrived in 1875, and lingered for a 
couple of years, but failed to establish itself, though the temperature 
and position of Torbay would seem fairly promising for its acclima- 
tisation. Previous to that only one specimen had been found there, 
by Mr. P. H. Gosse. Landsborough and Kennedy have recorded it 
from the Clyde district, but their identifications are extremely unlikely. 

The shell of A. depilans differs from that of A. punctata in being 
three or four times the size, lighter in colour, thinner, and much less 
convex or boat-shaped. It will not bear much handling, and if not 
extracted from the animal with the greatest care the internal shelly 
layer breaks up into minute fragments, and the external horny one 
curls up out of all resemblance to its natural shape. The dye from 
the animal is a pale to a deep purple, according to the more or less 

E 



66 JOURNAL OF CONCHOI.OGY, VOL. I4, NO. 3, JULY, I9I3. 

collapsed condition in which it arrives on our coasts. My largest 
Torbay specimen of the shell is 2in. by 2in., and from Guernsey 2in, 
by i|in. The animal of the former, when crawling, was the size of a 
cucumber a foot long, aiid when at rest lumped as large as my 
doubled fists. 

In the respective number of rows of teeth in the two species, 
quoted by Gwyn Jeffreys on the authority of Mr. Jabez Hogg,-' there 
is an error of transposition ; it is A. depilans that has 70 rows, and 
A. punctata 40, instead of vice versa. For an account of the 
dentition oi A. depilans, vide A. R. Hunt, Trans. Devon Assoc, 1877, 

PP- ^-Z- 

An Aplysia from Polperro, Cornwall, has been described as A. 
fnelanopus Couch, '^ but I consider it a very doubtful species. 

Pleurobranchus membranaceus Mont. — Jersey (Duprey and 
J.T.M.); Scilly (Smart)! Isle of Man, not uncommon (Herdman); 
off Cumbrae (Norman). It is also said to have been " frequently 
taken " in the Clyde by the yacht ' Medusa.' 

This is a gregarious species, appearing only at intervals, and some- 
times in great numbers; I have known quite 100 obtained in one 
haul of the trawl. In 1874 a large fleet of them appeared simulta- 
neously at Weymouth and Torbay, and again in the latter district in 
1877 and 1887. The animal is not "thick," as stated by Jeffreys, 
but gelatinous and watery, and if left for a few days exposed on the 
beach dissolves away like the Medusa. There is no doubt of its 
mantle containing spicules similar to those in the Nudibranchiata, as 
the handhng of them for any length of time produces blistering and 
scarifying at the tips of the fingers, similar to the action of a strong 
acid. The same effects are produced by handling that fine nudi- 
branch Triiojiia honibergi, which occurs with it in South Devon. 
The shell is usually oblong, but sometimes approaches an oval; it is 
highly iridescent, and occasionally pearl-white. According to Pilsbry, 
P. }ne?nbranaceus Mont. (181 1) is subsequent to 7*. tuberculatus 
Meckel (1808). 

P. plumula Mont. — Jersey (Duprey and J.T.M.) ; Scilly Islands 
(Smart and others) ; Penzance, Borough Island, Torbay, Weymouth, 
Killala Bay. 

var. alba Marsh., Journ. of Conch., 1893, ^^\ ^'^^•1 P- 265. — 
Bordeaux Harbour, Guernsey (Tomlin) ; Jersey and Scilly. 

This species has a much more substantial shell than the last, but 
is extremely brittle. Very young ones are occasionally found in 
shellsand, and resemble a bleached Otina oiis ; but the latter is more 
convex, with a longer spire, and tiie circumference of the aperture is 

1 Bi-it. Conch., vol. v., p. S. 

2 Pioc. Zool. Soc, 1S70, pp. 173-5 'with woodcuts). 



MARSHAL!. : ADDITION'S TO "BRITISH CONCHOI.OOV." 67 

continuous. It is scarce, but more plentiful and larger at Scilly than 
elsewhere, whence Mr. Clifford Burkill has taken as many as 40 in a 
tide, and six under one stone. 

Nudibranchiata Cuv. — The nudibranchiate moUusca have under- 
gone much investigation, and a great deal has been written on the 
subject, since "British Conchology" was published, while even what 
that work contains is admittedly only a compilation of Alder and 
Hancock's researches, published more than a decade previously. 
Canon Norman, than whom no British writer is better qualified to 
deal with this family, brought it up to date and published it in the 
"Annals" for 1890, vols. v. and vi. 

Assiminea grayana Leach. — The habitat for this species given 
by Jeffreys, " Banks of the Thames between Greenwich and a little 
below Gravesend,"^ though nearly correct when his work was written, 
has undergone considerable change in the interval. Previous to that 
time Dr. Gray, Mr. Clark, and others found it abundantly between 
Greenwich and Woolwich, but when Gwyn Jeffreys wanted living 
specimens to illustrate his work, he could find only two specimens 
after the most diligent search, assisted by myself. Subsequently, 
however, I found them in great numbers at Abbey Wood and Erith, 
lower down but on the same side of the Thames, and as this is now 
its nearest locality to London, it would appear to have migrated for 
about ten miles towards the sea. During the same interval a near 
neighbour of this species, Hydrobia similis, has almost disappeared 
from the same district, where it was common 30 years ago, and H. 
jenkinsi has arrived to supplant it. Mr. J. E. Cooper mentions it 
from Sandwich, and also as living " in abundance on the banks of the 
Blyth near Blythburgh," while Mr. Mayfield has recorded "a few 
examples" from the rejectamenta of the river Aide in Suffolk, and 
there are several other records cited by him, some of which at least 
require confirmation. It may easily be mistaken for one of the many 
forms of Hydrobia jtlvcB. 

A variety has a narrower and rounded base, with a deeper suture. 
Jeffreys' figure exhibits an umbilicus, which is incorrect; but his 
generic figure is right in this respect. In Sowerby's the mouth is 
much too large, besides being wrongly shaped, and neither figures are 
sufficiently conical, 

A. littorina Del. Ch. — Caldy Island (Williams -Vaughan) ! 
Guernsey, Sennen Cove and the Lizards, Torbay and Dartmouth, 
Portland Island. An Alderney record by Mr. Marquand is not this, 
but a minute form of Littorina rudis var. saxatilis. 



I Brit. Cough., vol. v., p. loo; 



68 JOURNAL OF CONCHOl.OGY, VOI,. I4, NO. 3, JULY, I913. 

var. pallida Jeff., Ann. Mag. N. Hist., 1859, vol. ii., p. 196. — 
Found occasionally with the type at Torbay, Portland, and Weymouth. 

Melampus bidentatus Mont. — This species lives on the open 
coast, either under stones or in crevices of rocks and harbours, be- 
tween tide-marks, while the var. alba lives in sheltered bays and at 
the mouths of rivers, from the Shetlands to Jersey. It is extremely 
variable in shape, varying from a short globose form to a slender 
cylindrical one. A rare form from Torbay has a longer spire and 
tumid whorls, resembling in outline Li>nficea trimcatula, while a 
monstrosity from the same district has only one tooth. The teeth of 
the aperture are present at all stages of growth, and aged specimens, 
both of this and the next, have the pillar abnormally thickened by a 
shelly deposit. The shell is nearly always white, but I have some 
specimens flesh pink and others light grey. 

Jeffreys' figure does not show the flexure on the upper part of the 
outer lip ; Sowerby's figure does, but the teeth in the latter are 
equalized, instead of the upper one being twice as large as the lower. 

M. myosotis Drap. — Gregarious nearly everywhere from Jersey 
to Shetland. 

var. ringens Turt. — Equally diffused with the type, but more 
marine, though on the open coast at Dover both forms live together, 
the variety predominating. The colour is whitish, pale yellow, or 
horn-colour of various shades, and the outer lip is furnished with 
tubercles and teeth, varying in size, space, and number, ranging from 
one to ten. In addition, it occasionally has the same rows of bristles 
surmounting each whorl, though Jeffreys' figure exhibits it in the 
type only. Like the last species, the variations are extreme, from an 
attenuated slender form to a short globose one. The largest come 
from Portland Island, and attain 4 lines by i|. I am indebted to 
Mr. Charles Jefferys, the naturalist, of Tenby, for some very fine 
specimens of this variety, which he had procured from a most re- 
markable habitat — " a narrow fissure extending about 140 feet 
subterraneously, about 45 feet above high-water mark, and 60 to 80 
feet below the top of the cliff. The Melampus are about 120 feet from 
the entrance to this fissure, and are localised in one spot about two 
feet square. This fissure is nowhere more than two feet wide by five 
to seven feet high." From another correspondent I am informed that 
these Afelampjis hold their position in hundreds through the agency of 
a blow-hole, which in rough weather imparts some degree of moisture 
to them. This habitat is in the dark, and the Melamp^is must be 
searched for with a lantern. 

Jeffreys' figures are perfect, except that he makes the var. ringens 
a more graceful shell than the type ; but there should be no 
difference between them in that respect. Sowerby's figures are too 



MARSHALL: ADDITIONS TO "BRITISH CONCHOLOGY." 69 

oval and stumpy, the pillar lip of var. ringens should have only thiiee 
teeth instead of four, while the outer lip, instead of having four 
equalised teeth, should represent them as irregular in size and shape, 
and there are invariably more. Forbes and Hanley, again, figure 
quite another set. Specimens like all these figures are found, but 
they are not types, nor do they accord with the authors' descriptions. 
M. refiexus Turt., figured by Sowerby, is an extreme form of var. 
ringens. 

Both the preceding species of Melanipus have many generic and 
specific synonyms, the most legitimate of which should by this time 
be established, but that cannot be done by writers simply ringing 
the changes on different names, and arbitrarily substituting one for 
another without vouchsafing any enlightenment as to the why or the 
wherefore. Previous authors have their liglits, and if they are to be 
deposed or ignored let it be on solid and stated grounds, so that 
every one may judge of their validity. 

Otina Otis Turt. — Cumbrae (Robertson). 

var. Candida Jeff. — Newquay (Cooke); P'reshwater West (Tom- 
lin) \ Guernsey and Herm, Scilly Islands, Land's End, Torbay, 
Borough Island. There is a pale brown form intermediate between 
this and the type, which often has a zone of lighter colour a little 
below, the suture of the last whorl (best seen in pale specimens), and 
in the var. Candida it is opaque. 

Otina hunting is a thing emphatically to be learnt. It affects dark 
and shady crevices in the rocks, and when crawling appears like a little 
speck of gelatine, on account of the animal being too large for the 
shell. The collector should search the rocks or caves a little below 
high-water line, looking very closely at places where there happen 
to be tricklings of moisture on the surface, and he may soon see little 
jelly-like spots of a grayish white, which is the colour of the animal. 
Once successful he will soon learn to distinguish the shell. It is not 
uncommon, and in a few places, Sark and Salcombe especially, it is 
abundant. 

Pteropoda Cuvier. — This Class has been sadly neglected and as 
sadly confused by writers ; but Dr. Paul Pelseneer, in the 'Challenger' 
Reports, has placed it on a sound basis as far as published records 
allow. He has not, however, taken in hand MS. or undescribed 
forms, for obvious reasons. Speaking generally of the Class, he says 
that " these pelagic molluscs descend to a certain depth to avoid 
bright light, and reascend when the light is feeble or absent and the 
sea is calm." 

Limacina retroversa Flem, — "North Atlantic, on the coast of 
America, from 63 deg. N. (Davis Strait) to 39 deg. 53 min. N. (Mas- 



70 JOURNAi, OK CONCrtOLOGY, VOL. I4, NO. 3, JULY, igi,^-. 

sachusetts Bay, Verrill) ; Iceland ; coasts of Europe from I.ofoden 
Islands to 50 deg. N., though not yet recorded from Behring Straits."^ 
Dr. Pelseneer considers our species to be L. trochiformis D'Orb. and 
not L. retroversa Flem. (while most \vriters treat them as synonyms) ; 
that all records which mention the latter as having been found in 
more southerly latitudes than 50 deg. N. are erroneous, and ought 
to apply to L. trochiformis ; and that both species " have been 
deplorably confused by Jeffreys, MacAndrew, VVeinkauff, A. Costa, 

Monterosato, &c Z. trocJiiformis differs from L. 

retroversa — (i) in the oval form of the mouth, which is rounded 
anteriorly and has the columellar margin recurved to the left, in 
contrast to L. retroversa, where the mouth is quadrangular, pointed 
anteriorly, and with a rectilinear columellar margin; (2) in the 
constant shortness of the spiral in proportion to its last whorl ; and (3) 
in the formation of the operculum, in which the spiral portion is large 
in /.. trochiformis, and very small in L. retroversa. 

var. macandreae F. & H. — -Jeffreys does not give any localities 
for this variety, but as he says it "diverges insensibly from the 
type," he may have meant that it was equally diffused, though I have 
not found it so. The original record was "15 miles south of Mizen 
Head, in the south of Ireland, several specimens," which has not 
since been added to ; but I can now give the following localities — 
Killala Bay (Miss Warren and J.T.M.); Flugga Light, N. Shetlands 
(Simpson) ! Guernsey 22f., Scilly Islands 4of., Land's End, Eddystone 
3of, the Minch 30-75^, West Orkneys 45f, East Shetlands i8f It 
is figured in Sowerby's " Index," but much too slender ; Jeffreys' is 
nearer the mark. 

The variety />^;-^j'jr/ of Forbes and Hanley is the immature stage of 
a large typical specimen, founded on a single example from the 
" British Channel," but which, according to Jeffreys, is an error for 
"Bristol Channel," the true locality being Tenby. 

In 1886 Miss Amy Warren, of Ballina, found this species washing 
ashore in Killala Bay; they were "in millions, and appeared like 
froth." Some of these were comparatively large (t line by ij:), and 
more discoid than usual. In 1896, on the same coast, Miss Warren 
again found an immense deposit of these "ocean butterflies" cast 
ashore for a mile along the tide-marks in a zone "varying in width 
from a few inches to three feet, and heaped up in some places two 
inches in depth, many of the shells containing the animal." Again, 
Mr. Thomas Scott reports that " on the west coast [of Scotland] it 
sometimes occurs in immense shoals, and at times forms a consider- 
able part of the food of the herring. I have found the stomachs of 

I Pelseneer, ' Challeiigei-' Pteiopoda. part ii., p. 28. 



^MARSHALL : ADDITIONS TO "BRITISH CONCHOLOGY." "Jl 

herrings sent to me from the west coast for examination tilled with 
h"ttle else than these pteropods, numbers of which appear to have 
been swallowed wholesale, as some of the shells were practically 
uninjured."^ 

It had long been a moot point whether L. retroversa possessed an 
operculum. Gwyn Jeffreys and others had failed to detect one, 
although the former was "kindly assisted in the examination by 
Dr. Carpenter, when many specimens were sacrificed on the altar of 
science ;" but Dr. Pelseneer declares that it really is provided with 
an operculum, and his authority must be considered conclusive. 
(Sars has gone further and figured it). It is now believed that all 
the Limacina possess opercula, but that they are shed when the 
animal becomes aged. Dr. Pelseneer also says that "the surface 
exhibits longitudinal stride distinctly recognisable," although it has 
been generally described as without sculpture. Few shells are 
really smooth except to the unaided eye, but from a minute 
examination of fresh specimens with a Coddington lens, and in a 
strong light, I could detect longitudinal flexuous strife, which are 
more clearly discernible under a microscope. 

Some dead shells of L. helicoides Jeff, were dredged in the ' Por- 
cupine' Expedition of 1869 in the Atlantic off Ireland, 1215 fathoms. 
Dead shells of another pteropod (doubtfully referred to Peracle diversa 
Monts.) were also dredged off the south of Ireland in 1889 in the 
' Flying Fox ' cruise. 

Cavolinia trispinosa Lesueur has been dredged by the ' Por- 
cupine' off Valentia, by the 'Flying Fox' off the south of Ireland, and 
by the Royal Irish Academy cruise in S.W. Ireland, besides Jeffreys' 
record of a specimen having been " washed ashore at Youghal with 
Spirula auslralis." Pelseneer also quotes "Triton Expedition" for 
this species, though it is not recorded in Jefl'reys' Report of that 
cruise. 

Clio pyramidata E. — Dredged plentifully off the south coast of 
Ireland in the 'Porcupine' Expedition of 1869, and in the 'Flying 
Fox' cruise of 1889. 

Cephalopoda Cuvier. — A summary embracing the most recent 
researches into this Family was published by Canon Norman in the 
"Annals" for 1890. 

A pearly nautilus, otherwise " Portuguese man-of-war," containing 
the animal, was washed ashore at Jersey some years ago, and is now 
in the Jersey Museum. 



t Ann. Rep. Fish. Bd. Scotland, 1898, p. 156. 



^2 Journal of conchoi.ggy, toi,. 14, no. 3, July, 1913. 

[As the publication of these papers was commenced as long ago as 
1893, 't^ 1^^^ been deemed necessary to add the following supple- 
mentary notes to bring the subject up to date]. 



SUPPLEMENT: 
ADDITIONS TO " BRITISH CONCHOLOGY." 



Terebratula cranium Mull.— Off Fair Isle, midway between the 
Orkneys and Shetlands (Simpson) ! An alleged " T. cranium, 
dredged in the Bay of Biscay," and presented to the Conchological 
Society by INIr. Bartlet Span,^ must have been an error, presumably 
for T. vitrea. Forbes' record of "Tarbert 30 fathoms" must also 
have been a mistake \ this species is strictly confined to the Shetland 
seas. A remarkably fine but imperfect specimen from the Aberdeen 
University Museum, sent me for identification, measures ifin. by igin. 
var. oblonga Jeff. — Jefifreys describes this in his work, but gives 
no locality. It occurs occasionally among typical specimens from 
East Shetlands. Specimens I have received from Dr. Sparre 
Schneider, dredged at Tromso, all belong to this variety. 

The Scottish Fishery Commissioners have dredged T. cranium in 
abundance off the Faroes in 71-194^, most of them belonging to the 
var. oblonga. In one haul of the trawl on the Faroe Banks in 1906 
"nearly a bushel" of these animals was brought to the surfiice. I 
suggested that the trawl may have lighted on a veritable graveyard 
of the Terebratula, brought together by the action of the currents, 
but my informant, Mr. James Simpson, who was the conchologist 
during the cruise, replied that it \ras "not a graveyard haul, but a 
metropolis of living specimens ; there were very few dead among them, 
and we must have thinned out the population to a considerable 
extent." 

T. caput-serpentis L. — Mr. MacAndrew's record "British 
Channel," attached to a tablet of this species in the Cambridge 
Museum, is too vague to be relied upon. There is no definite record 
of its occurrence on the English coast. 

I have found it most plentiful in some parts of Oban Bay, and in 
comparatively shallow water, and this reminds me that it was in Oban 
Bay itself whence Gwyn Jeffreys procured it in what was his very first 
essay in dredging operations, which arose in this way. Walking past 
the then Mr. Sowerby's shop in Bloomsbury one morning, he was 
called in and shown a specimen of T. caput-serpentis, which had been 
received from Professor Fleming, and another of Trichotropis borealis, 
which had just been discovered by Captain Laskey. Gwyn Jeffreys 
promptly offered ;Q\ for the two shells, but was told they were well 

I Joui-ii. 0/ Condi -^ 1906, vol. 11, p. 316. 



MARSHALL: AUIHTIONS TO " BRLITSH CONCHOI,0(;Y. " 75 

worth ^\ apiece, thougli they were not for sale, as they belonged to 
Professor Fleming ; "but," said Sowerby, "why do you not go and 
get some for yourself," and suggested that Jeffreys should have a 
dredge made and try his fortune at Oban. The dredge was accord- 
ingly made, and a place taken in the coach for Oban, it being before 
the era of a railway ; but when he went to take his place inside the 
coach he found it occupied by two irascible sportsmen, surrounded 
by their shooting gear, who strongly objected to Jeffreys' dredge and 
sieves and other impedimenta, wanted the inside space to them- 
selves, and suggested that Jeffreys should go outside with his d^ — -d 
sticks. Jeffreys refused, and insisted on space being found inside for 
him and his belongings, and so the coach started with scarcely room 
to move, and the whole journey was spent in wrangling and quarrelling, 
each party when they wanted to move their limbs viciously kicking 
the others' belongings out of the way with increasing violence. How- 
ever, this unpleasant journey came to an end at last, and after 
a fortnight's dredging Jeffreys found himself well rewarded with a 
quantity both of Trichotropis and Terebrattda, of which he gave 
Sowerby a handful of the latter in gratitude for his advice and as a 
reward for his suggestion, and tiiese were afterwards retailed at lo/- 
apiece. 

var. septentrionalis L. — This variety is nearly white, more 
compressed, and more finely sculptured, but can easily be graduated 
-from the type. Some writers, among them strange to say Dr. Davidson, 
have regarded this as a true species on account of its possessing an 
alleged epidermis; but the latter is in reality a sponge/ of which 
several micro, species seem to particularly favour this shell. (See 
Norman: A Month on the Trondhjem Fiord, Axxw. Mag. N. Hist., 
Dec, 1S93, vol. xii.) 

T. septata Phil. — Shetlands So-gof., young, with T. cranium 
(Jeffreys).^ In my previous notice of this species I recorded the fact 
that "30 specimens were obtained in one haul of the dredge off the 
Shetlands by the 'Porcupine,'- but I should have added that these 
were not all available for science. Unfortunately at that time Gwyn 
Jeffreys had had his share of the cruise, and had left the 'Porcupine,' 
and there was no one in authority to guard the spoil, so that when 
this particular dredging was emptied on the deck, the officers of the 
ship gathered round and treated the "rubbish" (as they called it) 
with much irreverence, finally kneeling round it, like boys at marbles, 
and pelting each other with such treasures as T. septata, &c. It 
does not seem to have been met with by the Scottish Fishery Com- 
missoners during their researches, with the exception of three 

1 ]Moll. ' Lighming' aud 'Porcupine,' Pioc. Zool. Soc, 1878, p. 407. 

2 Adds, to " liiit. Conch.," /o«r«. of Couch. ^ 1894, vol. vii., p. 379. 



74 JOURNAL OF CONXHOI.OGY, VOI,. I4, NO, 3, JULY, I913. 

specimens which are recorded by Mr. Simpson, but without locaHty 
and depth, though probably between the Orkneys and Faroes ■} and 
Mr. TomHn's collection contains several examples from deep water 
off the Western Shetlands. 

T. papulosa Marsh., /our/i. of Conch., 1887, vol. v., pp. 186-90, and 
p. 278, pi. i., figs. 1-3; Sowerby's 111. Ind. Brit. Shells, p. xvi., with 
woodcut. — This proves to be the same species as T. striata D'Orb., a 
cretaceous fossil shell. 

Terebratella spitzbergensis Dav.— On the slope of the English 
Channel, 69of., two young specimens ('Porcupine') ! 

Atretia gnomon Jeff. — This is a very interesting addition to 
British conchology. Mr. James Simpson, in one of the summer 
cruises of the Scottish Fishery Commissioners, obtained a specimen 
from the Minch in (y^i. It was "brought up in the small trawl 
perfectly fresh, and to all appearance had been alive when taken up."' 
K gnomon was originally dredged during the 'Valorous' expedition to 
Greenland. 

Argiope Desh. — According to Monterosato" Argiope was adopted 
by Savigny and Audouin for a genus of spiders in 1827, which is 
prior to Argiope Desh. (1842), after which comes Megathyris D'Orb. 

(1847). 

Gwynia capsula Jeff.— Clyde (Scott) ! off Robm Hood Bay, on 

the Scarborough coast, 30-3 5 f- (Brady). 

The Platydia anomidides of Scacc. and Phil., a very rare brachiopod, 
has been dredged off the Butt oY Lewis in 305 f. by the ' Knight 
Errant.' 

Ostrea edulis L. — The little Shetland oyster (var. tincta Jeff.) is 
smaller than the British native (var. rutupina Jeff.), highly coloured 
inside, and does as little in the house-building line as it possibly can. 
The largest (var. hippopus Jeff.) appears to thrive best on some parts 
of the Irish coast, notably Belfast and in the Belfast estuarine deposits, 
specimens frequently weighing 2-lbs. and over. One specimen was 
dredged off county Down in 1895 which was 21 in. in circumference, 
weighed 38 oz., and was " considered to be 60 years old " ! though 
how the latter estimate was arrived at is not clear. Another huge 
oyster was dredged by a fisherman at Williamstown in 1893 which 
was two feet in circumference, 17 in. in diameter, and weighed 7-lbs., 
while a huge valve in the Belfast Museum, from the Belfast deposit, 
is 5-lbs. in weight. 

The oyster as a rule spawns in May, June, and part of July, and is 
then more or less unwholesome. The spawn or spat is at first of a 



1 Journ. of Conch., 1910, vol. 13, p. 115. 

2 Notes on Rare Moli., /<;«;-«. of Conch., 1910, vol. 13, p. 115. 

3 NonieiickiUiia, p. i. 



Marshall: additions lo " BRrrisH conchology." 75 

cream-like colour and consistence, but as it matures it turns greyish 
and assumes the appearance of slate-dust, and when the parent at 
length opens its shell and emits the spat, the water becomes misty 
and then turbid. The new-born oyster is very rudimentary at first, 
but it possesses a pair of tiny shells, the very miniature of the parent, 
and this forms a pretty and favourite object for the microscope. Then, 
by means of a number of cilia attached to the mantle, the infant 
oyster spins about freely for the first three days of its existence, and 
it is at this stage that its numbers are so greatly reduced and the 
cause of its high price kept up, for an open-mouthed fish passing 
along will swallow hundreds at a gulp. The comparative few 
that escape this peril then settle down and attach themselves to an 
anchorage for life, while the cilia, no longer of any use, disappear. 
In a fortnight the baby oyster has grown to the size of a pin's head, 
in a year it is as large as a halfpenny, and during the fourth year it is 
considered at its best and is then marketable, while its natural life is 
considered to be about eight years. 

The modern system of oyster culture, of course, seeks to obviate 
the above dangers by taking the oyster from its rough-and-tumble life 
in tlie stormy seas and placing them in rich and quiet estuarine 
waters. Several attempts have been made in the Channel Islands, 
notably at Herm, to cultivate them in catch-pools between the tide- 
marks, but in addition to its usual enemies it had here to encounter 
the Octopus, which could not be kept out by any means, and which 
soon cleared out the oysters. 

In conchology, as a rule, thej-e is not much humour running to 
waste, the subject not lending itself to hilarity, but one really humor- 
ous item is worth rescuing from oblivion. President John Craft, of 
the Alabama State Oyster Commission, started a crusade to preserve 
oysters from suffering the excruciating agony of being eaten alive, 
which he is sure they feel acutely, and he attempted to force a law- 
through the Alabama Legislature making it a criminal offence to eat 
an oyster unless it has been humanely killed, and to rouse public 
opinion to his support. Hear the manifesto of this humanitarian 
gone astray : — 

"Just because an oyster cannot yell and wriggle when its valves 
are torn violently asunder and it is cut from its base, to be then 
speared with a fork, sprinkled with salt, pepper and vinegar, that is 
no reason for concluding the oyster has no feeling. As a matter of 
fact it does feel pain, and it suffers dreadfqlly. All this could be 
avoided if the oyster were first slaughtered, quickly and mercifully, 
and brought to a peaceful end, without lessening its palatable nature 
in the least. In fact, a fresh oyster that has just died is better than 
one still alive, and this is explained by simple and well understood 



76 JOURNAL OF CONCHOLOGY, A'CL. I4, NO. 3, JULY, I9I3. 

natural laws. Both humane persons and those acquainted with food 
hygiene will agree with me in my crusade. I shall maintain the 
agitation until it is no longer a misery for the patient oyster to be 
swallowed alive. I expect to meet with ridicule at first, but in the 
end humanitarianism will win, as it always does." 

Another convert to this heartrending doctrine is the American 
pure food expert Dr. Wiley, who depicts the oyster as undergoing 
agonies on the prongs of a fork and squirming under the stings of 
pepper and vinegar. He says that " ninety per cent, of the oysters 
are eaten alive, and suffer excruciating pain wiien jabbed with a fork 
and sprinkled with condiments." 

But this lurid picture is controverted by the epicure, who would 
say that oysters are not jabbed with a fork nor made to smart with 
condiments, but are first treated with a squeeze of lemon and tlien 
swallowed whole from the shell ; while the naturalist would aver that 
the pain, if any, would be only that caused by cutting the great 
adductor muscle which attaches it to the shell, and as this muscle 
contains no sensory nerves it cannot feel much, if anything. 

According to scientists, indeed, the oyster is a callous animal and 
does not mind being eaten, but on the contrary vieAvs its approaching 
deglutition with the greatest equanimity, and may, therefore, be eaten 
by the most tender-hearted humanitarian without a single mental 
qualm, and this notwithstanding that Professor Huxley, a well-known 
authority on the oyster question, hks said in one of his lectures; — 
" He did not wish to spoil their appreciation of the oyster, but every 
time they swallowed one of those delicate morsels they were appro- 
priating to themselves a piece of mechanism which was vastly more 
delicate and complfcated than the best repeater watch turned out of a 
modern factory." 

After all, the ethics of the case have been well explained by Dr, 
Alfred Russel Wallace, in his valuable work on "The World of Life " 
— " The idea that every living thing thinks and feels and suffers in 
exactly the same way as a human being is a relic of barbarism. An 
oyster is a very low form of living being; its nervous system is next 
to nothing, and all talk about cruelty in eating it is the most utter 

nonsense." " Whatever a giant may feel when he dies, 

if the theory of evolution be true, the poor beetle that we tread upon 
certainly feels an irreducible n-tinimum of pain, probably none at all." 

There does not appear to be much connection, at first sight, 
between oysters and consumption, but recently the leading medical 
journal {^Lancet, Oct., i8, 191 2), described a treatment which has 
been carried out by MM. J. Carles and B. Laquet, the clinical results 
of which have proved highly satisfactory, and vastly preferable to the 
simple method of drinking sea-water (which is very nasty) recom- 



MARSHAL!. : ADDITIONS TO " BRITISH CONCHOI.OGY.' 77 

mended by some doctors to increase the gastric juice in consumptives. 
It is alleged that six large oysters, impregnated with fresh sea-water, 
taken before a meal, in a few days bring about a manifest increase of 
appetite and an improved digestion. They have demonstrated this 
in a large number of patients by test meals, and they declare the 
oyster to be a tonic of the first order and of great benefit to weakened 
patients and those of deficient appetite. 

It has long been known to some doctors that oysters, in addition 
to their food value, are of the greatest use in aiding the restoration to 
strength of convalescents, on account of their tonic action, and that 
they also form avaluable pabulum for the nervous system in cases of 
exhaustion. It is, therefore, unfortunate that this valuable remedy 
should be maintained at prohibitive prices, but also inevitable while 
the oyster, notwithstanding its extreme fecundity, has to contend with 
numerous enemies from the cradle to the grave. In the larval con- 
dition, when the larvae are about 150th of an inch in diameter, there 
is hardly any animal in the sea too small to make a meal of it, and 
even later, when the shell is thickening but still soft, the oyster is the 
prey of innumerable fish, so that the amount of destruction from all 
causes is enormous. 

The O. cochlear of Poli was dredged during the ' Porcupine ' 
Expedition 40 miles off Valentia, in no fathoms. 

Pecten islandicus van scotica Simpson.^— A dozen living 
specimens of this shell, about an inch in length, were taken by Mr. 
G. Sim, of Aberdeen, from a piece of coral brought in by one of the 
Aberdeen trawlers, who said he had trawled it 40 miles N.E. of the 
Flugga Light, in about 90 fathoms. Flugga is the most northerly 
lighthouse on the island of Unst in the Shetlands. Other examples 
of the same variety have been taken between the Orkneys and Shet- 
lands in i45f., by Mr. J. Simpson, who has adopted the varietal 
name of scotica for this dwarf form. G. O. Sars gives the range of P. 
ishxndicus as "5 — 50 fathoms from Finmark to Bergen, where it 
becomes dwindled." 

{To be continjied). 

I Notes on Rare M.o\\., J oitrii. of Conch., 1910, vol. 13, p. no; Trans. Aberdeen VV.JM. 
Nat. Hist. See, 1903, p. 66. 



Activity of Arion ater. — A fine specimen of Arion atef oi ihs white variety 
was taken on the Cartmel road, Aiigu.st 23rd, and placed in a box on the top of a 
book-case, four-and-a-half feet high. During the night it ate its way out, and at 
eight o'clock in the morning was seen crawling along the book-case, then on to the 
wall and all round the frame of a door, then under that door and under another, 
and was found after lunch under a window seat eleven feet from the last door. The 
total distance traversed is about thirty-eight feet. When found it was squeezed up 
tight, asleep, as. if it had been there a long time. — Margaret M. Bliss' (A'^a,/ 
before the Society, '^e.^^t. nth, 1912). 



78 



ANCYLUS FLUVIATILIS var. GIBBOSA Bourg. 
IN DERBYSHIRE. 



By R. STANDEN. 



(Read before the Society, November 13th, 1912). 

A FEW white Ancyhis were taken in Dove Dale, in October, 1910, by 
Mr. J. A. Hargreaves, of Scarborough. ■ On applying to him for 
particulars respecting the exact locality, all the information he could 
furnish was that he got them " amongst watercress." As both my 
friend, Mr. J. Kidson Taylor, and I were desirous to take this variety 
for our own collections from a Derbyshire locality, we determined, 
whilst I was on a visit to him during October last, to have a thorough 
search for it. Accordingly, taking an early train to Alsop-en-le-Dale, 
we walked through Mill Dale, and on entering Dove Dale proceeded 
along the river side until we came to a large watercress bed, which 
filled up a narrow, rather deep runnel of spring water, issuing from 
the mountain side, in close proximity to the River Dove, and about 
midway between Mill Dale and the famous rock pinnacles known as 
Tissington Spires. On tearing up and rolling back the thickly matted 
watercress, the clean limestone fragments, partially filling up the 
runnel, were seen to be covered with Ancylns, in all stages of growth, 
but full-grown shells were decidedly scarce, and a long and careful 
search was necessary to secure a decent set each. Both adult and 
young had the swollen shell, with beak over-hanging the posterior 
margin, which are the distinguishing characteristics of the variety 
gibbosa, and it was the recognition of this form that induced us to 
persevere in the endeavour to obtain a good set for ourselves and 
friends, for they showed no signs of being the white variety of which 
we were in quest, and otherwise we might have passed them by as of 
little consequence. About a mile further down the Dale we came 
across a very similar spring runnel, but in this case the outflow was 
more widely spread and shallow, and the uppermost stones were 
covered with a thick growth of Fontifialis antipyretica — a plant which 
I have noticed associated with Aiicylns in many places. Here adult 
shells, of exactly the same type as at the previous locality, were 
abundant, whilst young individuals were scarce. In neither place 
was it possible to ascertain whether the shells occurred in the river 
itself, for it is rather deep and rapid at these points, but in all 
probability they do. 

The shells, when seen on the stones, and also when gathered, 
appeared to be intensely black. This black colour, however, is 
entirely confined to the animal, and we were agreeably surprised, on 



STANDEN : ANCYI,US I'l.tl VIATILIS IN DERIIYSHIKE. 79 

cleaning out the shells, to find them practically white, with — in the 
younger shells especially — a very pale diaphanous straw-yellow 
epidermis. The shells are of medium size, thin, though not particu- 
larly fragile, beautifully clean, semi-transparent, finely striate, and 
mostly free from the extraneous growths of microscopic algse or other 
organisms which so often disfigure the shells of Aficy/us, and there is 
little trace of the erosion of the beak by humic acids which is prevalent 
in many localities. 

The muscle scar midway up the shell is unusually well defined, and 
presents the form of an irregular purple-black scroll, commencing 
with an oval blotch, and extending nearly round the inner circum- 
ference. This internal scroll shows up very vividly against the 
shining white interior, and is plainly visible through the thin shells 
on their dorsal surface — giving tliem an exceptionally curious appear- 
ance which at once attracts attention. Neither of us remembered 
having seen this peculiar mark before in any specimens we had 
collected, and none in Mr. Taylor's collection showed it. I have 
since examined my own series of Aticylus — which contains over forty 
locality sets, exhibiting great diversity in both external and internal 
colouration — and find that specimens from Malham Cove, and 
Airedale, bear a mark precisely similar to the Dove Dale examples, 
but it is much less plainly conspicuous exteriorly, owing to their 
greater thickness of shell. 

Associated with the Ancylus were some small-sized, but extremely 
globular Livuuea pereger. Numbers of enormous specimens of Arion 
(iter — some of them the largest individuals we have ever seen — were 
crawling over the watercress, together with a few small Sziccinea pntris. 

The variety gibbosa does not appear to have been hitherto recorded 
for Derbyshire, and this fact, coupled with its assuming a white form, 
and the presence of what seems an unusual and striking marking, 
merits, in my opinion, more than a passing notice. 



Testacella scutulum in Staffordshire.— I have now to record another new 
species of moHusca for our county, Testacdla scnttihim, having been identified by 
Mr. B. Bryan of the North Staffordshire Field Chib Museum at Hanley, from speci- 
mens recently obtained in a garden at Fenton, in the new federated Borough of 
Stoke-on-Trent. The identity of the species has been confirmed by Mr. j. W. 
Taylor, to whom I submitted the four specimens found. Mr. Bryan tells me that 
the man from whom he received the slugs stated that he had seen many of them for 
some years past in the garden, and frequently found them crawling over the walks 
in the day-time, but he was ignorant what they really were until Mr. Bryan identi- 
fied them as T. scutulum. — John R. B. Masefield {Read before the Society, 
Nov. 13th, 1912). 



So 



THE FEEDING TRACK OF OXYSTELE IMPERVIA Menke. 



By KEPPEL H. BARNARD, B.A. 



(Read before the Society, September nth, 1912). 



Observations on the feeding tracks of gasteropods are not numerous. 
L. E. Adams ywCn^ Journal of CojicJiologyiox^wXy, 19 12, has described 
the track of Z/;;m.v 7?r?z7/i- and B. B. Woodward ("Proc. Mai. Soc, 
vol. vii., no. i, March, 1906) has recorded' tlie track left by a slug 
on a bromide print and has enumerated the previous records. 
The following note on the tracks of Oxystele iinpervia Menke, a 
common Cape species, may therefore be interesting. The tracks were 
on the glass of an aquarium tank just below the water-line and showed 



iinii 



Portion of the feeding tract of Oxystele iinpervia^ about natural size. 

very plainly when the water was removed. They consisted of very 
regular series of alternate sweeps, each sweep being formed of 18 (on 
an average, the extremes were 14 and 22) individual "licks." The 
sweeps measured from 20-25 '^'^- i" width and the licks 2 mm. by 
I mm. All efforts to obtain an "autograph" by inducing the animal 
to feed off the sensitised film of a photograph (see "Woodward, I.e.) 
were failures. I hope to obtain the tracks of other species, e.g., the 
much larger Oxystele tigrina and Turbo sarmaticus. 



Note on a Sinistral Specimen of Marginella zonata Kiener. — Whilst 
travelling in South Africa my friend, Mr. G. Butler, was endeavouring to procure 
some shells for me, and staying with some friends of his got a small parcel of shells 
picked up on the beach at Cape Town. On examining the shells I was agreeably 
surprised to find an immature sinistral specimen of M. zonata, other specimens of 
the type and var. were all dextral. A sinistral specimen of J/, apicina Menke — 
var. conoidalis Kien.— is in the collection of Dr. J. Cosmo Melvill, and sinistral 
forms of M. glabella L. have, I am informed, been reported. -^B. R. Lucas 
(^^fl^^^;if///£6'^«V/j', March I2th, 1913). 



8i 
CENSUS AUTHENTICATIONS. 



By W. DENISON ROEBUCK, Hon. Recorder. 



[All ihe records here given are based upon examples sent to the official authenti- 
cators : myself for slugs only ; Mr. Fred. Taylor for Pahidestrinidif ; and Mr. 
John W. Taylor for all other species]. 

Co, Limerick : Mr. R. A. Phillips has submitted examples of Pahtdestrina 
conftisa from both banks of the Shannon, near Limerick, taken in May 1910. 

Co. Longford : We have now had the pleasure of seeing a number of species 
from this county, through the kindness of Mrs. Mackay Wilson, of Currygrane. 
From Currygrane Lough dead shells were submitted of Liunura auiicularia 
var. acuta (one); Planorbis aJbus (a few); /'. unibilkattis (two juv. ) ; P. 
contortus (a few) ; P. foiitaniis (a few) ; Bythinia ieittaailata, Valvata piscin- 
all's, V. cristata (all three numerous); Sphifrium coiiieum (three); Pisjdhnn 
fontinale (several) ; and Succiuea elegans (one, taken living). From Curry- 
grane were Vallonia pulchella (a few) ; and Cochlicopa lubrica (three). All 
the above taken in 1899. Of more recent date, 22nd October, 191 2, were 
single living examples of Helix aspersa and Hygroiiiia riifescens. 

Merionethshire: Mr. F. H. Sikes has submitted for authentication Paludestrina 
jenkinsi, taken by him at Arthog, September, 1910, also Zoniloides nitidus 
which he took at Llanbedr in 1910. 

Norfolk East: Mr. Arthur Mayfield has submitted Azeca tridens, which occurred 
sparingly at Roydon, near Diss, July, 1900. 

Northumberland South: Mr. A. M. Oliver has submitted an example of Testa- 
celhi saititliitn, taken in a greenhouse at Gosforth, where several have occurred. 
The specimen is preserved in the Hancock Museum at Newcastle, the gift of 
Mr. IL P. Angus. 

Pembrokeshire : M. J. Davy Dean has submitted numerous examples of Hy- 
gromia ftisca, collected at Pembroke by Mr. II. Brooksbank. 

Queen's County : Mr. R. A. Phillips has added to his numerous authentications 
the following: Vertigo pygtnaa (a few); V. siibstriata (one); V. anth'ertigo 
(a few) ; Helicella caperata (a few) ; and Agriolitnax lavis (one), all taken in 
July 191 1, at Durrow ; Aplexa hypnorum (a few), taken at Mountmellick, 
June 191 1 ; Helicella acuta (two); and Planorbis albus (a few), both taken 
near Maryborough, October, 1910. 

Radnorshire : Mr. J. Williams Vaughan has sent Hygiomia 7-ufescens from Skreen 
Darren, near Erwood Station, where, after rain, they sometimes abound. 

Shetlands : Mr. William Evans sent me, in May 191 1, a living example of 
Umax tuaximus var. fasciala, found in garden, Lochend, Lerwick. The 
Society's Voucher-Collection at Manchester contains : Planorbis glaber, a few 
from Flossie Loch ; PI. contortus, a few from Asta Loch ; PI. crista, one 
from Flossie Loch and a few from .Asta I.och. These were all collected by 
Dr. Thomas Scott. 

Co. Sligo : Mr. F. II. Sikes has submitted examples of Acroloxus lacustris var. 
albicla from Sligo, taken in April 1908. 

Suffolk East : Mr. Arthur Mayfield has submitted a few examples of Testacella 
haliotidea, taken during the first week of April, 1909. Mr. Q. C. Leman has 
sent Milax gagates var. rava, an adult example taken I2ch September 1912. 

F 



82 JOURNAL OF CONCHOLOGY, VOL. I4, NO. 3, JULY, I913. 

Sussex West : We have been enabled by the kindness of Mr. W. Cole, curator, 
and Mr. H. Whitehead, B.Sc, assistant curator of the Essex Museum at 
Stratford, to see examples of Azeca tiidens, Newtimber (J. E. Harting) ; 
LiiniiiEa glabra, Cowfold (J. E. Harting). The Rev. W. A. Shaw has pre- 
sented to the Society's Voucher-Collection Fisidj-iif?i cinereuvi from a dried- 
up stream at Chidham, autumn of 191 1. 

Cornwall East: Mr. Alan Gardiner has sent a dead example of Ena obscnra, 
taken at Pentire. 

Flintshire : Mr. C. H. Moore has submitted a collection of shells made at Dyserth 
and St. Asaph. Four of them are new to the Census, viz : a few Hyalinia pura 
and one Sphyradiuni edentiilum from St. Asaph, and a few Lhiinaa triincatida 
and a single dirt-encrusted L. peregra from Dyserth. These last are the only 
freshwater shells as yet authenticated from Flintshire. 

Galway South-East : On the 5th May, 1913, Mr. R. A. Phillips sent a single 
example of Testacella haliotidea, taken in a garden at Portumna, and with it, 
one of T. scutuhtni taken at the same time and place. 

Herefordshire: Prof. A. E. Boycott has sent an immature example of /'/rt«(7;/'/i' 
Cornells, taken in April, 1913, at Hereford. In September, 1910, Mr. J. R. le 
B. Tomlin sent for authentication Vallonia excentrica from Whitbourne, and 
Planorbis crista var. crista, PL fontanus and Pisidiwn siibtniticaliii/i, all from 
Mathon, taken during that month. 

Lancashire West : From Mr. J. Davy Dean we have received some young 
Avion t7iierviedius from Caton, near Lancaster, taken 20th April, 1913. 

Westmorland with Lake Lancashire : Mr. J. Davy Dean has submitted ex- 
amples of Ctucilioides acicula, taken in 1912 at Arnside Knot. Mr. A. W. Rymer 
Rol)erts has submitted two very small &\2i.'m.\>\&%o{ Acroloxus lacitstris itoxa White 
Cross Bay, Windermere. Mr. J. Wilfrid Jackson, F.G.S. has submitted two 
Planorbis uiiibilicatiis and a dead By)hinia tentaculata, taken at Hale Moss. Mr. 
J. Davy Dean .^nd Rev. C. E. Y. Kendall found Pupa anglica at Sawrey, by 
Windermere, in October, 19 12, and sent up a few for authentication. 

Surrey : The Rev. W. A. Shaw has submitted the following. — Hygromia fusca, 
scarce on the way to Hindhead, 25th November, 191 1 ; Balea pei versa, from a 
rockery at Witley, February, 191 1 ; Acicula linea/a, from marsh, near Godalming, 
23rd March, 1910; Amphipeplea ghitiuosa, near Weybridge, September, 1911. 
The specimens have all been kindly presented to the Society's Voucher-Collection. 

Co. Waterford : Mr. R. A. Phillips has submitted Paludestrina confusa, taken 
abundantly at Kilbarry Marsh, near Waterford, i6th May, 1910. 

Co. Westmeath : Mr. G. P. Farran has been good enough to let our authenti- 
cator see the following. — Helicigona ajbustorjini, type, one ; Zonitoides nitidtis, 
abundant ; Hyalinia radiahila, one type and one var. viridescettli-alba ; Pla- 
norbis crista, several, and Acroloxjis lacnstris, several, small, all from Multy- 
farnham ; Ainphipeplea glutinosa, one, and Aplexa hypnorum, a few, both from 
Lake Derrevaragh, 15th May, 1897 ; Succinea piitris, two, small, from bog 
near Lacken ; and Clansilia lamiiiata, several from Hare Island, Lough Ree. 

Co. Wexford : Mr. R. A. Phillips has submitted one specimen each of Li/nncea 
stagnalis and Pisidiiim atnniciiin, taken at Enniscorthy, 8th July, 1911 ; also an 
example oi Milax gagales, taken at Killurin, 9th April, 1912. 

Wilts. North : Mr. C. N. Bromehead, of the Geological Survey, has sent a fine 
example oi Helix pomatia from Puthall Gate, Savernake Forest. ■ Mr. Cecil P. 
Hunt also sent a large number of fine examples from Ramsbury,' where the 
species occurs plentifully on a wooded chalk slope. 



83 



NOTES ON SOME PLEISTOCENE MOLLUSCA 
IN NORTH HUNTINGDONSHIRE. 



By Rev. C. E. Y. KENDALL, B.A. 



(Read before the Society, March 12th, 1913). 



At Woodston, in North Huntingdonshire, are many large brick- 
works which find their material in that vast bed of Oxford Clay which 
lies to the south of the River Nene at Peterborough. During the 
work of excavation some little time ago the " steam-navvy " exposed 
in one of these workings a section of an ancient river or lake bed, 
which has been described locally as the Buried River. This so-called 
Buried River traverses the beds of Oxford Clay for some considerable 
distance in a direction roughly from north-west to south-east, as 
borings made in the neighbourhood have shown, but its actual area 
and boundaries remain at present undefined. The bed of the river 
(or lake) lies roughly at a depth of 40 to 50 feet below the existing 
level of the land and consists at the bottom of a mass, many feet in 
thickness, of rubble and boulders lying in and through the " knotts " 
as the brick-clay is termed locally. The actual ancient water-space is 
filled in with a variety of sands, marls, clays and gravels which will be 
described in detail later on, these forming a mass roughly from 25 to 
30 feet in thickness. As the material which has filled in the old bed 
is useless for the making of bricks, fresh workings have been opened 
up in the solid Oxford Clay beyond its limits and the exposed faces 
of two sections of the old bed remain in an ideal condition for 
geological investigation. 

My own researches into the contents of the marls in this ancient 
river-bed were made in the first place for the purpose of establishing 
some data as to the probable climatic conditions in the days when 
the deposit was laid down, and also as to the probable origin of the 
deposit, whether fluviatileor lacustrine. But the results have been so 
surprising from a conchological point of view that I have been amply 
rewarded for a good deal of somewhat laborious work and have 
collected certain facts which will, I believe, be of very considerable 
interest to my fellow conchologists. For this deposit has afforded me 
up to the present time 53 species of the non-marine mollusca, of which 
28 are terrestrial species and 25 fresh-water species, giving a most 
unusual proportion of the land-shells. Moreover of the species found 
in this deposit no less than seven are now extinct in the British Isles, 
and of these one — a Paludestrina — appears to be new to science. 
Of the others Clausilia ventricosa Drap. and CI. parvula Stud, have 



84: JOURNAT, OF CONCHOLOGY, VOL. I4, NO. 3, JULY, I913. 

not hitherto been recorded in Britain, and Helicella candidula Stiider, 
though noticed as a Pleistocene aberration from the modern form of 
Helicella caperata Montagu, has not been up to the present referred 
to this continental species. Again two of our present day species 
which occur in great numbers throughout the deposit, Hygromia 
hispida and Cochlicopa lubrica, show a very marked difference in size, 
enabling one to reaHze the fact of the decadence in later times of 
certain weaker species, once perhaps dominants, before the advance of 
the modern dominant types. 

The deposit at Woodston is, as mentioned above, of a very con- 
siderable depth and the source of its origin is apparently three-fold. 
The lowest strata, which lie directly above the mass of rubble, consist 
of a light-coloured, yellowish, sandy marl, stiffening in places to a 
marly clay and containing here and there patches or pockets of a 
black peaty silt. These strata are full ot land and fresh-water shells 
and are quite evidently of a fluviatile or lacustrine origin. This 
lowest bed, containing the shells, is from four to five feet in thickness. 
Above this lies an even horizontal bed of a stiff dark clay, almost 
black in colour and about three feet in thickness. This bed contains 
a species of Paludestrina in great abundance, with a few fresh-water 
shells, Limncea and Flanorbis, a few immature Hygro/nia, and a good 
number of valves of Cardiiim edide. This portion of the deposit I 
take to be of estuarine origin ; and Mr. A. S. Kennard informs me 
that this bed of estuarine clay may possibly be the local equivalent to 
the Buttery Clays which to the south and east underlie the great 
peat deposits of the Fens. Then again above this estuarine or Palu- 
destrina Bed lie strata of marine sands and gravels twelve to fifteen 
feet in thickness, from which at present I have taken but one species 
of marine shell — Scrobicularia plana. 

There can be no doubt, therefore, of the great age of the shell 
deposit in the lower strata, for evidently at some period the sea has 
buried the whole district, and I incline to think that we have here the 
bed of a lake existent in early glacial times. For the molluscan fauna 
is on the whole of a definitely Arctic type, very much akin to the 
Scandinavian fauna of to-day and no traces whatever have been found 
so far of either Ancylus or Neritina, such genera as one would cer- 
tainly expect to occur in a river deposit. Moreover the old bed of 
the River Nene (containing undoubted species of the Pleistocene 
period) can be traced less than a mile away to the north, and one 
can hardly conceive of two rivers, of such magnitude as their ancient 
beds suggest, existing, so to speak, side by side. Perhaps in time as 
fresh portions of this Buried Lake-bed are opened up in the working 
of the clay in the immediate neighbourhood, we may discover the 



KENDALL : PLEISTOCENE MOLLUSCA IN NORTH HUNTINGDOKSHIRIC. 



solution of this and other points.^ , So remembering that we are here 
just outside the Hmits of the great ice-sheet which in the glacial age 
over-spread the north and midlands, I hold on the present evidence 
that this deposit is of lacustrine origin, laid down in a lake of some 
considerable extent of the Pleistocene period, perhaps formed and 
fed by the glacial streams of the great Ice Age. 

§ I.— THE CONTENTS OF THE SHELL-DEPOSIT. 

A. —The Terrestrial Species. 

I propose to group these species under three heads — I. Those which 
are of a distinctly Boreal type, whose range to-day is more or less 
confined to the sub-Arctic region. II. Those which, while not so 
definitely Arctic, are still of a somewhat northerly range. III. Those 
species which have a more southerly range. 



I. — Definitely Boreal Species. 
Pyramidula rudeyata Studer 
-Acanthinula acukata MiiUer 
Vertigo minutissima Hartmann 
V. antivertigo Drap. 



Abundant and very fine. 
Plentiful. 



V. pygmcea Drap. 
V. pusilla Miiller 
V. august ior Jeff. 
Clausilia veiitricosa Drap. 
CI. puniila Ziegler 

II. — Specles with 

Vitrea crystallina Miiller . 
V. nitidula Drap. 
Punctum pygmcziiin Drap. 
Pyramidula rotundata Aluller 
Hygromia hispida L. 
Vallonia pukheUa MiiUer 
V. costata Miiller 
Helicigona arbustorunt \j. 
Cochlicopa lubrica Miiller, and 

var. lubricoides Fe'russac 
Azeca tridens Pulteney 
Pupa muscoruin L. 
Carychium minimum Miiller 



Most of the Vertiginid?e are 
present in considerable 
numbers. 

Two specimens. 
Abundant. 

Northerly Range. 

Plentiful. 
Scarce. 
Abundant. 
Abundant. 
Very abundant. 
Very abundant. 
Very abundant. 
Scarce. 

I Very abundant. 

Abundant, 

Comparatively scarce. 
Very abundant. 



I The workman who did the borings in the neiglibourhood to find the general extent of this 
Buried Lalce informs us that in several places the deposit underlies patches of Boulder Clay. 
This fact is of great interest and importance and we hope to have confirmation of it, which would 
establish beyond question the actual age of the deposit. 



JOURNAl. OF CONCHOI.OGY, VOL. I4, NO. 3, JULY, I913. 



III. — Species with a more Southerly Range. 
Helicella candidula Studer Frequent 

Helix nevioralis L. Abundant. 

Ena monidua Urap. Two specimens. 

Clausilia parvula Stud. One specimen. 

B. — Marsh-Land Species. 

{a) Fresh-water Marsh. 

Zonitoides nitidus Miiller Frequent. 

Succinea elegans Risso Abundant. 

S. oblonga Drap. Two specimens. 

Limticea trnncatula Miiller Plentiful. 

{h) Salt Marsh. 

Paludestrina deani sp. nov. Very abundant. 

Cardiuvi ediile L. Plentiful. 

C. — Fresh-water Species. 
Among these the shallow-water species predominate. For instance 
we have no less than six species of the genus Planorbis and with them 
Bithynia tentaculata which is by far the most abundant of the fresh- 
water shells obtained from the deposit. It is worthy of note that the 
Pisidia are exceedmgly scarce. 



Liinncea auricularia L. 

Z. pereger Miiller 

L. palustris Miiller 

L. stagnalis L. 

Planorbis albus Miiller 

P. glaber Jeff. 

P. crista L. 

P. carinatus Miiller 

P. lortex L. 

P. spirorbis Miiller 

Physa fontinalis L. 

Aplecta hypnorum L. 

Bithynia tentaculata Miiller 
Valvata piscinalis Miiller 
V. macrostoma Steenbuch 
V. cristata Miiller 
Unio littoralis Lamarck 

SphcBriuni corneuni L. 

Pisidium amnicuni Miiller 

P. henslowanuvi Sheppard 

P. pusillum Gmelin 

P. personation Malm 

P. casertaniim Poli 



Somewhat scarce. 

Scarce. 

Plentiful. 

Many fragments. 

Scarce. 

Frequent. 

Plentiful. 

Plentiful. 

Scarce. 

Very abundant. 

One half-grown shell. 

Fragments only. 

Very abundant. 

Abundant. 

One specimen. 

Plentiful. 

Plentiful. 

Scarce. 

Scarce. 

Very scarce. 

Scarce. 

Scarce. 

Scarce. 



KENDALL : PLEISTOCENE MOLLUSCA IN NORTH HUNTI NGDONSHIKE. 8/ 

§ 2. — The species still found living in the British Isles and contained 
in the above lists which seem to call for some special 
remark are the following : — 

1. Hygromia hispida L. 

This shell which occurs in great numbers in the deposit at 
Woodston is the large, widely umbilicate form of British Pleistocene 
deposits, the shells measuring 6'48 mm. in height and io"59 mm. in 
width. Some recent Derbyshire specimens of this form — var. con- 
cimia Jeff. — have a height of 5 '23 mm. and a width of S'Sy mm., and 
the difference in the robust and compact growth of the fossil shells is 
a most noticeable feature. We have here undoubtedly the ancestral 
type of H. hispida. This extreme size in this species is especially 
remarkable, for Scandinavian shells, which we have had the oppor- 
tunity of measuring, only give measurements of 4*75 mm. in altitude 
and 7 "46 mm. in width, and shells from the English Lake District are 
very seldom any larger than this. 

2. Ena montana Drap. 

The one perfect specimen which I have so far found at Wood- 
ston is a good typical shell measuring 13 "5 mm. in length. It is an 
interesting record which suggests that the range of this species may 
at one time have been considerably more extensive than it is to-day. 
E7ia montana appears to be of very rare occurrence in the British 
fossil deposits. iNTr. A. S. Kennard informs me that hitherto it has 
only been found in the deposits at Barnwell and Grantchester in 
Cambridge, and at Clacton in Essex, of Pleistocene age and in these 
places but sparingly. 

3. Cochlicopa lubrica MuUer. 

The shells of this species from the Woodston deposit are about 
a third as large again as the present British type and measure 
7 "63 mm. in length with a width of 3.24 mm. in the type, and of 
27 mm. in the variety lubricoides. Both forms are extremely common 
in the deposit. Mr. A. S. Kennard tells me that this species as well 
as Hygroinia hispida are very frequently of a large size in the Pleisto- 
cene deposits. Recent specimens from Vermland in Sweden do not 
measure more than 5 mm., while British specimens on an average give 
5 to 6 mm. in length. 

4. Valvata macrostoma Steenbuch. 

I have so far only found one specimen of this shell in the deposit, 
but it is quite a typical one of a species which cannot possibly be 
confused with Valvata piscinalis Miiller. Owing to its recent dis- 
covery living, at Lewes, in East Sussex, a good deal of interest now 
centres in this species. Its occurrence in the Pleistocene deposits at 
Clacton and Barrington, and now at Woodston suggests that it is one 



§8 JOURNAL OF CONCHOLOGY, VOL. I4, NO. 3, JULY, I913. 

of those species which are gradually disappearing and survive only 
under some favourable conditions in a few isolated localities. 

§ 3.— SPECIES EXTINCT IN BRITAIN. 

1. Pyramidula ruderata Studer. 

A large number of shells of this distinctively Boreal species is 
found in the deposit at AV^oodston, and they are on the whole very fine 
examples, the best measurements being 6*35 mm. diameter and 3 mm. 
altitude. Pyramidula ruderata is very generally considered to be 
now extinct in the British Isles, and is always rare in fossil deposits. 
Mr. J. W. Jackson has also recently recorded its occurrence in Cave 
Earth near Carnforth in North Lancashire, probably of late Pleisto- 
cene origin {vide "The Lancashire Naturalist," December, 1909). 
In his "Monograph of the British Land and Fresh-water Mollusca " 
Mr. J. W. Taylor gives the range of P. ruderata to-day as circum- 
polar, stretching from Sweden throughout Central and Eastern Europe 
and Siberia across to Alaska and California. 

2. Helicella (Candidula) candidula Studer.^ 

"Narrowly umbilicated, minutely striate, whitish, unicoloured or 
variously banded with brown ; whorls 4^-5, slightly convex, the last 
scarcely deflected in front ; peristome acute, internally thickened. 
Diam. 9 mill." 

Description from Tryon, " Manjual of Conchology," who figures the 
species and gives its habitat as " Middle Europe." 

In the Woodston deposit are found a number of small Helicellae of 
a form which has been noticed in British Pleistocene deposits and 
been described in the lists as Helicella caperata Mont. Mr. A. S. 
Kennard, by whom the Woodston shells have been very carefully 
examined, now admits that H. candidula Studer is the nearest species 
to them, and to similar shells in his collection from other Pleistocene 
deposits. They are certainly not the H. caperata of Montagu, being 
much more compact and globose. Thanks to the kindness of Mr. 
Edward Collier we have had the opportunity of comparing them with 
a number of recent European specimens. Mr, J. D. Dean who has 
examined these shells for me considers the British form as more 
nearly referable to the var. alpicola Stab, than to the type. In this 
the whorls are more compressed, the base of the shell flatter, and the 
umbilicus rather more open. Tryon thus describes this variety : — 

" Var. alpicola Stabile 

" Small, cretaceous, globosely depressed, rather thin, with narrow, 
pale, interrupted bands, evanescent, aperture more rounded. Diam., 
6-:; mill." 



I According lo Westeriund, synonymous with Helicella -iinifaSciata Poir. 



KENDAM, : rLEISTOCENE MOLl.USCA IN NORTH HUNTINGUONSHIRE. Sg 

We think, therefore, we may safely adopt this identification. 
There is a sHght difference in size but when we remember the protean 
nature of this group of shells, the mere fact that the Pleistocene form 
is rather smaller than recent European examples seems a matter of 
very little importance. Mr. Collier's specimens of the var. alpicola 
from the Tyrol measure 4 mm. in height and 6'o8 to 6"2 7 mm. in 
diameter. The AVoodston fossils give — altitude 3 '31 mm., diameter 
5 "86 mm. Mr. Kennard has kindly sent me specimens from the 
Pleistocene deposits at Crayford in Kent, and Barnwell, near Cam- 
bridge, which both Mr. Dean and myself find similar in all respects 
to the Woodston shells. The habitat of this species to-day is Switzer- 
land, the Tyrolese i\lps, France, S. Germany, and N. Italy. 

3. Clausilia (Pirostoma) ventricosa Draparnaud. 

So far two specimens of this northern species have occurred in 
the Woodston deposit. Unfortunately owing to their slender build 
the Clausilias seem the most fragile of shells, though fragments of 
them, especially the apices, are extremely plentiful. I have only been 
able to obtain about ten perfect specimens of the genus, but I hope 
that further search may result in a few more perfect examples being 
added to those which I have already collected. This species was 
named for me by Mr. J. D. Dean, by comparison with some recent 
examples in his collection obtained from the KinnekuUe Mountains 
in Southern Sweden (see Journ. of Conch., vol. xiii., p. 356) with 
which the fossil shells are absolutely identical. This identification 
has since been confirmed by Mr. Kennard, so I have no hesitation in 
claiming for this species a place in the British List. 

Clausilia ventricosa Drap. is an exceedingly handsome shell, the 
finest of the Pirostoma section of the genus. Its range according to 
Westerlund is throughout North and Mid-Europe. 

The finest of the fossil shells from Woodston is 15 mm. in altitude 
and 4*23 mm. in diameter. 

4. Clausilia (Pirostoma) parvula Studer. 

Although so far only one specimen has occurred, this is quite 
perfect, and the record is important as still further showing the 
western range in Pleistocene times of the genus Pirostoma. In this 
connection it should be noted that there is absent from these lists 
altogether the familiar bidentata Strom, of the present day, its nearest 
ally. Clausilia parvula is, however, a well-known continental species 
Avith a wide range throughout Alpine Europe, and is a familiar member 
of the Swiss fauna. Length 1 1 mm. 

5. Clausilia (Pirostoma) pumila Ziegler. 

This interesting species occurs in considerable numbers in the 
deposit at Woodston. It is extinct in Britain but has been recorded 



go JOURNAL OF CON'CHOI.OGY, VOL. I4, NO. 3, JULY, I9I3. 

by Mr. B. B. Woodward as fairly common in the gravels of Pleistocene 
age at Barnwell in the neighbouring county of Cambridge (Proc. 
(Geological Association, vol. x., no. 7). Its range to-day is throughout 
Northern and Central Europe, and it has been recorded from Sweden, 
Denmark, Livonia, Germany, Switzerland, Silesia, Carinthia, Croatia 
and the Tyrol. The measurements given above of C. pumila are 
those of A. Schmidt. The fossil shells from Woodston measure 
1 1 "86 mm. in altitude and 3'45 mm. in diameter. 

6. Paludestrina deani sp. nov. 

Shell cylindrically conic; whorls six, rounded with coarse, 
irregular and somewhat indistinct striae, slightly truncate at the suture ; 
suture deep ] apex sharp ; aperture oval, narrow ; inner lip slightly 
reflected ; umbilical cleft narrow, almost concealed. 

Altitude 8"45 mm. Diameter 3"86 mm. 

Horizon : Woodston, Huntingdonshire, in marls and clays of 
Pleistocene age. 

This shell, though closely allied to Paludestrina ventfosa Montagu, 
of which we at first regarded it as an extreme form, seems to 
possess characteristics sufficient to separate it specifically. All our 
leading conchologists to whom I have submitted specimens unite in 
declaring it to be an entirely new species, quite distinguishable from 
the other members of the genus. It occurs in the greatest profusion 
throughout the three feet thick deposit of dark estuarine clay which 
lies just above the shell- bearing lacustrine marls, along with many 
valves of Cardiuvi ediih and small numbers of Liuincea pereger, 
Planorbis spiroibis and immature Hygromice. It also occurs, but 
not nearly so plentifully, in the lower marls. It was evidently as 
abundant in this Pleistocene estuary as Paludestrina stagnalis Baster 
is to-day in many similar habitats 




Paludestrina. dcani ii.sp. 
Types in the Manchester INIuseum. Photo, by J. ]l'ilf rid Jackson. 

I have great pleasure in being permitted to give to this shell the 
specific name of dea7ii., as a mark of deep gratitude to Mr. John Davy 
Dean, of Lancaster, one of the most accurate and painstaking of our 
younger conchologists, who first introduced me to the study of con- 



KENDALL : PLEISTOCENE MOLLUSCA IN NORTH HUNTINGDONSHIRE. 9I 

chology, and who has been for a period of years consistently my 
guide, philosopher and friend in matters conchological, and the more 
justly so as he was the first to point out to me that this shell was quite 
distinct from all the known British Pahidestrinidce. 

7, Unio littoralis Lamarck. 

This large bivalve occurs frequently in the deposit in a more or 
less fragmentary condition, coming out in large scales of frj^gile, bright 
pearly material. Unfortunately my trowel pierced right through the 
two perfect specimens which I have met with, but the marl held the 
fragments together sufficiently for me to identify the species. It is 
of frequent occurrence in British Pleistocene deposits. In the imme- 
diate neighbourhood it was recorded many years ago by Dr. H. 
Porter, F.G.S., of this city from the Pleistocene gravels of the old 
Nene River, who figures it in his book "The Geology of Peter- 
borough," published in 1861. 

My best thanks are due to Mr. J. D. Dean for a large amount of 
help in separating out the species in the first place and also for the 
measurements given in this paper, also to Mr. A. S. Kennard for the 
final determination of the species ; his extensive knowledge of 
British PJeistocene forms has made his help and kind advice abso- 
lutely invaluable. I have alscr to thank Mr. B. B. Woodward who 
kindly separated out and named the Pisidia for me, also Mr. Roebuck 
and Mr. Tomlin for their consistently kind advice and aid, and Mr. 
Edward Collier for the loan of a number of continental Helicdia 
which have materially assisted in the identification of the Helicella 
found in the deposit. 



Vertigo substriata in Guernsey. ^The discovery of Vertigo suhsiriala m the 
Channel Islands materially extends its range, and renders it all the more probable 
that it will be found in some of the southern counties where it has not yet been 
detected. The locality where it occurs in Guernsey is a marshy spot on the cliffs 
at St. Martin's, where a little rivulet runs down the cliffside through a small patch 
of loose stones interspersed with vegetation — perhaps a dozen yards long and half 
as wide. The slope of the ground prevents the stones from being entirely sub- 
merged even jn wet seasons, and the place is never quite dry in summer time. It 
must be now some twenty years since I discovered that this little marshy spot was 
the home of Pupa anglica and Vertigo antivertigo, both of which species occur 
there in great profusion. During a visit to Guernsey last August I took my son to 
this spot to get these two species, and it was while collecting them that we found 
V. substriata. Curiously enough, altliough the marsh is very small, this minute 
shell seems to be restricted to one part of it, but there it occurs quite plentifully 
under the wet stones. I am indebted to Mr. J. E. Cooper for kindly examining 
specimens, and confirming the name. I may just mention incidently that in the 
same marsh, among the stones, may be taken in numbers one of the very rarest 
of British spiders, Saiticus forinicarius, which closely resembles an ant. — E. D. 
Marquand {^Rcad before the Society, Nov. 13th, 1912). 



92 

PERFECT ALBINISM IN LIMAX ARBORUM Bouch.-Chant. 



By W. DENISON ROEBUCK, F.L.S. 



(Read before the Society, September nth, 1912). 



On the 27th day of August, 19 12, Mr. Charles Oldham, in com- 
pany with Mr. Lionel E. Adams, found an albino example of the 
Tree-slug on a beech tree in the woods near Berkhamsted, Herts. He 
sent it to me the following day, and I showed it at the next meeting 
of the Conchological Society. It is the most perfect example of 
albinism in slugs that I have ever seen. It was entirely and abso- 
lutely without external pigmentation, not even the eye-specks being 
coloured. The only colour visible is that of the internal organs seen 
through the skin, and the apparent very pale grey shade with white 
mottlings on the sides of the body is merely the transparency of the 
skin and not due in any way to pigmentation. The specimen was 
' not quite adult, and is now preserved in alcohol in the Conchological 
Society's voucher-collection. 

The only previous examples we have seen were those taken near 
the Botanic Garden, Old Aberdeen, by Mr. Geo. Sim and which Mr. 
Taylor described ("Monograph," part 12, vol. 2, p. 274) as v^x. alba 
Taylor, animal entirely creamy-white, except the black eye-specks, 
no trace whatever of body or mantle-markings, but the dark internal 
organs are dimly visible through the skin. 

The present example is clearly not referable to this, variety— which 

has pigmentation in the eye-specks. It is, therefore, necessary to 

describe it as a new variety, thus : 
Limax arborum var. nov. albinos Roebuck. 

Animal entirely white, absolutely without external pigmentation, 

only the dark internal organs showing faintly through the transparent 

portions of the skin. 

It will be of interest to note that on the 14th September, atGrange- 

over-Sands (in v.c. 69, Westmorland-with-Lake-Lancashire), Mr. Fred. 

Rhodes took a fine adult example of Arion ater v^x. alba sub-var. 

simplex, wliich was the nearest approach I have seen to perfect 

albinism in that species — even the foot-fringe being' white and not 

yellow as commonly found. BuHhe eye-specks were coloured and 

there was the faintest tinge of pale grey on what might be termed the 

vertex of the mantle. 



93 

PROCEEDINGS OF THE 
CONCHOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF GREAT BRITAIN & IRELAND. 



420th Meeting', held in Manchester Museum, March 12th, 1913. 

Mr. E. Collier in the chair. 

Additions to the Library announced and thanks voted : 

"The Conchologist " (1834), by John Warren ; "The Genera Vermiiim exem- 
plified by various specimens of the Animals contained in the Orders of the Intestina 
et Mollusca Linnoei" (1783), by James Barbut ; "Die Conchylien, Seesterne und 
Meergewachse, der ehemaligen Gottwaldtischen Naturaliensammlung, &c." (1782), 
by Johann Samuel Schroter (presented by W. Raskin Biilterfield) ; and the usual 
periodicals received in exchange. 

Donations to the Cabinet announced and thanks voted : 

From Mr. J. R. le B. Tomlin — Helix nemoialis var. carnea (l23)(45), conica, 
HeUcella caperata, Hygiomia revelata, Pyramidula rolittidata, Ptifa cylind?-acea, 
Helicella acuta, Balea perversa, Succinea elegans, Litntuea peregra, Plauorbis 
spirorbis, Pisidium piisillum, all from Tresco Island, Scilly, June, 1912. 

From Mr. Charles Upton — Sphceritim fallidnni from Gloucester and Berkeley 
Canal, i^ miles from Gloucester Dock (Gloucester East). 

From Mr. W. Denison Roebuck — Helicodonta ohvoluta, Buriton escarpment, 
Hants. S., July, 1912. 

From Mr. E. D. Marquand — Vertigo substriata, St. Martin's, Guernsey. 

Candidates proposed for Membership, 

Major Matthew Connolly, c/o. Cox & Co., 16, Charing Cross, London, S.W., 
(by J. R. le B. Tomlin and J. Wilfrid Jackson). 

Harry Leon Gauntlett, M.R.C.S. (Eng.), L.R.C.T. (Lond.), A.K.C. (Lond.), 
Member of Selborne Society, Merton Cottage, Bloxham, Oxon. (by E. Collier and 
L. J. Shackleford). 

Julius Heller, Villa Gisela, Teplitz, Bohemia (by Dr. H. Becker and L. J. 
Shackleford). 

Papers Read. 

"Notes on Some Types of Marginella in the Marrat Collection," by J. R. le B. 
Tomlin, M.A. 

" Description of a New Species o{ Adeorbis," by J. R. le B. Tomlin, M.A. 

" Descriptions of New Species of Marginella and Mun-onalia from Sao Thome," 
by J. R. le B. Tomlin, M.A. and L. J. Shackleford. 

" Note on a sinistral specimen oi Marginella zonata Kien.," by B. R. Lucas. 

" An apparent selection of forms of H. netiioralis by adverse conditions," by 
Professor A. E. Boycott. 

"On the Pennant Collection of British Shells," by Edgar A. Smith, I.S.O. 

'■'• Paludestrina jenkinsi \Xi Cambridgeshire," by C. Oldham. 

" Plelix aspersa m. scalariforme Taylor," by J. R. B. Masefield, M.A. 

"Notes on some Pleistocene Mollusca in North Hunts.," by Rev. C. E. Y. 
Kendall, B.A. 

''^ Helix — Section Tachea and their Geographical Distribution," by E. Collier. 

Exhibits. 

By Mr. W. Denison Roebuck : A living example of Testacella viangei var, 
griseo-nigrescens sent from Hereford by Miss M. A. Boycott. 



94 JOURNAL OE CONCHOI.OGY, VOL. I4, NO. 3, JULY, I9I3. 

By Mr. J. Davy Dean : A series of European shells for comparison with the 
Pleistocene species shown in illustration of Mr. Kendall's paper ; also Clausilia 
craveneusis Taylor, a double-mouthed specimen from near Gargrave, Yorks. ; 
also clausia of the Phostonia section illustrating tlte specific differences between 
bidentata Strom, plicalula Drap., dubia Drap., and cravenensis Taylor. 

By Prof. A. E. Boycott : Typical examples of the colour and band formulce of 
Helix tiemoralis from Land's End, Cornwall, to illustrate his note. 

By Mr. R. Standen : Sections of C/a««7/ai^z)>//Va/a (Mont.), and C. yokohametisis 
Crosse, showing difference in attachment of the clausium. 

By Mr. J. Wilfrid Jackson : Recent and Fossil examples of Paludestrina 
stagnalts {ttlvce) and P. ventrosa from several localities, for comparison with the 
new Palndesti-ina deani from the Pleistocene of Woodston, N. Hunts. 



421st Meeting:, held in Manchester Museum, April 12th, 1913. 

By invitation of the Manchester and district members, the members of the Leeds 
Conchological Club attended. Amongst those present were : — Mr. E. Collier (in the 
chair), and Messrs. L W. Taylor, W. D. Roebuck, W. Cash, T. Castle, J. E. 
Crowther, F. Rhodes, A. Hartley, H. L. Stevenson, S. Fyscher, J. D. Firth, C. T. 
Cribh, J. F. Musham, J. H. Lumb, J. W. Brook, F. Booth, R. Standen, J. W. 
Jackson, B. R. Lucas, G. C. Spence, H. Allan, F. Taylor, J. D. Dean, E. Stump, 
C. H. Moore, W. H. Western, G. H. Taylor, W. Moss, Ford, Mrs. James, Mrs. 
Gill, and the Secretary. 

Mr. R. Standen gave an interesting address on " The Eggs of Mollusca," urg- 
ing the importance and interest of a greatly neglected study. 

Mr. J. E. Crowther embodied the results of observations extending over several 
years in a paper on "The Distribution and Dispersal of Sphceriutn pallidum in 
Halifax Parish, with Notes on Reprod\iction." 

The Librarian reported that the usual periodicals and exchanges had been 
received, and thanks were voted. 

A special vote of thanks was passed to Mr. A. J. Jukes-Browne, F.G.S., for 
his gift of Perry's Conchology to the Society's Library. 

Donations to Cabinet announced and thanks voted : — 

By Mr. J. F. Musham: A large s,&x\^% oi Litlorina litto^ea ; shells polished to 
show extreme variation in banding. 

By Mr. W. D. Roebuck : Specimens of Acicula lineata and Virtigo pygmaa 
for the Voucher Collection, from .Shirwell, Barnstaple (Coll. C. Chichester). 

New Members Elected. 

Major Matthew Connolly, c/o Cox and Co., i6. Charing Cross, London, S.W. 
Harry Leon Gauntlett, M.R.C.S. (Eng.), I..R.C.P. (Lond.), A.K.C. (Lond.), 
Member of the Selborne Society, Merton Cottage, Bloxham, Oxon. 
Julius Heller, Villa Gisela, Teplitz, Bohemia. 

Candidates Proposed for Membership. 

William F. Clapp, 25, Ware Street, Cambridge, Mass., U.S.A. (by Chas. W. 
Johnson and Francis N. Balch). 

Eugene W. Presbrey, 17, Trinity Place, New Rochelle. N.Y. , U.S.A. (by 
L. J. Shackleford and E. Collier). 

W. J, Davey, 19, Allfarthing Lane, Wandsworth Common, S.W. (by J. C. 
Dacie and James E. Cooper). 



PROCEEDINGS : MAY 21, I9I3. 95 

Nonnan Egbert Pellon, 60, Sampson Road, Sparkbrook, Birmingham (by 
Albert Wood and L. J. Shackleford). 

Exhibits. 

By Rev. Canon Horsley : A number of living Jestacella haliotidea and its var. 
flavescens from his garden at Detling Vicarage, near Maidstone. 

By Mr. Edward Collier : Fifty species of Alyci?us. 

By Mrs. A. Gill: Many species oi A>?iphidro?nns &x\d. Ancillaria. 

By Mr. J. E, Crowther : A fine series of Spkceriufn pallidum, in various stages 
of development, to illustrate his paper. 

By Mr. J. W. Jackson : Sets of Sphierhim pallidum, many being "historic" 
specimens, chiefly from Lancashire localities. 

By Mr. C. T. Cribb : Reversed Helix aspersa from Devon ; LiT?uiiea glabra from 
Appleby. 

By Mr. J. Kidson Taylor : A fine series of species and varieties illustrating the 
numerous colour mutations occurring in the Syndronuis section of Aniphidrcnnis. 

By Mr. R. Standen : Calcareous eggs of forty species of British and exotic 
terrestrial moliusca, accompanied in some cases by the embryonic shells. 

By Mr. W. Moss : Eggs of Bonis oblongiis showing development of embryonic 
shell. 

By Mr. C. H. Moore : Land and freshwater shells from Dyserth, N. Wales. 

By Mr. G. C. Spence : Panda falconeri, F. laj-ryi, Megaspira elatior, Pedino- 
gyra ainninghavii, and other interesting species. 

By Mr. J. F. Musham : Locality sets of Helix nemoralis and //. ai biistonim, 
and Ccecilioides aciciila from Barkby, East Riding of Yorkshire. 

From the Cabinets of the Museum many drawers of choice shells were on 
exhibition, including Helicoslyla, Papuina, Acaznis, Harpa, marine shells from 
Tasmania and Vancouver, and a fine series of European Helicidcf, and exotic 
I.iinticeidcB from the "Darbishire" Collection. The shell gallery of the Museum 
was also open for inspection. 



422nd Meeting^, held at Manchester Museum, May 21st, 1913. 

Mr. E. Collier in the chair. 

Additions to the Library announced and thanks voted : 
" Further Records of the Cephalopoda Dibranchiata of the Coasts of Ireland," 
liy Anne L. Massy. " On the Former Range of Poinatias elegans in the VVarton 
District," by J. Wilfrid Jackson. "Fauna of the Gatun Formation, Isthmus of 
Panama," II., by Amos P. Brown and 11. A. Pilsbry. " On Hygrotnia riifescens 
Auct., in Ireland," by A. W. Stelfox [from the respective authors) ; and the usual 
periodicals received in exchange. 

Donations to the Cabinet announced and thanks voted : 
For the Voucher Collection (per the Hon. Recorder) : Punctum pygiiiceuiii , 
sandhills near Alnmouth, Cheviotland, and Azeca trideits var. nouletiana, near 
Lipwood House, Haydon Bridge, Northumberland South, from Mr. A. M. Oliver. 
Ccecilioides acicula, Arnside Knot, Westmorland, from Mr. J. Davy Dean. Testa- 
cella maugei, The Grange, Hereford, from Miss M. A. Boycott — a particularly 
large example, which has been beautifully preserved by Mr. R. Standen. 

The Secretary reported that portraits of Lieut. -Col. H. H. Godwin-Austen and 
the Rev. Canon J. W. Horsley had been presented for the Society's Collection of 
Past Presidents, and thanks were voted. 



96 JOURNAL OF CONCHOLOGY, VOI,. I4, NO. 3, JULY, 1913. 

It was announced that, at Mr. Tomlin's suggestion, it had been decided to 
procure an Album for the preservation of Autograph Letters of eminent concholo- 
gists, and members who may have such letters that they can spare are urged to 
place them in the keeping of the Hon. Librarian. 

New Members Elected. 

William F. Clapp, 25, Ware Street, Cambridge, Mass., U.S.A. 
Eugene W. Presbrey, 17, Trinity Place, New Rochelle, N.Y., U.S.A. 
W. J. Davey, 19, Allfartliing Lane, Wandsworth Common, S.W. 
Norman Egbert Pellon, 60, Sampson Road, Sparkbrook, Birmingham. 

Paper Read. 

" Monstrosities of Tapes piillaslra and Mactra stultonim from Studland Bay, 
Dorset," by J. E. Cooper. 

Exhibits. 

By Mr. G. C. Spence : A series of varied forms of the genus Choanopoma, from 
Jamaica and Cuba ; and shells and eggs of Urocoptis lavalleana (D'Orb.), from 
Western Cuba. 

By Mr. C. IL Moore : Hyalinia cellaria from Stalybridge. 

By Mr. R. Welch : Curious forms of Li>iinaa pereger from Whitesides Pit, 
Bispham (the late R. Drummond's collection). 

By Mr. J. Wilfrid Jackson : Paludestrina jeiikiusi from drains near railway 
station, Portstewart, Co. Derry ; Helix nemoralis and dead sinistral example (first 
record for Co. Derry), from the sand-dunes, Portstewart ; also large quantity of 
material from " shell-pockets" at same place, the species including Ve7-ligo pusilla, 
V. angtistior, V. pygincea, V. snbslriata, Piinctum pygiiueitm, AcantJmiidaaciiIeata, 
Carychium miniimmi, Encouuhis fulviis, Vitrea crystallina, Jaininia tntiscorum, 
J. cylindracea, Clatisilia bidentala, CochJicopa lubrica, etc. , etc. 

By the Rev. Lewis J. Shackleford : Marginella diadoclnts Ad. and Reeve, 
dredged off Saldanha Bay, S. Africa ; and M. iniisica Hinds, dredged off Cape 
St. Blaize, S. Africa ; M. gntveli Bavay from Bay of Praya Anulia, W. Africa ; and 
M. goodalli Sow. from Senegal. 



Note on the Caryatis belcheri of Romer. — Specimens of a Pitaria from 
S. Thome Lsland, akin to P. tiimens (Gmel.), have recently been submitted by us 
to M. Dautzenberg and to Mr. Jukes-Browne. The former reported that it was 
quite unknown to him ; Mr. Jukes-Browne wrote also that he was unacquainted 
with the species, but pointed out that it was evidently the shell figured and descri!)ed 
by Romer^ as Caryatis belcheri Sow. An inspection of Sowerl)y's type in the 
British Museum shows that it is a totally different shell from Romer's, and tolerably 
well figured in the Thesaurus.- Wc therefore propose the name Pitaria rd//ieri 
for Romer's species, which he records from " insula 'do Principe' dicta, ad siiium 
Guineensem." The true belcheri Sow. has recently been dredged in several places 
off the Senegal coast by M. Gruvel.— J. R. LE B. ToMLiN and L. J. Shackle- 
ford. — {Read before the Society, June lllh, 1913). 

I Mon. Gatt. Venus, p. T23, pi. 32, fi.a;s. 5— 5c. 
Thes, Conch., II., p. 635, pi. 136, fig. 188. 



REGENT MOLLUSCA, GLASS-TOPPED BOXES & G0|4CH0L0GICAL WORKS. 
SOWERBY & FULTON (Established byG. B. 80WERBY, 1860). 

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(at March 1st, 1904, 22,388 species). 

Specimens senl: on ELppi-owa.!. 

Large Catalogue contains names of 12,000 species. 
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PLAN AND FULL PRICE LIST POST FREE. 



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IM AMERICA, AS WELL AS A 
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MANUAL OF GONGHOLOGY: 

A Systematic, Illustrated Monography ot the 
Recent Species of Shells. 



FOUNDED BY THE LATE 



GEOROE IZIT. TIlYOlSr, Jiirtr., 



CONTINUED UNDER THE CARE OF THE 



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[No. 4. 



THE 



JOURNAL 

CONG HO LOGY. 

FOUNDEIi 1}(74. 

BEING THE ORGAN OF THE CONCHOLOG ICAL SOCIETY 
OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 

PUBLISHED QUARTERLY. 



Hon. Editor : 
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66, GuANVii.i.E Road, 

Bl.ACKFOOI.. 



Hon. Tkeasukek : 

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Oui.TON Cross, 

Stone, Staffs. 



COITTEITTS. 

Obituary Notices : H. L. On— R. Welch ; D. D. Baldwin ; Rev. 
G. W. Taylor, D.D ' 

Editoriar Notes 

An Apparent Selection of Forms of II. nenioralis by Adverse Con- 
ditions—A. E. Boycott 

Descriptions of Two New Species of Marginella fronr South Africa — 
J. R. i.R B. ToMLiN (with figures) .. 

Vertigo antivertigo in Staffs. — J. R. 13. jNIasei-teld ... 

Helicella itala m. sinistrorsum — RE^'. C. E. V. Kendali, ... 

Pathological Malformation of Keel-Line in Limax cinereo-niger — 
W. D. Roebuck: (with figure) 

The Non-Marine Mollusca of Worcestershire — N. G. HadijEN 

Notes on Three Species of Cyprcea — ^J. K. Tay'i.or 

Proceedings: June II, 191 3 

Helix aspersa m. scalariforme — J. R. B. Masefield ... 

Notes on the Section Tachea of Helix — E. Collier ... 

Shells from the Rhone Delta — B. R. Lucas 

Additions to "British Conchology," part vii. — J. T. Marshall 
(continued) .. ... ... .:. 



97 
9S 



lOI 

102 
102 

102 
103 
"3 
1x6 

JI7 
iiS 

123 

124 



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BRITISH NON-MARINE MOLLUSCA. 



Prepared by B. B. WOODWARD, F.L.S., 
and a COMIVIITTEE of the CONCHOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

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The Lancashire Naturalist, 

A Monthly Journal of Natural History for the County of 
Lancashire, and for the adjacent districts of Cheshire, 
Derbyshire, Westmorland, North Wales & the Isle of Man. 

Conducted by MR. W. H. WESTERN, 
Assisted in Special Departments by Competent Referees. 

The Journal, which is supported by many prominent Naturalists of the District, 
deals with all branches of Natural History, and is rapidly increasing in circulation. 
Amo)igst the Conchological Notes and Papers which have already appeared are : 
"Notes OH the Freshwater Mussels of Lancashire and Adjacent Counties " ; "On 
the Mollusca from the 'Cave-Earth,' Dog-IIoles, Warton Crag"; and others, 
whicli contain much valuable information of local and general interest, 

Annual Subscription, 5/- post free, should be sent direct to the Editor, 
Mk. ^V. H. Westekn, 139, Bkatrice Terrace, Darwen, Lancashire. 



97 



JOURNAL OF CONCHOLOGY. 



Vol. 14. OCTOBER, 1913. No. 4. 



OBITUARY NOTICES. 

(Read before the Society, Sept. loth, 1913). 

HUGH LAMONT ORR. 

By R. welch. 

Hugh Laniont Orr, a keen conchologist and an old member of the 
Belfast Naturalists' Field Club, on the committee of which he had 
served for many years, passed away on April 14th, 19 13, at Belfast. 

A fine amateur workman both in wood and metal, Mr. Orr was a 
very helpful friend to many a naturalist, young and old, and the 
Public Museum at Belfast contains many finely made cases of wasps' 
nests and other natural history specimens donated by him. He had 
been engaged on a local list of the wild bees and wasps of the north- 
east of Ireland for years past, and was a well-known figure on the 
hillsides, and in the glens and old woods of Louth, Antrim, and 
North Down. Mr. Orr became a member of the Conchological 
Society many years ago, and was a regular exhibitor in this branch 
at meetings of the Belfast Club named above, especially at their 
annual conversazione. 



D. D. BALDWIN. 



[We are indebted to The Nattlihis for the following details as to Messrs. 
Baldwin and Taylor. — En.]. 



David Dwight Baldwin was born at Honolulu, on November 26th, 
1 83 1. He entered Yale College in 1853, graduated there with 
honours in 1857, and in the same year married a Miss Morris, whose 
acquaintance he had made during his college course. On returning 
to Hawaii he became principal of Lahaina School ; but after seven 
years of school work he became interested in the cultivation of sugar 
cane, and was for seven years manager of a large plantation. Subse- 
quently he resumed his old profession, and in 1877 was appointed 
Inspector-General of Schools, and it may be mentioned that under 
his regime the number of schools in which English was the basis of 

G 



98 JOURNAT OF CONCHOI.OGY, VOL. I4, NO. 4, OCTOBER, I913. 

instruction ihcreased from five to one hundred. Though he resigned 
this appointment in 1885, it was not till twenty years later that he 
finally severed his connexion with the Department of Public Instruc- 
tion. He was chiefly interested in shells, ferns, and mosses, and in 
1893 published a "Catalogue of the Land and Freshwater Shells of 
the Hawaiian Islands," which, though brief and unpretentious, has 
been most useful for its reliable synonymy and its locality records. 
He described many new species of AchatiiieUidce, and has had at 
Itast nine Hawaiian novelties named after him, as well as Baldwiuia 
Ancey — a section of Partnliua. He died at Honolulu on June i6th, 
1912. 

REV. G. W. TAYLOR, D.D. 



Dr. Taylor died at his home on Departure Bay, Vancouver Island, 
in August, 19 1 2. He was well known as a student of the marine 
shells of the Pacific coast, and was also interested in Entomology and 
other branches of natural history. When the Dominion government 
established a marine biological station on the coast of British 
Columbia, Dr. Taylor chose the site for it, near Nanaimo, superin- 
tended the building, and remained in charge of the station when 
completed until his death. 

He published a " Preliminary Catalogue of the Marine Mollusca 
of the Pacific Coast of Canada,", with notes, in the Trans. Roy. See. 
of Canada, 1895-6 ; a supplement appeared somewhat later, and 
latterly he was engaged upon a new Catalogue which was never 
completed. He also published lists of the land and freshwater shells 
of Vancouver and of British Columbia. He leaves a very large 
and valuable collection of shells, particularly rich in Unionidce and 
PatellidcE. 



EDITORIAL NOTES. 

A LARGK and influential Committee has been formed under the patronage of the 
Duke of Devonshire, with Mr. J. W. Taylor in the chair, to acquire the concholo- 
gical collections and lil^rary of the late William Nelson, for the University of Leeds, 
as a permanent memorial of this excellent naturalist. About ;r^ioo is required, and 
subscriptions should be sent to the Hon. Treasurer and Secretary of the Committee, 
Mr. W. D. Roebuck. Nelson was one of the founders and first editors of the 
lournal of Conchology. 



We have received the following interesting note from M. Bavay of Paris, with 
reference to Mai-guiella warrenii Marrat, which was figured for the first lime in our 
April number : " en examinant attentivement la belle figure que vous donnez de 
M. warrenii, j' ai ete frappe du facies austral de cette coquille. Ne serait-ce pas 



EDITORIAT. NOTES. 99 

line Alarginella des lies Falkland on du Cap Horn ? N'y aurait-il pas una simple 
errenr de /i?//?'^ dans 1' indication de latitude et longitude donnee comme prove- 
nance ? La latitude ne serait-elle pas 50'' 25' 5" Sud au lieu de 50° 25' 5" Nord ? 
Le premier point tombe entre les lies Falkland et le Cap Horn. Je pense que 
iMarginel/a hahni Ae Rochehrune et Mahille," Mission Scientifique du Cap Horn," 
1S82-3, t.vi. (Zoologie), Mollusques, p. 51, pi. iii., fig. 4, est la meme espece que 
celle de Marrat, qui, plus ancienne (1879), " '^ priorite." 



It may not be superfluous to put on record the most important conchological sale 
of recent years — that of the Carl BLilovv collection, which was dispersed at Stevens' 
Rooms, on February 27th. The collection, as most are aware, had been in Messrs, 
Sowerby & Fulton's hands for a considerable time on commission, and many of the 
rarities had thus been privately disposed of. The entire collection contained 
approximately 20,000 species, and included that of Flerr Strubell — rich in land and 
freshwater shells. 



We have lately had an opportunity of reading a collection of verse, entitled: 
" Verse — or Worse," from the pen of one of our members, Mr. F. H. Sikes, and 
should like to say at once that we failed to discover justification for the second 
]iart of the title ! All the pieces (we gather from the preface) have already appeared 
in print in the Globe, IVeslminster Gazette, Temple Bar, Chums, Boys' Own Paper, 
or other papers. We can heartily recommend this small volume to anyone who 
enjoys short, witty verse, ingenious rhymings, clever bathos and a whimsical choice 
of subjects. We may perhaps be allowed to quote a verse from a parody on " The 
Assyrian Came Down " (p. 99), as being well within the scope of our /om-nal : — 
" Like the head of a snail on a fine summer morn, 

That pestilent 'scorcher' exalted his horn; 

Like the head of a snail when encountering salt. 

That 'scorcher' hy evening found time for a halt." 

The book is enriched with three pretty Icelandic sketches by the author, excellently 
reproduced by Messrs. Taylor Bros., of Leeds, who are the publishers. 



Two very handy little volumes on the " Mollusques de la France et des 
Regions Voisines" have just l;een published in the "Encyclopedic Scientifique" 
series by O. Doin et Fils, 8, Place de I'Odeon, Paris. Vol. I. dealing with the 
Amphineura and Opisthobranchiata is by A. Vayssiere, the well-known professor 
at the Marseilles Faculty of Science, who has made a special study of the Opistho- 
branchs for years. So much lias recently been written on this order, that the 
volume will be a most useful up-to-date compendium and guide for students from 
every point of view. \q\. II. is from the pen of Louis Germain, of the Paris 
Natural History Museum, and treats of the land and freshwater gastropods of 
France. It will lie of the utmost use to palrearclic students, and we welcome it 
as an avowed attempt to biing about a wholesale reduction in the species created 
by the splitting propensities of Bourguignat, Locard, and others, though by no 
means the last word on that subject. M. Germain's remarks on the Bourguignat 
school are well worth reading, and he shows how their often mi.sguided zeal has 
at any rate led to the increased study of polymorphism and of the effects of 
environment in producing variation. There are altogether 67 plates in the two 
volumes, but the figures are as a rule poor and very coarsely produced, and hardly 
up to the high standard of the letterpress. The price for the two volumes is ten francs, 



AN APPARENT SELECTION OF FORMS OF H. NEMORALIS 
BY ADVERSE CONDITIONS. 



By a. E. boycott. 



(Read before the Society, March 12th, 1913). 



In 1907 I collected 310 specimens of a dwarfed (average i8"4 x i4'2 
mm.) form of 7iemoralis from a sand-blown area of grass by the shore 
near Land's End. As I was informed, the sand had been blown on 
to, and more or less covered, the grass only within the preceding two 
or three years. At the same time I took 79 specimens of larger 
size (average 2 2 "2 x i8"r mm.) from among grass just beyond the 
reach of the sand and within a couple of hundred yards of the area 
where the smaller specimens occurred, x^part from the presence of 
sand, the two areas appeared to be of exactly the same character. 
The proportions of the two colour forms which were present and of 
the different bandings varied a o;reat deal in the two series. 



Total number collected 
libellula per cent, 
opooo 
00300 

12345 
rubella per cent. 
00000 
00300 
12345 



Grass 

79 

43% 

21 

26 

38 

57% 
67 
1 1 
18 



Sand 
310 

72% 
0-5 

6 

77 
28°/ 



78 



In the sand specimens, therefore, libellula were proportionately 
more abundant (and the difference is beyond that which might be 
attributed to errors of sampling) and the band formulae 00000 and 
00300 were much less numerous. Altogether in the grass series 37 
out of the 79 (or 47%) were 00000 and only one of the 310 sand speci- 
mens. I am inclined to attribute the difference to the elimination of 
the few-banded forms by the adverse influence of the sand. It seems 
clear from the small size of the shells that the general conditions were 
not favourable so that there is less to be said in favour of the alterna- 
tive hypothesis that the sand encouraged the many-banded forms. 
Among the sand specimens were 25 of the formula 00045 which did 
not occur in the grass series. 



DESCRIPTIONS OF TWO NEW SPECIES OF MARGINELLA 
FROM SOUTH AFRICA. 



By J. R. LE B. TOMLIN, M.A. 



(Read Ijefore the Society, September loth, 1913). 



Marginalia pachista n.sp. — 

Shell ovate-oblong, solid, smooth, polished, pinkish-brown in 
colour, generally with a broad rather indistinct whitish zone on the 
last whorl below the suture ; last whorl shouldered ; spire blunt ; 
whorls 4^ in number; suture fairly well marked; aperture rather 
broad, tinged with pink inside ; columella nearly straight, with four 
strong plaits ; lip very strongly thickened, sinuate above, so as to 
form a distinct sinus at the top of the aperture and a sort of denti- 
form excrescence on the labrum, considerably curved, simple within, 
white in colour with numerous pink spiral lines, which never seem 
to reach the inner side of the labrum and vary in number and 
intensity. 





^Iargi)iella pachista. 

Size : — Alt. i4"5 mm. ; diam. max., 8 mm. 

Hab. : — East London & Umkomaas (Burnup); Tongaat (Alexander). 

This species greatly resembles M. vexiUum Redf. from West Africa, 
but the latter has the lip denticulate within and a much narrower 
aperture and canal. They have the same thickened, lineolate lip, but 
M. pachista is rather longer and narrower in form. It sometimes 
has a row of minute, distant brown dots on the last two whorls, and 
a second row on the last whorl, starting from the uppermost colum- 
ellar plait. The type has a very small subsidiary plait on the 
columella, between the first and second plaits, but this appears to be 
accidental. 

Marginella aphanospira n.sp. — 

A small white, semitransparent species of the Persicula section ; 
shell ovuliform, without spire ; columella strongly convex above and 
concave below with two plaits ; labrum slightly thickened, rising dis- 
tinctly above the plane of the apex of the shell ; aperture strongly 



102 JOURNAL OF CONCHOLOGY. VOL. I4, NO. 4, 0CT0SP:R, I9I3. 

arcuate above, owing to the elevation of the labrum, in width about 
one-third of the maximum diameter of the sheh ; sculpture none. 



MaTginella aphanospira. 

Size : — Alt. 3 mm. ; diam. max. 2 mm. 

Habitat : — Port Shepstone, one specimen (Burnup). 

There is also a specimen in the Capetown Museum. Mr. Burnup 
has presented the types of the above two new species to the British 
Museum (Nat. Hist.). 



Vertigo antivertigo in Staffordshire. — This mollusc has at last been turned 
up in Staftbidshiie. On the 4th August last, Mr. Bryan and I were e.\aniiiiing 
pieces of decayed wood and bricks, in marshy ground, at Whiston, near Clieadle, 
when three Ver/igos were found, whicii have since been identified by Mr. J. VV. 
Taylor, together with another specimen found since in the same locality, as V. aiiii- 
verligo. This is the first record of the species for this county. In the same marsh 
are to be found Zouiloides nitidns, Limiuva iriincatiila, Carychiitvi mitiimnni, and 
Siiccinea piitiis. — John R. B. WK'i,^Y\'^\.\\{Readhel'ore the Society^ Nov. 13th, 1912). 



Helicella itala L. m. sinistrorsum. — As it is of interest to note the frequency 
nf the occurrence of sinistral specimens, I wish to record the finding of a fine sinistral 
Helicella itala, in September last, at Water Newton, in North Huntingdonshire. 
The shell is full grown, and assignable to var. hitescens JMoquin-Tandon. This is 
the prevailing form in the district, the banded shell being exceedingly scarce. — 
C. E. Y. Kendall {Read before the Society, Nov. 13th, 191 2). 



Pathological Malformation of Keel-line in Limax cinereo-niger. —Mr. 
Charles Oldham on the 30th September sent me a curious malformation of Limax 
ciuercc-niger var. Inciiiosa, which he took that day in a wood near INIartin Chapel, 
Berkhamsted, Herts., in which the pale keel-line is discontinuous in a curious 
manner, comparable in appearance to a geological fault. Half-way down the back 
the line ends abruptly but begins again on the right of it equally abruptly but with 
about three rugosities of the ground-colour between. This variation can be easily 
represented in printer's rules, thus : — 




The keel-line is very distinct and plain throughout. I have kept the example alive 
and well ever since to 30th Nov., but then put it in formalin for deposit in the 
Conchological .Society's collection. — W. Denison Roebuck (Read before the 
Society, Dec. nth, 1912). 



I03 



THE NON-MARINE MOLLUSCA OF WORCESTERSHIRE. 

By NOR^FAN G. MADDEN. 

(Read before the Socielj', Dec. nth, 1912). 



So far as I have been able to find, very little has been published 
regarding the molluscan fauna of Worcestershire, and I have con- 
sequently been induced to collect any available records, and place 
them along with my own observations which extend over the last 
seven or eight years. Although the geology, botany (both phanero- 
gamic and cryptogamic), entomology and ornithology of the county 
have received a great amount of attention, the mollusca have been 
very much neglected. In the Census published in the Journal of 
ConcJiology o{]7x.\-\w7x.x)'^ 1911, Worcestershire is credited with ninety- 
five species, to which at least ten more should be added if our old 
records could be verified. 

The late Mr. C. Reece, of Worcester, did a considerable amount 
of concliological work in the county, principally in the southern por- 
tion, and his collection of local shells is now in the Worcester 
Museum. Mr. T. E. Doeg, of Evesham, has recorded in the Guide 
to Evesham (Homeland Series, 1908) between fifty and sixty species 
from the neighbourhood of Evesham and Bredon Hill. My own 
collecting has been principally done in the parish of Earls Croome, 
which lies nine miles south of the city of Worcester and one mile 
east of the Severn, and also in the Malvern district. 

In the " Transactions of the Malvern Field Club," for 1853-70, 
there is a list of Malvern shells, compiled by Dr. Griffiths, but unfor- 
tunately several of these records are highly doubtful. Such species 
as HeJicella barbara, Claiisilia biplicata, Pupa anglica, and Unio 
margaritifer, are almost certainly erroneously recorded. By far the 
most complete list published is that in the "Victoria County History," 
vol. i., compiled by Mr. B. B. Woodward, and published in 1901. 
This list is evidently based on Dr. Griffiths' list, many of the localities 
being quoted from his catalogue, including Pupa secale, which Mr. 
Woodward states is a doubtful record. It seems quite possible that 
this species has been found near West Malvern, in the limestone 
district, but though this locality may be said to be in the " Malvern 
district," it is not in Worcestershire, but in Herefordshire. 

It may be well to give a rough description of the geology of the 

' county. The Keuper Marls stretch from the Malvern Hills for some 

four miles east of the Severn, whence the Lower Lias becomes the 

principal formation across the southern half of the county. In the 

north-western part we have the Bunter sandstone in the neighbour- 



I04 JOURNAL OF CONCHOLOGY, VOL. I4, NO. 4, OCTOBER, I913. 

hood of Stourbridge and Kidderminster ; then a narrow strip of 
Lower Keuper sandstone stretching from Witley to Hagley and bend- 
ing eastwards as far as Bromsgrove, where it joins the Keuper marl, 
stretching roughly from the south-western to the north-eastern corner 
of the county. The Wenlock limestone is represented in the county 
around Tenbury and Clifton-on-Teme, while, the Coal Measures 
appear in the Wyre Forest district. The Lower Oolite occurs on 
Bredon Hill. 

There are several detached portions belonging to Worcestershire, 
but situated as " islands " in Gloucestershire or Staffordshire, but for 
conchological purposes these detached portions are included with the 
county which surrounds them ; for this reason we cannot claim Ena 
montana amongst the Worcestershire moUusca, as it is only recorded 
from one of these " islands," Dovedale, Blockley. 

The county is watered by the Severn, the Warwickshire Avon, and 
the Teme, besides lesser streams. The Severn enters the county at 
Arley in the nortii, and passing through Worcester is joined on the 
Gloucestershire borders by the Avon at Tewkesbury. The Teme 
joins the Severn at Powick near Worcester. Worcestershire has no 
natural lakes, but there are several large artificial reservoirs and orna- 
mental pools, as at Cofton Hackett, Pirton Pool, and Westwood Park 
near Droit wich. 

It will be apparent from the lis't; now given that only a very small 
portion of the county has been worked at all thoroughly from a 
conchological standpoint, and doubtless several further species 
(particularly in Plsidium) might be added to the list by workers in 
hitherto unexplored localities, while the distribution of many appar- 
ently rare species would be found much wider than we are at present 
led to believe. The southern portion of the county has been the 
most worked, especially the Malvern district, but as mentioned above 
one cannot place too much reliance on old records of limestone-loving 
species from "Malvern"; these generally refer to a limestone ridge 
at West Malvern, which was formerly a part of Worcestershire, but has 
in recent years been ceded to Herefordshire. As it is the most pro- 
ductive locality for shells near any of the Malverns it has naturally 
received considerable attention from all local collectors ; Fyraiiiidula 
rotundata var. alba Moq.-Tand. is not uncommon there as well as 
several species that are rare within the county boundary. 

Careful examination of river rejectamenta may yield some more 
species to the list, but I must confess to having obtained very little 
result from examination of a quantity of debris from the Severn after 
floods. The Avon and Teme would probably give better results. 

In Dr. Griffiths' list Hygromia granulata {^^^ Helix sericea") is said 



HADDEN : NON-MARINE MOLLUSCA OF WORCESTERSHIRE. I05 

to have been collected by Mr. Reece, and to be in the Worcester 
Museum, but there are no examples of this species shown in the local 
collection there at the present time. Possibly they were wrongly 
determined and removed. Vivipara contecta Millet is recorded in the 
"Victoria County History" list, but this probably referred to a tablet 
of shells in the Worcester Museum so labelled, which prove to be 
merely V. vivipara. 

Testacella maugei Fer. — Occasionally found in nursery gardens 
in \Vorcester. 

T. haliotidea Drap. — Very local, but not uncommon in gardens 
in ^\'orcester. 

T. scutulum Sowerby. — Recorded in the "Victoria County His- 
tory," but no locality stated. This species is not represented in the 
Worcester Museum local collection. 

Limax maximus Linne. — Generally distributed, but not abun- 
dant. Malvern. Earls Croome. Worcester. Shrawley AA'ood. 

L. flavus Linne. — Recorded in the "Victoria County History'' 
list, but not localised. 

L. arborum Bouchard-Chantereaux. — Frequent throughout the 
county on old tree stumps and logs. Earls Croome. Malvern. Wor- 
cester (Reece). Fries Wood. Witley Park. Shrawley Wood. Brace's 
Leigh. 

Agriolimax agrestis Linne.— Abundant everywhere, in fields, 
gardens, and woods. 

A. laevis Miiller. — Local; only obtained amongst decaying Carices 
in very damp places. Newpool, Malvern. Severn Stoke. Defford 
Common. Craycombe Hill near Evesham. 

Milax sowerbyi Fer. — In gardens, local. Malvern. Earls 
Croome. Stourport ("Victoria County History"). 

M. gagates Drap. — Recorded in "Victoria County History," but 
no locality given. 

Vitrina pellucida Muller. — Generally distributed. Frequently 
obtainable on old sheep droppings on North Hill, Malvern ; dead 
earthworms are also attractive to this species. Malvern. Worcester 
(Reece). Earls Croome. Evesham. Witley. Shrawley Wood. Sarn 
Hill. Madresfield. 

Vitrea crystallina Miiller. — Frequent on rotten logs. Malvern. 
Near Worcester (Reece). Earls Croome. Witley. Madresfield. 

V. cellaria Miiller. — Plentiful throughout the county. Malvern. 
Worcester (Reece). Earls Croome. Evesham (Doeg). Witley. 
Madresfield. Sarn Hill. Ockeridge. 

var. complanata Jeffreys. — Earls Croome. 
var. albina Moq.-Tand. — Witley Park. 



Io6 JOURNAL OF CONCHOLOGY, VOL. I4, NO. 4, OCTOBER, I913. 

V. rogersi B. B. Woodward. — "Lincomb" ("Victoria County 
History"). 

V. alliaria Miller. — Common and widely distributed. Malvern. 
Worcester (Reece). Earls Croome. Witley. Sarn Hill. The Rhydd. 
Bredon Hill (Doeg). 

V. nitidula Drap. — Plentiful in woods and copses, occasional in 
gardens. Malvern. Near Worcester (Reece). Earls Croome. Witley. 
Sarn Hill. Evesham (Doeg). 

var. nitens Michaud. — Earls Croome. 

var. helmii Alder. — Earls Croome. Very scarce. 

V. pura Alder. — Rather local in woods, rarely in gardens. Malvern. 
Earls Croome. Acock's Green ("Victoria County History.") 

V. radiatula Alder. — Local. This species prefers damper situa- 
tions than V. pura. Earls Croome. Lincomb ("Victoria County 
History"). 

Zonitoides nitidus Miiller. — Rare. North Hill, Malvern (amongst 
stones in a valley). Near Worcester (Reece). 

Euconulus fulvus Miiller. — Widely distributed and generally 
common. Malvern. Earls Croome. Sarn Hill. Witley. Near 
Worcester (Reece). Madresfield. 

Arion ater Linne. — Common throughout the county. 

A. subfuscus Drap. — Local.' Witley Park. Stourport ("Victoria 
County History"). 

A. hortensis Fe'r. — Abundant in gardens tliroughout the county. 
It is our most destructive species in flower borders and rock gardens. 

A. fasciatus Nilsson. — 

var. circumscriptus Johnston. — Malvern. Earls Croome. 
Lincomb ("Victoria County History"). 

Punctum pyg"maeum Drap. — Widely distributed and probably 
often overlooked. Earls Croome (plentiful). Henwick (Reece). 
Witley. Old Hills, Madresfield. 

Sphyradium edentulum Drap. — Local, but has probably escaped 
notice owing to its minuteness. Newpool copse, Malvern. Earls 
Croome. Near Worcester (Reece). Acock's Green ("Victoria County 
History"). Marsh Wood, Baughton. 

Pyramidula rupestris Drap.— Bredon Hill (under top stones of 
walls, Doeg). "Malvern District" ("Victoria County History"). 

P. rotundata Miiller. — Common throughout the county. INIal- 
vern. Worcester. Evesham (Doeg). Earls Croome. Witley. 
Shrawley. Sarn Hill. 

var. pyramidalis Jeffreys. — Earls Croome. Three examples 
only. 



HADDEN : NON-MARIXE MOLLUSCA OF WORCESTERSHIRE. lO/ 

Helicella virgata DaCosta.^ — Very local. "On Bredon Hill and 
other upland pastures" (Doeg). 

H. itala Linne. — Confined to calcareous soils. Local. Baughton. 
Near AVorcester (Reece). Bredon Hill (Doeg). Near Evesham. 

H. caperata Montagu. — Rather local, but plentiful where it occurs 
on calcareous soils. Hill Croome. Malvern (rare). Bredon Hill. 
Near Worcester (Reece). Wind's Point near Malvern. Haselor near 
Evesham. 

H. cantiana Montagu. — Very local. "Boat Lane and Worcester 
Road, Evesham" (Doeg). Earls Croome. 

Hygromia granulata Alder. — Recorded in " Victoria County 
History," no locality stated. 

H. hispida Linnd. — Common in woods, waste places, and gardens. 
Malvern. Earls Croome. Near Worcester (Reece). Sarn Hill. 
AVitley. 

var. hispidosa Mousson. — Malvern. Earls Croome. 
var. albida Jeffreys. — Earls Croome. Worcester (Reece). 

H. fusca Montagu. — Mentioned in Dr. Griffiths' list of Malvern 
shells, but no further records are available. 

H. rufescens Pennant. — Widely distributed, sometimes plentiful 
in gardens. Malvern. Earls Croome. Worcester (Reece). Evesham 
(Doeg). 

Acanthinula aculeata Miiller. — Apparently local, but easily 
escapes notice. Earls Croome. Malvern. Old Hills, Madresfield. 

Vallonia pulchella jNIiiUer. — Widely distributed, not infrequent 
amongst roots of grass. Earls Croome. Madresfield. Evesham (Doeg). 

V. COStata Miiller. — To be obtained in similar situations to the 
last species. E,arls Croome. Near Worcester (Reece). Evesham 
(Doeg). 

V. excentrica Sterki. — Probably as widely distributed as the two 
preceding species. I have taken all three together on a heap of leaf 
soil at Earls Croome. Malvern (one dead shell in garden). 

Helicigona lapicida Linne.— Very local. Kent's Green near 
Worcester (\V. H. Edwards). Atch Lench and Blockley (Doeg). I 
have found an old worn shell at Leigh Sinton near Malvern. 

H. arbustorum Linnd. — Very local. Near Worcester (Reece). 
"Plentiful in damp woods, Evesham" (Doeg). 

Helix aspersa Miiller. — Abundant everywhere in the neighbour- 
hood of gardens and waste patches once under cultivation. No 
varieties have been recorded from the county. 

H. nemoralis Linnd — Occurs throughout the county, but not in 



I06 JOURNAL OF CONCHOLOGY, VOL. I4, NO. 4, OCTOBER, 1913. 

the large colonies to be found in some districts. The most frequent 
forms are ooooo and 00300. 

H. hortensis Muller. — More local than H. nenwralis and never 
abundant. Malvern. Worcester (Reece). Evesham (Doeg). Earls 
Croome. 

var. lutea Moquin-Tandon — Malvern. 

[Ena montana Drap. — Very rare. Only recorded from Dove- 
dale, Blockley, by Mr. Uoeg, where it occurs on beech trees. Blockley 
is a detached portion of Worcestershire surrounded by (jloucestershire]. 

Ena obscura Miiller. — Somewhat local. Malvern. Earls 
Croome. Near W^orcester (Reece). Evesham (Doeg). 

Cochlicopa lubrica Miiller. — Widely distributed and generally 
common. Malvern. Earls Croome. Near ^Vorcester (Reece). 
Evesham (Doeg). Defford Common. Sarn Hill. Witley. Shrawley 
Wood. 

Azeca tridens Pulteney.— Very local. Generally confined to 
calcareous soil. Eaughton Hill. Near Worcester (Reece). Hamp- 
ton churchyard (Doeg). Sarn Hill. " Acock's Green and Malvern 
district" ("Victoria County History"). 

Caecilioides acicula Miiller. — Owing to the subterranean habits 
of this minute species it is rarely obtained alive. I have obtained 
half-a-dozen living examples at the bottom of flower pots sunk into 
the ground in a strawberry bed at Earls Croome. Malvern (two 
dead shells in garden). Near Worcester (Reece). 

Jaminia secale Drap. — Very rare and local. "Broadway and 
Dovedale, Blockley" (Doeg). "Malvern district" ("Victoria County 
History"). This last is probably an erroneous record. 

J. cylindracea DaCosta. — Widely distributed, frequently in large 
colonies. Malvern. Earls Croome. Worcester. Evesham (Doeg). 

J. muscorum Linn^. — Local and rather rare. Defford Common 
(Reece). Earls Croome. Boat Lane, Evesham (DoegV 

Vertigo antivertigo Drap, — "Malvern district" (Victoria County 
History"). It is not represented in the Worcester Museum local col- 
lection, and I can find no other records of this species. 

V. pygmsea Drap. — Apparently very local, but careful search 
should reveal it in many other localities. Newpool copse, Malvern. 
Earls Croome. Selly Oak ("Victoria County History"). 

V. pusilla Muller. — Very rare. In spite of constant search I have 
only obtained five adults and one immature example, all within a 
radius of a few yards. Earls Croome, in a rather dry copse consisting 
mainly of elms. 



HADDEN: NON-MARINE MOI.I-USCA OF WORCESTERSHIRK. I09 

Balea perversa Linn^. — "Malvern district" ("Victoria County 
History"). No other records. 

Clausilia laminata Montagu. — Very local, but probably occurs 
in most woods on calcareous soil. Baughton. Near Worcester (Reece). 
Sarn Hill. 

C. bidentata Strom. — Widely distributed and abundant in some 
stations. Malvern. Earls Croome. Near Worcester (Reece). 
Baughton. Witley. Sarn Hill. 

Succinea putris Linne. — Widely distributed but not common. 
Newpool, Malvern. Earls Croome. Near Worcester (Reece). Near 
Evesham (Doeg). 

S. elegans Risso. — Rather more frequent than the preceding 
species. Earls Croome. Hartlebury. Near Worcester (Reece). 
Stourport and Acock's Green ("Victoria County History"). 

Carychium minimum Miiller. — Common and widely distributed. 
Malvern. Earls Croome. Near Worcester (Reece). Near Evesham. 
Witley. Sarn Hill. Madresfield. 

Ancylus fluviatilis Miiller. — Local. The specimens recorded 
from Malvern Hills are probably from the Herefordshire side of the 
range where the species is plentiful. " Malvern Hill" and R. Severn 
(Reece). R. Avon (Doeg). Dowles brook, Wyre Forest. 

Acroloxus lacustris Linne. — Very local but abundant where it 
occurs. Madresfield. Near Worcester (Reece). R. Avon (Doeg). 

Limnsea auricularia Linne. — Widely distributed and plentiful in 
the Avon. Avon near Bredon. Avon and Severn (Reece). Avon 
near Clerk's Hill, and at Wood Norton (Doeg). ALidresfield. 

L. pereger Miiller. — Common throughout the county. No 
distinct varieties recorded. Malvern. ^\'orcester. Pirton and Feck- 
enham (Reece). Earls Croome. Defford. Hartlebury. Madresfield. 
HoUybush Pass on Malvern Hill. Castlemorton Common. Longdon. 

L. palustris Miiller. — Very local. Hartlebury Common. Kemp- 
sey Grove (Reece). R. Avon near Twyning. 

L. truncatula INIiiller. — Widely distributed but not very plentiful. 
Malvern Link. Earls Croome. Hill Croome. Longdon Marsh, 
Near Worcester (Reece). R. Avon near Twyning. 

m. decollatum. — Midsummer Hill, Malvern (Reece). 

L. Stagnalis Linnd. — Local, but fairly plentiful where it occurs. 
Defford Common. Welland Common (Reece). Woodnorton (Doeg). 

L. glabra Miiller. — Very rare. Hartlebury Common ("Victoria 
County History"). 



no JOURNAL OF CONCHOl.OGY, VOL, I4, NO. 4, OCTOBER, I9I3. 

Planorbis corneus Linne. — Very local. Yardley (Thomasson). 
Ditches and ponds connected with the Avon (Doeg). 

P. albus Miiller. — Frequent in ponds. Malvern. Earls Croome. 
Near Worcester (Recce). Dowles, Wyre Forest. 

var. draparnaldi Sheppard. — Pirton Pool (Reece). Earls 
Croome. 

P. glaber Jeffreys. — Very rare. Newpool, Malvern, amongst the 
alga Cladopho7-a. 

P. crista Linne. — The type is not infrequent in small and large 
ponds. Malvern. Earls Croome. Northwick Pool (Reece). A white 
form at Madresfield in company with the type. 

var. laevigata Adams. — Much more plentiful than the type in 
some stations. 

P. carinatus Miiller. — Apparently rare and local. Earls Croome. 
Upper Wick (Recce). 

p. umbilicatus Miiller. — Widely distributed and sometimes 
abundant. Castlemorton Common. Earls Croome. Hartlebury. 
Worcester (Reece). Dowles Brook, Wyre Forest. 

P. vortex Linne. — Widely distributed but rarely abundant. Earls 
Croome. Defford Common. Near Worcester (Reece). Haselor 
near Evesham (Doeg). 

P. spirorbis Linn^. — Generally distributed and often abundant. 
Malvern. Earls Croome. Near Worcester (Reece). Evesham 
(Doeg). Hartlebury. Defford Common. Castlemorton Common. 
Throckmorton. 

P. contortus Linne. — Local, but fairly plentiful where it occurs. 
Near Malvern. Earls Croome. Near Worcester (Reece). Evesham 
(Doeg). 

P. fontanus Lightfoot. — Rather local. Malvern. Earls Croome. 
Nea.i Worcester (Reece). 

Segmentina nitida Miiller. — Rare and very local. " Stinton 
Pool, Crossway Green, and Malvern " (" Victoria County History"). 

Physa fontinalis Linne. — Widely distributed and generally 
plentiful. Earls Croome. Castlemorton Common. Birtsmorton. 
Near Worcester (Reece). Brooks running into the Avon (Doeg). 
var. curta Jeffreys. — Hill Croome. 

Aplecta hypnorum Linne. — Much more local than the last 
species. It appears partial to small pools that dry up in the summer. 
Marsh Common, Defford. Earls Croome. Near Worcester (Reece). 

Paludestrina jenkinsi Smith.— This is plentiful in a backwater 
of the Severn at the Mythe Toot, Tewkesbury, just on the borders of 



HADDEN : NON-MARINE MOI.LUSCA OF WORCESTERSHIRE. Ill 

tlie count}' bouiidary line. I have not seen it elsewhere, but it prob- 
ably occurs in similar localities further up the river. 

Bithynia tentaculata Linne. — Widely distributed in weedy 
ditches throughout the county. Castlemorton Common. Earls 
Croome. Near Feckenham (Reece). Avon (Doeg). 

vaf. ventricosa Menke. — Near Feckenham (Reece). Earls 
Croome. 

B. leachi Sheppard. — "]\ralvern" ("Victoria County History"). 
R. Teme (Reece). R. Avon near Twyning. 

Vivipara vivipara Linne. — Local, but abundant where it occurs. 
Avon near Bredon. ^Vorcester and Birmingham Canal and Severn 
(Reece). Avon at Glover's Isle and Fladbury (Doeg). 

Valvata piscinalis Miiller. — x\pparently rare and local. Hartle- 
bury Common. River Severn (Reece). ALilvern ("Victoria County 
History"). 

V. cristata Miiller. — Local, but fairly plentiful where it occurs. 
Earls Croome. Ivempsey Grove (Reece). Near Worcester ("Victoria 
County History"). 

Pomatias elegans Mi.iller. — "Malvern and Bewdley" ("Victoria 
County History"). Dovedale, Blockley (Doeg). The Malvern record 
probably refers to West Malvern specimens. This is not within the 
Worcestershire boundary, but in Herefordshire. 

Neritina fluviatilis Linne. — Very local. R. Severn (Reece). 
Avon below Harvington Mill, the weir at Evesham, and other parts 
(Doeg). Malvern and R.Severn ("Victoria County History"). 
R. Teme. 

Dreissensia polymorpha Pallas. — Abundant where it occurs. 
R. Severn and Worcester and Birmingham Canal (Reece). The Avon, 
abundant below Chadbury Hill (Doeg). 

Unio pictorum Linne. — Very local but abundant in parts of the 
Avon. Avon near Bredon. Avon and Teme (Reece). Plentiful in 
the Avon (Doeg). R. Teme at Powick. 

U. tumidus Retzius. — Distribution similar to that of the preced- 
ing species. Avon near Bredon. Common in the Avon (Doeg). 
Great Witley (Reece). R. Teme at Powick. 

Anodonta Cygnsea Linne.— Widely distributed in the rivers and 
large ponds of the county. R. Severn. R. Avon. Birtsmorton Moat. 
Callow End. Avon in great abundance (Doeg). R. Teme. 

var. anatina Linne. — Much more local than A. cjgncsa, but 
occurs in parts of the Avon, Severn, and Teme. 

var. arenaria Schroter. — Specimens of this variety are in the 
local collection in the Museum at Worcester (labelled var, zelleiisis) 
from Lawn Brook and Knigh thill Pool, Severn Stoke. 



112 JOURNAL OF CONCHOLOGY, VOL. I4, NO. 4, OCTOBER, I913. 

Pseudanodonta rothomagensis Loc. — This interesting addi- 
tion to the British hst was obtained by Messrs. Foxall and Overton 
in August, 1905, in the River Teme at Powick, where it occurs in 
considerable abundance. '$>&& Journal of CoHchoIogy, vol. xiii., p. 274. 
Common in the Teme at Bransford Bridge (TomHn). 

Sphaerium rivicola Leach. — Very local, but plentiful in a few 
localities. Avon near Bredon. Near Worcester in the canal (Reece). 
Avon (Doeg). Malvern ("Victoria County History"). 

S. corneum l.inne. — Common in most ditches and streams 
throughout the county. Malvern. Earls Croome. Avon (Reece). 
Hartlebury Common. Castlemorton Common. Dowles Brook, 
Wyre Forest. 

var. scaldiana Norman. — Near Feckenham (Reece). 

S. lacustre Miiller. — Widely distributed but not very common. 
Earls Croome, Avon near Bredon. Ponds near Evesham (Doeg). 
Near Worcester (Reece). 

var. brochoniana Bourguignat. — Diglis near Worcester (Reece). 

S. pallidum Gray. — Very rare. Castlemorton Common (Reece). 
Avon at Glover's Isle (Doeg). Also recorded in the "Victoria County 
History," but no locality given. 

Pisidium amnicum Miiller. — Very local. Castlemorton Com- 
mon (Reece). Avon, gravelly parts (Doeg). 

P. supinum Schmidt. — Very rare, only one record apparently 
hitherto. R. Severn near Bewdley (H. Overton in Journal of 
Conchology, vol. 13, p. 45). 

P. henslowianum Sheppard. — Very local. Near Worcester 
(Reece). Hall Green and nr. Worcester ("Victoria County History"). 

p. subtruncatum Malm. — Very local. Near Malvern. Near 
Worcester and Moseley ("Victoria County History"). 

P. pusillum Gmelin. — Occurs abundantly in many ponds and 
ditches. Malvern. Earls Croome. Evesham (Doeg). Defford Com- 
mon. Hill Croome. 

P. obtusale Pfeiffer. — Very local, but should be searched for 
where F. pusillum is plentiful. Hill Croome. Dowles Brook. Near 
Worcester (Reece). 

P. nitidum Jenyns. — Recorded in the "Victoria County History." 

P. gassiesianum Dupuy.- — Probably much more frequent than 
the paucity of records leads one to infer. Earls Croome. Dowles 
Brook, Wyre Forest. 



113 
NOTES ON THREE SPECIES OF CYPR^A. 

By J. KIDSON TAYLOR. 

(Read before the Society, February 12th, 1913). 



My intention in writing this paper is to endeavour to shew that the 
three following forms — Cyprcea petitiann Crosse & Fischer, C. nebiilosa 
Kiener and C. certiica Sowerby — are all entitled to specific rank, and 
are not to be, as now, merely regarded as varietal forms of other well- 
known species. 

C. petitiana Crosse & Fischer. — 

This shell has been generally misunderstood, partly from its rarity 
in collections, and more so from the absence of examples in a fully 
adult state, and so it has been frequently, if not alwa)'s, thought to be 
a variety or growth form of C. pyntm Gmelin. This, I am absolutely 
convinced, cannot be the case, as I have recently acquired a fully 
adult specimen in the finest possible condition. 

Tills shell differs materially from C. pyrnm in its most salient char- 
acters ; its only similarity — and that a superficial one — being the 
painting and colour of the dorsal region ; in every other respect it has 
no resemblance whatever to C. pyrum. 

In C. petitiana the shell is ovate, slightly pyriform, with the extremi- 
ties subrostrate, while in C. pyrum it is oblong-ovate, decidedly 
pyriform and ventricose ; the extremities very much produced, espe- 
cially the anterior end, where the shell is distinctly attenuated and 
narrowed, giving it a pinched-in appearance. The colour of the back 
of the shell is practically similar in both species, a yellowish-chestnut, 
spotted with white and freckled and blotched with darker fuscous 
markings, with the addition in C /j'r//w ■ that the back is distinctly 
banded with a darker colour, alternated generally with narrow whitish 
zones. In C. petitia?ia the lateral margins and extremities are broadly 
flesh-coloured, with the base of a slightly deeper tint, teeth whitish ; 
but in C. pyrum the base, lateral margins, and extremities are of a 
brilliant orange-brown, lighter when immature, but never of the pale 
flesh colour which prevails in C. petitiana ; the teeth are whitish, 
interstices sometimes rosy. The aperture of C. petitiana is narrow 
and slightly sinuous ; the teeth of the outer lip number i8, of the 
columellar lip i6. In C. pyru?n the aperture is rather narrow, arc- 
uated above, subdilated below, roundly margined at each end, the 
outer lip extended above, with from i6 — 22 teeth ; columellar lip 
inside nearly smooth, teeth 14 — 16, thickish, rather wide apart at the 
anterior extremity, the others short, linear, not elongated inside. 

Hidalgo, in his recently published and important work on the 
Genus Cyprcea. has the following remarks on this species :— 

H 



114 JOURNAL OF CONCHOLOGY, VOL. I4, NO. 4, OCTOBER, I913. 

"This species of Cyprma requires to be studied anew, because 
Crosse considers it distinct ; Sowerby judges it a variety of C. nebii- 
losa ; and Roberts looks upon it as no more than a modification of 
C. pyrnm. I have seen in Paris, in the collection of my friend 
Dautzenberg, examples classified as C. petitiana (half-grown) which 
appear to me only a variation of C. pyrmn, and two others in the 
Jousseaume collection nearer to Sowerby's figures 354 and 355 in 
Thesai/rus Couchyliorinri and somewhat distinct from those of Daut- 
zenberg. Not having these at my disposal at the time of writing, I 
cannot decide which of the three authors is most in the right. Of all 
methods, comparative examination of the characters of the aperture, 
size, position, and number of the teeth, will serve more than the 
colouration of the shell to establish or not the resemblance with 
C. pyrum and nebiilosa, because I will call attention here to the fact 
that the var. nyinphx of C. onyx Linne, so different from the type in 
its colour, is identical in form and teeth of the aperture." 

I quite recently sent my specimen to Mr. J. Cosmo Melvill for his 
opinion ; he writes to me : — 

"Your shell is indeed a fine C. petitiana; it exactly agrees with 
mine, a fine live specimen, but only half the size of yours j it has 
been considered a variety of C. pyruvic but I don't now think it is ; 
it seems to possess distinctive qualifications." 

I have seen another example in the collection of Mr. Loftus Byne, 
but this also is quite small, clearly showing two narrow white zones, 
precisely the same as in the figure of Sowerby, before mentioned ; 
this I take to be not full grown. 

The dimensions of my shell are : — 

Length, 31 mm. • breadth, 19 mm. ; altitude, 15^^ mm. 
Habitat, River Gambia, West Africa. 

C. nebulosa Kiener. — 

I cannot at all agree with Roberts in making this a variety of 
C. zonata Chemn., its shape, markings, and general appearance being 
so widely distinct. In shape it is much more ovate, less pyriform, 
the anterior extremity not nearly so attenuated and produced, with 
the terminal blotches much less evident ; in C. nebuiosa also the 
right lateral border is crassated and wider, obtusely angulated, the 
marginal spots ash-coloured and fainter. The dorsal surface is also 
ash-coloured, with clouded ferruginous markings, and no zonal 
bands; its base is rosy-white or straw-coloured. In contrast to this, 
C. zonata is more pyriform, rounded at the sides, extremities pro- 
duced, thickish, laterally margined at the extremities, the anterior 
end subattenuate and truncate ; ground colour of the back pale 



TAYLOR : NOTES ON THREE SPECIES OF CYPR,T,A. II5 

greenish, freckled with oHvaceous markings ; its most distinguishing 
feature is, however, its transverse trifasciation, the central band some- 
times broken up into zigzag flames, sometimes duplicated, and 
occasionally only the central band being present ; the sides are 
yellowish-ash colour or tawny, with numerous, rather large blackish 
spots, the base is pale ochreous or dusky-ash colour, conspicuously 
spotted. 

I submitted also to Mr. Melvill my specimens of C. nebnlosa, sug- 
gesting to him that I thought they had much more affinity to C. 
petitiana than to C. zonata, to which he replied : — 

"There is some external resemblance, particularly to C. petifiaua, 
but I think no real alliance; the lateral clouding and spotting of 
C. nebnlosa shows it nearer to C. pnncfnlata Gray, C. zonata Chemn., 
C. picta Gray, and that group. Your specimens quite agree with four 
I have, all exactly alike, and which are from the same locality. River 
Gambia, West Africa." 

C. cernica Sowerby. — 

This shell has been confused by numerous authors, both in their 
figures and publications, as a variety of C. spnrca Linne \ with these 
I entirely disagree, contending as I do, that C. cernica is an absolutely 
distinct species. 

In shape, C. cernica is totally different, much shorter; and in 
mature specimens rounder, wnth the lateral margins angulated and 
turned upwards in the middle towards the dorsum ; these margins 
are excavated and pitted, with obscure dots all round the rim, which 
dots do not coincide with these fovese. The dorsum is ochreous- 
yellow, sprinkled all over with round white spots, well separated from 
each other. The sides and base are pure white, the latter convex. 
In length, C. cernica only attains 17 — 27 mm., while C. spurca is 
much larger, reaching at times 40 mm. 

The habitat of these two species is very important. Apart from the 
consideration of structural differences, the broad line of demarcation 
in habitat is too well defined in C. spitrca and C. cernica to admit of 
one being merely a geographical variant ; otherwise surely the two 
forms would sometimes be found in proximity, and of this I can find 
no instance recorded. 

C. cernica occurs throughout the Indian and Pacific Oceans, from 
Mauritius to New Caledonia. C. spiiira is found in the Mediter 
ranean, Azores, and all down the west coast of Africa as far as the 
Cape of Good Hope ; and in the case of C. acicularis Gmel. (which 
has the base pure white), throughout the Antilles ; I have several 
specimens of this from Cayman Brae, West Indies. 



Il6 JOURNAL OF CONCHOLOGY, VOL. I4, NO. 4, OCTOBER, I9I3. 

Mr. Melvill, to whom I submitted this paper, says : — 
" I agree with it all, as far as C. petiiiana, C. nehnlosa, and I think 
C. cernica are concerned ; this last has always seemed to me different 
from C. sp7irui, not only in form, but in locality, and the clear dorsal 
spotting ; I considered this in the "Survey" (1888) a var. of C. spurca 
it is true, but have been gradually coming round to an opposite 
opinion, and to sum up, I do not at all demur from your view and 
proposal to grant it specific rank." 

In conclusion, I beg to acknowledge the great assistance that the 
work of Dr. Hidalgo has afforded me in compiling this paper ; and I 
must thank Mr. Melvill for his timely aid and comments. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE 
CONCHOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF GREAT BRITAIN & IRELAND. 

423rd Meeting;, held at Manchester Museum, June nth, 1913. 

Mr. E. Collier in the chair. 

The Secretary reported that the usual exchanges had been received. 

Candidates proposed for Membership. 

Mrs. E. Fordred, " Wychmont," St. Bernard's Road, Olton, Warwickshire 
(recommended by H. Overton and Albert Wood). 

H. F. D. Bartlett, F.E.S., i, Myrtle Road, Bournemouth (recommended by 
J. R. le B. Tomlin and I>. J. Shackleford). 

Member Deceased. 

Hugh Lamont Orr (a letter of condolence has been sent to the late member's 
family). 

Paper Read. 

" Note on Caryatis hekheri of Romer," by J. R. le Brockton Tomlin, ^I. A. , and 
Lewis J. Shackleford. 

Exhibits. 

By Mr. G. C. Spence : Specimens of Archegocoptis eximia Pfr., A. crenulata 
W. & M., and Helicophanta farafanga Angas. 

By Mr. E. Collier : Helix aspersa from the gardens of the Villa D'Este, Tivoli, 
near Rome, and also the same species from Fiesole, near Florence, but quite 
different from the Tivoli specimens ; also JI. veniiiciilata from Fiesole. 

By Mr. J- R- 'e B. Tomlin and Rev. L. J. Shackleford : A set of Ptlaria 
romeri n.sp., from Sao Thome, G. of Guinea, to illustrate their note on Caryatis 
belcheri of Romer. 

By Rev. L. J. Shackleford : A fine living specimen of Helix poviaiia from 
Basingstoke, Hants. 



ii7 



HELIX ASPERSA m. SCALARIFORME Taylor. 



By J. R. B. MASEFIELD. 



(Read before the Society, March i?th, 1913). 



In the ' Queen ' newspaper for the 30th November last was a 
photograph of a hving specimen of this variety of mollusc which had 
been deposited at the London Zoo from Haverfordwest, Pembrokeshire. 
The whorls are absolutely separated in the form of an elongated 
cornucopia and consequently there is no columella. With the 
description of this shell it was stated that the keeper found this 
mollusc " walking abroad without its shell, whereupon it was promptly 
seized and again safely housed, since when it has not broken bounds." 
I communicated with I\Ir. R. I. Pocock, the superintendent of the 
Zoo, as to this somewhat startling announcement, and he very kindly 
allowed me to examine this snail last month. I found it crawling up 
the glass side of its case, and 1 noticed on handling the shell that the 
two top whorls were transparent, and the body of the mollusc extended 
only a little beyond the large bottom whorl. Besides this, the apex 
of the shell appeared to have received injury sometime, and was 
slightly decollated. On placing the animal in tepid water for a short 
time it soon crawled out over my hand. When extended to its full 
length, and by using a very slight pull, the whole body came absolutely 
out of its shell and crawled about in an apparently happy condition. 
We afterwards replaced the mollusc in its shell. I take it that from 
some cause the retractor muscles had become atrophied or had never 
developed at all in consequence of there being no columella. Mr. 
J. W. Taylor tells me that he has known similar instances before, and 
in \ki^ Journal of Conchology, vol. iv., p. loi, he states that an account 
is given in the " Journal de Conchyliologie " of a specimen of this 
form, which was entirely detached from its shell and continued healthy 
and active. In vol. ix. of the Journal of Conchology, p. 112, Mr. 
A. G. Stubbs gives another instance in the case of Linincea peregra, 
attributing the occurrence to disease, and at pp. 164 and 217 of the 
same volume other instances are given. 



ii8 

NOTES ON THE SECTION TACHEA OF HELIX. 



By EDWARD COLLIER. 



(Read before the Society, JNIaich 12th, 1913). 



The Genus Helix contains the most highly organized species of the 
Family Helicidce, and the members of the Section Tachea seem to be 
amongst the most highly specialized forms of this genus, and evi- 
dently fitted for meeting widely diverse conditions of existence. 

This section is held by some to have originated on the Central 
Asian Plateau, by Dr. Scharff and others in South-western Europe, 
but Mr. J. W. Taylor maintains "that its true evolutionary area is 
decidedly within the Germanic region, from whence it has spread 
and is gradually spreading in all directions, penetrating eastvvardly 
through the South Russian provinces by precisely the same route as 
Helix po/Jialia, thus contributing to confirm this as the true east- 
ward track of the dominant European species." 

Tachea is one of the most dominant European groups, and is found 
nearly all over Europe, except in the eastern portion of Russia. One 
species has extended its range from Spain into Morocco, another 
species is found in Asia Minor, while one — and that the largest of 
the group — is found in the Caucasus, and on into Persia, along the 
southern shore of the Caspian Sea. Another species, and that one 
of the commonest, has extended its range into North America. 

The Tacheas are of very ancient lineage, as H. nemoralis is recorded 
from tlie Lower Miocene deposits in the south of France, and has 
been found in this country in the Pleistocene and Holocene deposits 
from a large number of localities. 

The shell is globose to subglobose, or depressed, generally thin, 
rather solid, smooth in most species, but in the larger species striate, 
or even malleate. They have an umbilicus open when young, but 
becoming closed in adult life. Whorls 5, the last deflexed in front, 
tumid. Aperture wide-lunar, oblique, lip expanded and tliickened 
within, the columellar margin straight, widened by a blade-like callus 
within. They are nominally all five-banded, but they are very often 
found with fewer bands, and in many cases without bands at all. 
They are the most highly coloured of European land shells, as well 
as the most variable in colour. They live on shady banks, walls and 
bushes, in gardens, vineyards, etc., and, while avoiding the direct 
rays of the sun, are light-loving creatures. 

They are very prolific, and adapt themselves to circumstances of 
climate and environment in a remarkable way. In this country they 
are found, since the ground was cultivated and enclosed, on hedge- 



COLLIER: NOTES ON THE SECTION TACHEA OP HELIX. II9 

banks and old walls in abundance. They are sometimes found 
climbing trees and hedgerows, and at Lisdoonvarna Spa, in co. Clare, 
I found abundance of our H. tiemoralis quite high up in a thorn 
hedge. At Corbeyrier-sur-Aigle, in the Rhone Valley, at an altitude 
of 2,500 feet, I found the same species in an orchard, a long way up 
the apple-trees, and I had to get a long pole with which to push 
them off. 

They colonize freely, and H. nemoralis is said to have increased 
rapidly since it was introduced into North America. 

Most writers assign the following nine species to Tachea : — 
Helix atr-olabiata Krynicki. 
Helix vindobonensis C. Pfeiffer. 
Helix nemoralis Linne. 
Helix hortensis Miiller. 
Helix sylvatica Draparnaud. 
Helix coquaudi Morelet. 
Helix splendida Draparnaud. 
Helix aiinophila Bourguignat. 
Helix vlcaria Westerlund. 

Besides these, H. gibbonda Desh. and H. filosa Desh., both of 
unknown habitat, may be synonymous with one of the above species; 
while H. litturea .Pfr., also with habitat unknown, is perhaps a form 
of H. sylvatica. 

H. (Tachea) atrolabiata Krynicki. — 

This species is the largest of the section, and its distribution is in 
the Caucasus, Georgia and Imeretia, and in Persia, along the southern 
shore of the Caspian Sea. 

This species varies considerably : the var. lenkoranea Mouss., 
looked at from above, might almost be taken for a form of our 
common H. aspersa, but it has the mouth of a true Tachea, whereas 
the var. neinoraloides Mart, looks like a glorified H. ne/noralis. 

H. (Tachea) vindobonensis C. Pfr. = austriaca Muhl— 

This species is very like our H. nemoralis, but is more globose and 
strongly striate, with the usual five bands ; it is also found without 
bands (var. expallescens Zglr.). 

It is found in Central and Eastern Europe as far as the Caucasus. 
It seems to live in the districts where H. nemoralis has so far not 
yet penetrated, although on the borderland the two species are found 
together, but apparently it is being driven further east by the more 
dominant H. nemoralis. 



120 JOURNAL Otf CONCHOLOGY, VoL. I4, NO. 4, OCTOBfiR, I913. 

H. (Tachea) nemoralis Linne. — 

This species occurs very plentifully in nearly all parts of the United 
Kingdom, having been found in every county in England and Ireland, 
and in Scotland as far north as a hne drawn from Kincardineshire on 
the east coast to the Island of Lismore on the west. 

On the continent it is found all over Germany and Austria, except 
in Transylvania, and has spread into Western and Southern Russia. 
It is found all over Switzerland ; Italy, except the extreme south ; 
in France, though not so far recorded from some of the central 
departments; in Spain and Portugal; and there is a record by Dr. 
Kobelt from Algeria. It is also found in Belgium, Holland, Den- 
mark, the southern part of Sweden, and in the western part of 
Norway, as far north as Bergen. It has been introduced into the 
United States, first, I believe, at Lexington, Virginia, where it has 
spread considerably, and subsequently into New Jersey, Pennsylvania, 
Massachusetts, while Prof. Cockerell records it in Colorado. It has 
also been introduced into Canada, and is spreading there. It has 
also been recorded from New Zealand. 

Mr. J. ^V. Taylor in his Monograph considers it a dominant species, 
the advance guard of which is steadily extending its territory and 
gradually dispossessing from the regions they occupy the closely- 
allied yet earlier evolved and therefore comparatively weaker and 
less dominant species — vi/idobofie/isis, sylvatica, and Iwrtensis. 

The largest specimens I have taken were from the Island of Inish- 
more, one of the Aran Isles in Galway Bay, and from Ballyvaughan 
and Black Head, co. Clare. On a visit to the Isle of Inishmurray, 
off the coast of Sligo, we found a quantity of very large ones, but on 
the mainland opposite, at Streedagh Point, the shells were very small 
and utterly unlike the Inishmurray ones. 

The var. minor has been found in different parts of the country ; 
I have specimens from Miller's Dale, Derbyshire ; Start Point, South 
Devon ; and A^alencia Island, co. Kerry. 

The colour is very variable, although the var. libelhila and the 
var. rubella are the commonest, but in some districts var. castanea is 
plentiful. In some places you find the different colours living 
together on one bank, and from near Limerick I have received the 
most variable series as regards colour that I have ever seen. On the 
continent they are also very variable in colour, although there are in 
some districts very few, except the var. libellula ; but in the Pyrenees 
they seem to vary a great deal. Dr. C^sar Boettger writes me that 
he considers that they are, as a rule, more brilliantly coloured the 
further west they are found ; certainly the brightest colours are from 
the West of Ireland. 



COLLIER : NOTES ON THE SECTION TACHEA OF HELIX. I2I 

Normally, Tachea tiemoralis has a black or dark-coloured lip, but is 
in some districts very often found with a white lip, like T. hortensis. 
In Ireland, where I have found in some places large quantities of the 
var. albolabiata, they have sometimes by the older collectors been 
taken and recorded as hortensis. At Middletown, Bunbeg, co. 
Donegal, we took this species, both with white and dark mouths in 
all the different band-formulas including even (12345) var. coalita. 
It is also found occasionally with yellow, rose, violet, or brown lip ; 
but often these colours fade considerably. 

The band-formula is very variable. According to some who have 
had the opportunities of extensively breeding this species, the ten- 
dency is for the banded or unhanded forms to resemble their parents, 
and if this is so, how are we to acconnt for the occurrence of such 
variation in colour and banding on one single bank or hedge-row? 

One of our members, the late R. D. Darbishire, was I believe the 
first to record some very heavy shells of this species from a Holocene 
deposit at Dog's Bay, Conneraara, and on my two visits there I col- 
lected a large quantity of them. They are a very heavy solid shell, 
and have been identified by Herr Clessin as the H. tonnensis of 
Sandberger. 

There is a considerable number of records of the monst. sinis- 
trnm Fer. of this species. I have been fortunate enough myself 
to take two alive, one near Ballyvaughan, co. Clare, and another at 
Corbeyrier-sur-Aigle, Rhone A^alley. A great many examples have 
been found near Bundoran, co. Donegal — according to Mr. R. 
Welch, over 2,000 specimens, mostly Holocene, but they are still 
found there alive, as when I was there \yith the late Dr. Chaster, he 
was fortunate enough to find a living one. Nearly all the specimens 
that I have of this form from Bundoran are 12045, which is a rather 
unusual band-formula. 

H. (Tachea) hortensis Muller. — 

This species approaches the preceding one very nearly, and was for 
a long time considered only a variety of it. It is distinguished from 
H. iieinoralis by its smaller size, more compact shell, white aperture, 
and generally thinner and more glossy shell. It is also not so brilli- 
antly coloured, although I have taken some very red var. incaniata 
Picard, on nut bushes at Corbeyrier. 

There is also less variation in the band-formula, as the bulk of the 
specimens found are 00000 or 12345; whilst 00300 — very common 
in H. nenioralis — is in this species comparatively rare.. 

It: extends much further north than H. neinoralis, as it has been 
found in almost every county in England and Scotland, as far north 



122 JOURNAL OF CONCHOLOGY, VOL. I4, NO. 4, OCTOBER, I913. 

as the Shetland Isles. In Ireland it is recorded from a good many 
counties, although I think, with Mr. J. W, Taylor, that a good many 
of the older records are a mistake for the var. albolahiata of H. nenio- 
ralls. It is found all over Central Europe; France, except some of 
the Central Provinces ; Spain, in tlie north-eastern portion ; but the 
records from Italy are thought to be, again, the var. albolahiata of 
H. tietnoralis, as no recent finds have been reported from there. It is 
found in Austria and Bosnia, but not in Transylvania, and in Russia 
it is found in the Baltic Provinces, and has been reported from South 
Russia. In Norway it has been found up to latitude 64° north ; also 
in Sweden and Denmark ; and Dr. O. A. L. Morch records it from 
Iceland. It is reported to have been found in Greenland ; and 
occurs in Eastern North America, from Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, 
Prince Edward Island, and along the western coast of Newfoundland 
to Maine, Connecticut, and Massachusetts in the United States. It 
has also been found in the Pleistocene Clays of Maine, so that it 
cannot have been a recent introduction. Scientists think that it may 
have extended its range into America through the land connection, 
believed by many to have joined North- West Europe to North 
America during Tertiary times, and by means of which a few other 
species have probably reached Eastern North America. There is also 
a record from New Zealand, evidently introduced. 

Where found, it is generally abundant, and after rain in some 
Devonshire lanes I have found it in abundance, where at ordinary 
times it was very difficult to find a single specimen. 

The colour of the lip is generally white, but it is sometimes found 
in intermediate shades of brown to black ; it is noteworthy that in 
those with coloured lip the colour generally fades if kept for any time, 
whereas this does not often occur in B. neinoralis. The colours of 
var. lilaciiia and var. incarjtata fade very much. 

If a collector is in doubt whetlier a shell is this species, or var. 
albolahiata of the preceding one, the best thing to do, if it is the right 
season, is to examine the gypsobelum or love-dart, as they are quite 
distinct in the two species. 

H. (Tacheaj sylvatica Drap. — 

This is only found in the Alpine districts of France and Switzer- 
land and the Upper Rhine A^alley. It is found in somewhat the same 
situations as H. horterisis^ e.g., at Martigny in the Rhone A^alley ; I 
have taken it in large quantities on a grassy bank, along with var. 
alha^ but I did not find it so high in the mountains as H. neinoralis 
or H. hortensis. 



COLLIER : NOTES ON THE SECTION TACHEA OF HELIX. 1 23 

H. (Tachea) coquandi Morelet. — 

This and the next species seem to connect Tachea with the Macu- 
lar la group. 

It is only found in Morocco and Southern Spain. It is a more 
depressed shell than the preceding species, and is generally, though 
not always, found without bands, and of a brown or rosy colour. 

H. (Tachea) splendida Drap. — 

The peristome and aperture are sometimes rose tinted witliin. A 
lovely species, connected with the smaller Macidarlce, and as far as 
shell characters go, intermediate between the two groups. 

Locality : Spain and Southern France. 

It is a more depressed shell than any other of the section and it is 
also the smallest. 

H. (Tachea) aimophila Bourg. — 

Locality : x'Vsia Minor. 

Unfortunately, I have never seen this species. It seems to be a 
thick, heavy, chalky-white shell, something like H. desertorum^ but 
more globose, and adapted for life in a hot, sunny district. 

Kobelt has this species amongst the Tacheas with a ? in front of it, 
and the locality Abruzzi, so that there is evidently some doubt about 
this species. 

H. (Tachea) vicaria AVesterlund. — 

This species was described by Westerlund in 1894, but I have not 
seen a description, though I understand it is something like our 
H. horfejisls, and is found in Greece and Turkey-in-Europe. 



Shells from the Rhone Delta. — In April, 1912, I had the opportunity of 
visiting the Salin of Geiaud in the Delta of the Rhone. One evening, walking 
along the main river, I noticed a small pocket of rejectamenta, and picked up two 
handfuls, and on reaching home this material was sorted out and found to contain 
thirty-two species of shells, all common to the Rhone Valley, but some strangers 
to Comargue. The following shells were obtained: — Viirea alliaria (MiilL), 
Eucomdus fnlvus (MiilL), Helicella virgata (Mont.), H. barbara {1^.), H. ventri- 
cosa (Di-ap.), H. pyraniidata (Drap.), Vallonia pulcliella (Mtill.), V. costaia 
(Mull)., Helix pisana (Mull.), H. verniiciilata (Mtill.), Carychiuiii )iiinimiim 
(Mull.), Cochlicopa lubrica (Drap.), CLEcilioides acictila (Mtill.), Cyclostonia elegans 
(Drap.), Clausilia parvida (Stud.), Biilimimis qtiadridens (Drap)., Pupa doliolitm 
(Drap.), P. pyreiiiEai-ia (Mich.), P. avenacea (Brug. ), P. secale (Drap.), P. cyliii- 
dracea (DaC), P. ringens (Mich. J, P. musconini (L.), Vertigo pitsilla (Mtill.), 
V. pygmxa (Drap.), V. iitiniitissiina (}^a.i\.m)., Succinea obloiiga {T)xa^.), Valvata 
cristata (Miill.), Bythinia teniaciclata (L. ), Planorbis spirorbis (L. ), P. coin- 
planatus (Drap.), Liinnma pereger (MiilL), and L. tfumatula (MiilL). — B. R. 
Lucas {Read before the Society, October 13th, 1912). 



124 

ADDITIONS TO "BRITISH CONCHOLOGY." 

By J. T. MARSHALL. 



Part A^II. (contmiied frovi p. yj ). 



P. sulcatus Mull.=i^. aratiis Gmel. — Between the Orkneys and 
Shetlands, 85-i45f., several specimens, and midway between the 
Shetlands and Norway, i97f. (Simpson) ! 

P. varius var. purpurea Jeff. — Various Clyde records of this 
shell are referable to purple specimens of the type, and not to the true 
var. pi/rpufea. 

P. opercularis var. audouinii Payr. — Gairloch, 2of. In this 
variety the ribs are vaulted and beautifully imbricated, but I do not 
consider its oval shape to be more than an individual character, as 
this varies equally with the type. Var. audouinii is the form usually 
found in the Red Crag deposits, and is well figured by Searles Wood.^ 

P. pes-lutrse L. — The monstrous valve recorded by Gwyn 
Jeffreys^ is not unique. I have a perfect specimen from the Shet- 
lands, Mr. A. Somerville dredged two more at Oban, and Mr. J. 
Simpson has another of the var. septemradiatus from E. Shetlands. A 
similar monstrosity also occurs in P. tigrinus, but is less rare. 

P. tigrinus Miill. — Herring nets are a prolific source of supply for 
this species. The largest come from the Doggerbank and the Moray 
Firth, and attain an inch in length and breadth. 

P. similis Lask. — This tiny Peden is very largely consumed by 
haddocks, who swallow them in large numbers while they flit about 
in the open sea, as is their habit. Any one who does not mind 
handling the offal of haddocks will find himself well rewarded. White 
specimens are rare ; I have two or three only from the Shetlands. 

Amussium hoskynsi Forb. — Between the Orkneys and Shetlands 
i45f., two specimens and some valves; off the Shetlands i55f, a 
valve; and between the Shetlands and Faroes 1 3 if. (Simpson) ! It 
has also been dredged off the Butt of Lewis in 53of by the 'Knight 
Errant,' and north of the Shetlands in 345f. by the 'Porcupine.' 

Lima sarsii Lov. — Dredged by the Scottish Fishery Board in the 
North Sea 53f, a valve; between the Orkneys and Shetlands i45f., 
and off the Shetlands i55f., several specimens and many valves 
(Simpson)! Also by H.M.S. 'Sylvia' in the Straits of Korea 20- 

5of- (!) 

L. hians var. tenera Turt. — Alderney (Marquand) ! 

1 Crag Moll., vol. ii., tab. 6, fig. -za, p. 36. 

2 Brit. Conch., vol. ii., p. 64. 



MARSHALL: ADDITIONS TO "BRITISH CONCHOLOGY." I25 

L. subovata Jeff, has been dredged in the Atlantic off Ireland in 
i366f., and off the Butt of Lewis in 542f., by the 'Porcupine' ; also 
in the Shetland-Faroe Channel, in 57of., by the 'Triton.' 

Mytilus edulis L. — In 1901, when the lightship at Boston, in 
Lincolnshire, was put on the gridiron for overhauling, no less than six 
tons of mussels were taken from her keel and sides. The propensity 
of Mytihis to attach itself to the sheathing of ships is a fruitful cause 
of food poisoning, though the latter may also arise from the practice 
of taking mussels from the open sea and placing them in contaminated 
waters to fatten or as a preserve for bait. There are many forms of 
ptomaine or food poisoning in all preserved or stale provisions, but 
that inherent in Mytilus is a perfect example of true ptomaine 
poisoning, being caused by a ptomaine known as " mytilotoxin," 
which has its source in stagnant waters and is generated in the 
unusually large liver of the animal. Gwyn Jeffreys wrote that "the 
' faculty ' seems completely at fault as to the nature of this poison,"^ 
but it is now known that mytilotoxin is a specific micro-organism, 
highly dangerous, and may be acquired from eating either cooked or 
uncooked mussels — so dangerous, indeed, that in acute cases fatal 
results may ensue within two or three hours of their consumption. It 
has been found fatal to animals if given by the mouth, although quite 
innocuous if injected into the circulation. 

Grown under careful supervision and with proper care, however, 
mussels are an excellent food. Those in most repute come from the 
beds of St. Valery-sur-Somme, and especially from the bay of 
L'Aiguillon, where it is said that mussels have flourished for more 
than 800 years, and their consumption in Paris alone is estimated to 
be worth nearly 10,000,000 francs per annum. They are palatable 
and nutritious even in the wild state, but on the mud flats of St. 
Valery, which comprise hundred of acres, mussel culture has been 
brought to such a state of perfection that the artificial breeding, rearing 
and fattening of the mussels, on the same principles which obtain in 
ostreaculture, has brought them to a high degree of perfection. 

The rate of production is enormous, and is estimated at 300-fold 
per annum. The brood mussels are brought from the sea bed and 
laid down on prepared grounds, which are set with interlaced rows 
of stakes ; in due season they spawn plentifully, and the spat, 
finding a congenial environment, with an admixture from the sweet 
waters of the Somme, grow rapidly, and at the end of a year the germ 
can be brought to those points of size, colour and flesh which enable 
it to be sent to market, developing in that interval into full-grown 
mussels sin. in length by half that width, free from disease or blemish 



I Brit. Conch., vol. ii., p. ic 



126 JOURNAL or CONCIIOI.OGY, VOT,. I4, NO. 4, OCTOBER, I913. 

either in shell or flesh, the latter being white, fat, full, and succulent. 
Its only natural enemy appears to be the crab, which finds it an easy 
prey. 

It has been found that in the hardest frost the mussels become 
frozen but do not die, as they thaAV and melt on a rising temperature, 
and seem none the worse for it. Not so the oyster, which is killed 
off by frost. It also bears greater heat and exposure than the 
oyster. Mussels, in fact, appear to be particularly tenacious of life, 
as a cart-load of them, which had been shot into a hole and covered 
with two feet of clay because they were all thought to be dead, were 
found some weeks later alive and thriving, and working tlieir way out 
of the clay mass in which they were embedded. 

var. incurvata Penn. — This variety is not always "stunted and 
bent," and " filling crevices of rocks ;" on some coasts it lives 
attached by a byssus only ; in this state it is small and narrow, 
beautifully rayed, and curved like the blade of a scythe ; hence the 
name. 

var. pellucida Penn. — Among some beautiful specimens ot this 
variety which were taken from the bottom of a barge at New Ferry 
by Mr. A. Leicester, a portion possess some peculiar features. 
Instead of bemg "less gibbous" than the type, they are much more 
so, the umbonal area especially being swollen to the same extent as 
in M. modiolus^ and, like that species, the anterior end of the shell is 
broadly rounded and swollen, instead of forming a point. In outward 
form they would answer for either species. 

var. pallida Marsh, must be substituted for vax.flavus Poli, to 
which I attributed it in error. Poli's shell is brownish-yellow, and 
hardly a variety, though it is found occasionally on our coasts. Var. 
pallida is straw-colour or colourless. Another form sometimes found 
on our coasts is smaller, narrower, and proportionately longer ; this 
is var. elougata S. Wood, from the Crag. I have it from Southampton 
Water. 

M. modiolus var. ovata Jeff. — Tenby (Span) ! 

var. cylindrica Marsh. — This is well figured as an elongated 
variety in Crag MoUusca, vol. ii., tab. viii., figs, ic, d. 

M. barbatus L. — The Bute record of Mr. Wotton is an error, 
his shell being M. ??wdiolus. Other Clyde records given in Brit. 
Assoc. Handbook (1901) are most probably equally erroneous, and 
the determination not only of this species, but of many others in that 
list, should not be accepted without confirmation. 

Adula (Myrina) simpsoni Marsh. — Described and figured in 
Journ. Malac, 1900, vol. vii., p. 167 (woodcuts); and vol. viii., p. 19. 

Modiolaria marmorata Forb.— Frith of Forth, living at low 
water (Jeffreys). 



MARSHALL : ADDITIONS TO " BRITISH CONCLIOLOOY. 12"] 

Cantraine's specific name suhpicta has precedence of matiiiorata by 
three years, and that given by Say {latefa/is), if applicable to the 
present species, is still older ; but viarmoraia is now in general use.^ 

M. COStulata Risso. — -Alderney (Marquand) ! Swansea (Jeffreys); 
Freshwater West (Vaughan and J.T.M.). I once found a valve 
among some northern shells gathered on the beach at Durness in 
Sutherlandshire, and although this valve was beach-worn like the rest, 
there is a possibility of error. Al. coshdata is almost exclusively 
southern, the only exceptions being the Welsh ones recorded above. 

M. discors var. semilsevis Jeff.=var. IcBvigata Gray=var. sub- 
striata Gray=var. Icevis Beck. — Benbecula Sound lof. 

All the preceding names are scarcely required for the same form ; 
they only differ in colour or degree of sculpture, which is extremely 
variable even among specimens living together. At one extreme, 
Jeffreys' variety is small and yellowish-green, while at the other Gray's is 
large and purplish-black, caused merely by a difference of environment. 
I have all these four forms, besides the type, from Arctic localities. 

M. nigra Gray. — This species, as well as several other yJ/(7^/^/c?r/(7, 
British and foreign, has been given the name of discrepatis. They 
attain a large size on the Doggerbank and off Aberdeen, reaching up 
to 2^in. in width. 

Crenella pellucida Jeff. — Adventure Bank 92f. ('Porcupine') ! 
Sooloom Bay, Tripoli i2of. (Shearwater)! Even this mite of a 
bivalve is occasionally pierced by a gastropod, which leaves little more 
than the margins of the shell. 

Nucula sulcata Bronn. — Pladda, Clyde, 33r, abundant and fine 
(Knight) ! 

N. nitida var. radiata Marsh. — This is figured by Jeffreys as a 
"streaked variety. ''- 

N. tumidula Malm has been dredged off the Butt of Lewis in 
545f. by the Scottish Fishery Board (Simpson) ! and in the same 
district in 53of. by the ' Knight Errant.' 

N. corbuloides Seg. was also dredged with the preceding species 
by the ' Knight Errant,' and in the Atlantic off Ireland by the 
' Porcupine.' Sowerby gives a figure under this name,* but it has no 
resemblance to the actual shell. 

A valve of Malletia obiiisa M. Sars, a rare species, has been dredged 
by the Scottish Fishery Board in igyf., midway between the Shetlands 
and Norway (Simpson) ! 

Leda pusilla Jeff.^— S. W. Ireland 3o-4of. (R. I. A. cruise) ; 
Antrim ((Chaster). 

1 Jefifreys : Moll. 'Lightning' and ' Porcupine,' P.Z.S., 1879, p. 568. 

2 Brit. Conch,, vol. v., pi. xxix., fig. 3a. 

3 Illiis. Ind. Brit. Shells, pi. xxvi., fig. 17. 

4 Jeffreys, Proc. Zool. Soc, 187Q, p. 580, pi. xlvi., fig. 6; Chaster, Irish Naturalist, Illay, 
1897, vol. vi. 



128 JOURNAL OF CONCHOI.OGY, VOL. I4, NO. 4, OCTOBER, I913. 

L. lucida Lov. has been dredged off the Butt of Lewis in 53of. 
('Knight Errant'), and midway between Shetland and Norway in igyf. 
(Simpson) ! 

L. lenticula Moll.— Off Loch Ryan 24f., three valves. 

L. frigida Torell.^— Off the Butt of Lewis 53of. ('Knight Errant') ; 
S. W. Ireland 345f. (R.I. A. cruise). I have three valves of this 
species dredged off Loch Ryan in 25f., another valve from Eigg 
Island in 2of., and another from the Mull of Cantire in 26f. (The 
Eigg Island valve I had already recorded as L. lenticula by error in 
Join-}i. of Conch., 1897, vol. viii., p. 344). Though apparently recent, 
these valves may be fossil or semi-fossil. They are larger and 
coarser in every way than Arctic or 'Porcupine' specimens. L. frigida 
has a very wide range, and is a Glasgow post-tertiary fossil. 

Leda? sp. — A valve of another species of Leda, from off Loch 
Ryan in 25^, is intermediate between L. frigida and Z. tennis, but 
distinct from i)oth. 

Limopsis aurita Brocc. — S. W. Ireland 345f. (R. I. A. cruise) ; 
off the Shetlands i55f. (Simpson)! 

L. minuta Phil.=Z. borealis Woodward MS. — A genuine British 
species ; it has been dredged between the Orkneys and the Shetlands 
in i45f. (Simpson)! Also the Faroe Channel, 5i6f., with L. crisiata 
(Triton) ! Atlantic off Ireland and off the Scillies, with Z. aurita 
('Porcupine'). 

L. cristata Jeff. — Several living specimens and half-a-dozen valves 
were dredged 80-90 miles N.VV. of the Butt of Lewis (lat. 59' 36", long. 
7 W.) in 545f., during a cruise of the Scottish Fishery Board in 1906 
(Simpson) ! 

Pectunculus glycymeris var. nummarius Turt. — A figure of 
this variety is given by Forbes and Hanley.^ 

Area pectunculoides Scacc. — Straits of Korea 4of. (FI.M.S. 
' Sylvia ') ! 

A. obliqua Phil. — Between the Orkneys and Shetlands i45f., 
valves only; and off the Shetlands i55f., valves only (Simpson)! 

A. lactea L.— Straits of Korea 4of. (H.M.S. 'Sylvia') ! 

A. nodulosa Mlill. — Between the Orkneys and Shetlands, i45f., 
a perfect specimen and several valves; off the Shetlands, i55f, 
another specimen; and between the Shetlands and Faroes, i3if. 
(Simpson)! Shetland-Faroe Channel 57of. ('Triton') ! The record 
of Mr. Frank Coulson of "a living specimen off East Shetlands in 
1886," was erroneous. 

{To be continued). 



I Spitzbergen Moll., p. 148, tal). i, fig 
? Brit. Moll., vol. iv., pi. .xlvi.,, fig. 4. 



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[No. 5 



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JOURNAL 

CONCHO LOGY. 

fUlUNUK!) IS74 

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0!' GREAT BRllAIN AND IRELAND. 

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COITTEITTS. 

i-ac;k 

ConstiuUion of the Conchological Sociely of Great Britain and Ireland 129 

List of Oflicers and Council for 1913-14 ..• 130 

List of Members... .. ... ... ... ... ... ... 131 

Vertigo alpestris Alder in Merionethshire — C.Oldham ... ... 13S 

Some Molluscan RadukAj (Presidential Address) — Rev. Prokessor 

If. M. GwATKiN ... 139 

Conchological Notes from Scarborough — W. CiYngp:ll ... ... 148 

Limax tenellus in Surrey — W. D. Roehuck 148 

Proceedings: Sept. lO, 1913 ; Oct. ir, 1913 (Annual Meeting); 

Nov. 12, 1913 149 

Limnjea pereger Midi, from Dauphine — L. E. Adams ... ... 158 

Editorial Notes 159 

Note on Urocoptis rosea Pfr. — tj. C. Si'encf ... ... ... 159 

Reported Occurrence of H. lapicida 1>. and Ena montana Drap. in 

Ireland — L. E. Adams .. 160 

II. lapicida L. in Ireland— E. Collier j6o 

Paludestrina jenkinsi Smith in Cambridgeshire — C. Oldham ... 160 



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JOURNAL OF CONCHOLOGY. 

Vol. 14. JANUARY, 1914. No. 5. 



CONSTITUTION OF THE 

CONCHOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF GREAT BRITAIN 

AND IRELAND. 



I.— This Society shall be called "Z\K COtlCbOlOgiCal SOCiCt\^ Of (5reat 

:ffiiitain an& 5relan&." 

2. — Its object shall be the promotion of the science of Conchology, by the hold- 
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I 



130' JOURNAL OF CONCHOI.OGY, VOL. I4, NO. 5, JANUARY, I9I4. 

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♦•••« 

LIST OF OFFICERS AND COUNCIL FOR 1913-1914. 



PRESIDENT : 

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VICE-PRESIDENTS 



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EDWARD COLLIER 

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F.E.S. 
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F.R.S. 
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Prof. S. J. HICKSON, D.Sc, M.A., 

F.R.S. 



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LIST OF MEMBERS 

Corrected to Dec. 2Sth, T913. 



(With year of election ; O = founder, or original member", L = Life Member ; P = has filled 
the office of President ; *post packets have been returned undelivered). 



IS«9 
1S97 

I9I3 

1S7S 

1905 

1906, 

I 

1889 

1905 



HONORARY MEMBERS. 

(Limited to ten in number). 

Cossmann, Maurice, 95, Rue de ]\Iaubeuge, Pari.s. 

Dall, Wm. Healey, A.M., D..Sc., .Smithsonian Institution, Washington, 

D.C., U.S.A. 
Dautzenberg, Ph., 213, Rue de I'Universitc, Paris. 
Kobelt, Dr. Wilhelm, Schwanheim, Frankfurt-am-Main. 
Pelseneer, Prof. Paul, 56, Boulevard lyeopold, Ghent, Belgium. 
Pilsbry, H. A., Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, Pa., U.S.A. 
Sars, Prof. G. O. , Universitet, Christiania, Norway. 
Simroth, Dr. Heinrich Rudolph, Kregelstrasse 12, Leipzig-Gautsch. 
Strebel, Dr. Hermann, Naturhistorisches Museum, Hamburg. 



O r Taylor, John W., North Grange, Horsforth, Leeds. 



ORDINARY MEMBERS. 

1903. Abbott, G., 83, Russell Street, Kettering. 

1906. Adams, F. E. , St. Milburga's, Kingsland, Shrewsbury. 

1885. /" Adams, Lionel Ernest, B.A., Oak Hill, Chart Road, Reigate, Surrey. 

191 1. Allan, Harry, jr., Glenfield, Edgeley Road, Stockport. 

1895. Arnold, Bernard, F. L.S. , Milton Lodge, Gravesend. 

190S. Bacchus, A. D. R., National Provincial Bank of England, Roath, Cardiff. 

1907. Baily, Joshua L., jr., Haverford, Pa., U.S.A. 
1913. Baker, Dr. Fred., Point Loma, California, U.S.A. 

1908. Balch, F. N., 60, State Street (Rooms 504-507), Boston, Mass., U.S.A. 
191 1. Barnard, K. H., B.A., Sbuth African Museum, Capetown. 
l9i3.ZBartlett, H. F. D., F.E.S., i, Myrtle Road, Bournemouth. 

1907. Bartsch, Dr. Paul, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., U.S.A. 

1907. Bavay, A., 82, Rue Lauriston, xvi«, Paris. 

1905. Becker, Dr. H., F.L.S., F.S.A., Grahamstown, Cape Colony. 

1901. Beeston, Harry, Sunnymead, South Street, Havant, Hants. 

1904. Bellini, Prof. Raffaello, R. Scuola Tecnica, Chivasso, Torino, Italy. 
1904. Benn, C. A., M.A., F.G.S., Rodwell Hall, Trowbridge. 

1901. Bentley, R. H., 60, Rosebery Road, Muswell Hill, N. 

1897. Blackburn, Rev. Ed. Percy, Epworth Villa, New Road, Windsor. 

1899. Bladen, W. Wells, Stone, Staffordshire. 

1897. Blake, Wm. Charles, 2, Acacia Villas, Ross, Herefordshire. 

1895. Bles, Edward J., M.A., D.Sc, Elterholm, Madingley Road, Cambridge, 

1897. Bliss, Joseph, Boar Bank Hall, Grange-over-Sands, 



132 JOURNAL OF CONCHOLOGY, VOL. I4, NO. 5, JANUARY, I9I4. 

1907. Bloomer, H. IT., 35, Paradise Street, Birmingham. 

1899. Blundell, Mrs. Jessie M., Argyll House, Cirencester. 

1912. Bonner-Chambers, T. , Huccombe, Stokenham, Kingsbridge. 

1910. Booker, H. PI., 153, Albert Road, Heeley, Sheffield. 

1904. Booth, Fred, 18, Queen's Road, Shipley, Yorks. 

1884. Bostock, Edwin D., Oulton Cross, Stone, Staffordshire. 

1906. Boult, J. W. , 50, Washington Street, Newland, Hull. 

1897. Z Boycott, Professor A. E., 27, Rathen Road, Withington, Manchester. 

1905. Brainerd, Mrs. H. D., Captiva, Lee Co., Florida, U.S.A. 
1909. Brindley, G. W. , Milford, near Derby. 

1900 Z Broadbent, Dr. G. PL, 8, Ardwick Green, Manchester. 

1899. Brooksbank, Hugh, M.B. , College Road, Windermere. 

1905. Bromehead, C. N., Beverston Rectory, Tetbury. 

191 1. Brown, Edmund R., 235, Brunswick Street, Manchester. 

1913. Bryan, B., 176, Uttoxeter Road, Longton, Staffs. 

1897. , Burnup, Henry Clifden, Box 182 P.O., Maritzburg, Natal. 

1879. Butterell, J. Darker, Manor House, Wansford, Hull. 

1906. Butterfield, W. Ruskin, Corporation Museum, Hastings. 

1902. Button, Fred. L. , Bacon Building, Oakland, California, U.S.A. 



1906. Z Carpenter, Geoffrey D. H., B.A., M.B., c/o P.M.O., Entebbe, Uganda. 

1913. Carr, Professor G. W. , University College Museum, Nottingham. 

1901. Carter, Chas. S., 8, Bridge Street, Louth, Lines. 
1878. /^Cash, William, F.G.S., F.R.M.S., 35, Commercial Street, Halifax. 

1903. Cattell, W. Chas., The Poplars, Montagu Street, Kettering. 
1913. Chalmers, J., c/o The Hon. Secretary. 

1892.' Champ, Hy., c/o S. & J. Watts & Co., Portland Street, Manchester. 

1905. Charnley, Jas. Roland, F.Z.S., F.E.S., The Avenue, Moor Park, Preston. 

1889. Christy, Robert Miller, F.L.S., The Blue House, Chignal St. James, 

Chelmsford, Essex. 

1904. Clapp, Geo. H. , Corner 7th & Bedford Aves., Pittsburgh, Pa., U.S.A. 
1913. Clapp, W. F., 25, Ware Street, Cambridge, Mass., U.S.A. 

1886. Coates, Henry, F.R.S.E,, Corarder, Perth. 

1880. Collier, Edwd., Glen Esk, Whalley Range, Manchester. 

1898. PL Collinge, Walter Ed. , M. Sc. , F. L. S. , F. E. S. , 8, Newhall St. , Birmingham. 
191 3. Connolly, Major M., 18, Brompton Square, London, S.W. 

1901. Cooke, Rev. Alfred H., M.A., Aldenham School, Elstree, Herts. 

1892. Cooper, James Eddowes, Cadboro, 53, North Road, Ilighgate, N. 

1890. Crawford, James, c/o J. C. Kemsley and Co., Port Elizabeth, Cape Colony. 
1910. Cribb, C. Theodore, The Vicarage, Shipley, Yorks. 

1899. Crowther, J. E., Portland Street, Elland, Yorks. 

1897. Dacie, John Charles, 30, Montserrat Road, Putney, S.W. 
1913. Dalton, E. N., 62, The Avenue, Highams Park, Chingford. 

1899. Darnbrough, Frederick, 12, West End Terr., Yarm Rd., Stockton-on-Tees. 

1913. Davey, W. J., 19, AUfarthing Lane, Wandsworth Common, S.W. 

1909. Dawes, L. , Hambledon, Hants. 

1898. Dean, J. Davy, 84, Dale Street, Lancaster. 

1909. Dickson, Robert Cecil, M.B., Ch.B., 31, Castle Street, Dumfries. 

1909. Diver, Cyril, The Birches, Haslemere. 
1907. Dupont, Evenor, Hell-Bourg, Reunion. 

1910. Dyke, F. M., B.Sc. (Lend.), Nelson Croft, Church Rd., Bebiiigton, Cheshire. 



t9o8 

1895 
1901 
1891 
1904, 
1884 
1910 

1913 
1894 



1897 
1891 
1897 
1890 
1884 
1906. 
1913 
1905 
1912 

1905 
1906 
1892 
1913 



LIST OF MEMBERS. I33 

Edgar, H. F., 14, Woodside Park Gardens, North Finchley, N. 
Edwards, Thos. , 247, Narborough Road, Leicester. 
Edwards, W. H., Hastings Museum, Victoria Institute, Worcester. 
Elgar, Hubert, Museum and Public Library, Maidstone. 
L Eliot, Sir Chas., K.C.M.G., Endcliffe Holt, Endcliffe Crescent, Sheffield. 
Elliot, Edward J., High Street, Stroud, Gloucestershire. 
Elliott, W. T., b.D.S., F.Z.S., Tanworth-in-Arden, Worcs. 
Emmett, H., 156, Moston Street, Hanley, Staffs. 
Evans, Wm., F.R.S.E., 38, Morningside Park, Edinburgh. 



L Farquhar, John, 3, Rose Terrace, African Str., Grahamstown, Cape Colony. 

Farrer, Captain Wm. James, Chapel House, Bassenthwaite, Keswick. 

Fielding, Clement, M.P.S., Clover Hill, Halifax, Yorks. 

Fierke, Frederick Wm., 581, Anlaby Road, Hull. 
/^Fitzgerald, Rev. H. Purefoy, F.L.S., Lidwells, Goudhurst, Kent. 

Fogerty, Harry, Chamber of Commerce, Limerick. 

Fordred, Mrs. E., Wychmont, St. Bernard's, Olton, Warwickshire. 

Foster, Miss Amy C. S., Hendra, Alum Chine, Bournemouth. 
/.Frames, P. R. , P.O. Box 148, Johannesburg, S. Africa. 

Freeman, William, Hawkhurst, Milton Road, Oundle. 

Freyberg, Cuthbert, 27, Hawker Street, Wellington, New Zealand. 

Fulton, Hugh, River Side, Kew, near London. 

Fysher, Greevz, 78, Chapel Allerton Terrace, Leeds. 



1907. Z Gabriel, Charles J., 297, Victoria Street, Abbotsford, Victoria, Australia. 
1913. Gauntlett, H. L., M.R.C.S., L. K.C.P., A.K.C., Merton Cottage, Bloxham. 
1911. Geiser, Samuel W., Upper Iowa University, Fayette, Iowa, U.S.A. 
1887. Gerland, Conrad, M.Sc, Ph.D., F.C.S., Meadow Bank, Accrington. 
1908. Gill, Mrs. A. E., Dinant Cottage, i, Claude Road, Chorlton-cum-Hardy. 
1910. Gnosspelius, Miss Hilda T. , Silver Holme, Newby Bridge, Ulverston. 
1886.Z Godlee, Theo., Whips Cross, Walthamstow, Essex. 
1897./' Godwin-Austen, H. PL, Lt.-Col., F.R.S. ,etc.,Nore, Hasconibe,Godalming. 

1906. Gomez, A. da Costa, 201, St. James' Place, Brooklyn, N.Y., U.S.A. 

1904. Gray, Arthur F., 509, Exchange Buildings, Boston, Mass., U.S.A. 

1905. Green, Wm. A., 4, Salisbury Terrace, Chichester Park, Belfast. 
1904. Grierson, P. H., Kilcarberry House, Clondalkin, Dublin. 

1907. Gripper, F. H., Springfield, Camden Park, Tunbridge Wells. 
1890. Gude, G. K., F.Z.S., 9, Wimbledon Park Road, S.W. 
i886./'Gwatkin, Rev. Prof. H. M., D.D., M.A., 8, Scrope Terrace, Cambridge. 
1907. Gwyer, C. D., 303. Putnam Avenue, Brooklyn, N.Y., U.S.A. 

1907. Gyngell, Walter, 51, Gladstone Street, Scarborough. 



1909. Haas, Dr. Fritz, Senkenbergisches Museum, Victoria Allee, 7, Frankfurt- 

am-lNIain. 

1910. Hadden, Norman G., St. Audrey's, Priory Road, Malvern. 
1895. Hann, Rev. Adam, i, Park Terrace, Halifax. 

1895. Hardy, John Ray, The Museum, The University, Manchester. 

1887. Hargreaves, J. A., 2, Stepney Road, Scarborough. 

1913. Harman, A., 5, Harley Street, Scalby Road, Scarborough. 

1909. Harrison, Richard, 28, Allen Street, Hulme, Manchester. 



134 JOURNAL OF CONCHOLOGV. VOL. I4, NO. 5, JANUARY,. 1914. 

1904. Hanison, Russell C, 13, Foulser Road, Upper Tooting, S.W. 

1SS9. Hartley, Alfred, 19, Thorpe Garth, Idle, near Bradford, Yorks. 

1887. Harvard, T. Mawson, 4, Queen's Leaze, Forest Hill, S.E. 

1907. Hawkins, H. L. , University College, Reading. 

1903. Hawkins, John, J. P., 35, Avenue Road, Grantham. 

1887. Heathcote, Wm. Henry, F.L.S., 119a, Fishergate, Preston, Lanes. 

1907. Henderson, J. B., jr., i6th vStreet and Florida Avenue, Washington, D.C., 

U.S.A. 
1913. Heller, Julius, Villa Gisela, Teplitz, Bohemia. 
1887. Hey, Thomas, 8, Bloomfield Street, Derby. 

1895. Hibbert, Charles R. C, Riccard's Down, Abbotsham, Bideford, Devon. 
1895./" Hickson, Prof. Sydney J., D.Sc., M.A., F.R.S., University, Manchester. 
1893. ''I'"> John, Pike's Villa, Little Eaton, near Derby. 
1886. £ Hillman, Thomas Stanton, Eastgate Street, Lewes, Sussex. 
1907. Hindley, R. T., The Green Way, Macclesfield. 

1906. Hirase, Y. , Karasumaru. Kyoto, Japan. 

191 1. Hitchon, Mrs. Susan A., Rhyddington, Oswaldtwistle, Lanes. 
iSgi./'Horsley, Rev. Canon J. W. , Detling Vicarage, Maidstone. 

1907. Horwood, A. R., Ivanhoe, Gwendolen Road, Leicester. 
1907. Howard, Vernon, Carlton Lodge, Eastgate, Louth. 

1884. Howell, George O., 210, Eglinton Road, Plumstead, Kent. 

1892. Howorth, Sir Henry Hoyle, K.C.LE. , M.P., F. R.S., etc., 30, CoUingham 

Gardens, London, S.W. 
1886. /'Hoyle, W. E., ALA., D.Sc, The National Museum of Wales, Cardiff. 
1895. Hudson, Rev. Hy. A., 445, Stretford Road, Manchester. 
1909. Huggins, Henry C, 17, Clarence Place, Gravesend. 
191 1. Humphreys, Griffith, i, Belsize Avenue, London, N.W. 
1905. Hutton, W. Harrison, 44, Dial Street, Leeds. 



1913. Ingrams, W. H., The School House, Shrewsbury. 



1901. Jackson, j. Wilfrid, F.G.S., The Museum, The University, {Manchester 

1912. Jenkinson, Charles, i, High Street, Kettering. 

1891. Jenner, James Herbert Augustus, F.E.S., Eastgate House, Lewes. 

1912. /. Jewell, Miss F. , Emsworlh, Hants. 

1906. [ohnson, Chas. W., Boston Society of Natural History, Boston, Mass., 

U.S.A. 
1908. Iolliff"e, J. E. A., Keblc College, Oxford. 
1894. Jones, Fleet-Surgeon K. H., M.B., Ch.B., F.Z.S., R.N., c/o Admiralty, 

London, S.W, 
1901. Jukes Browne, A. J., F.R.S., F.G.S., Westleigh, Ash Hill Road, Torquay. 



1907. Kendall, Rev. C. E, Y., 190, Lincoln Road, Peterborough. 
i897.ZKennard, A. S., Benenden, Mackenzie Road, Beckenham, Kent. 
1902.Z Kensett, Percy F., Broadmeadow, Coombe Lane, Wimbledon, S.W. 
1897. Kenyon, Mrs. Agnes Fleming, 291, Highett St., Richmond, Melbourne, 

Victoria. 
1889. Knight, Rev, G. A. Frank, M.A., F.R.S.E., St. Leonard's Bank, Perth. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 135 

1 901 . LaidlaWjF. F. , M. A. , Cranston's Ivanhoe Hotel, Bloomsbiu)' St. , London, W.C. 

1899. Lancaster, Ernest Le Cronier, B.A. , M.B., Winchester House, Swansea. 
1879. Laver, Henry, ^LR.C.S., F.L.S., Head Street, Colchester, Essex. 

1894. Z^ Lawson, Peter, Jesmond Dene, 87, Finlay St., Fulham, S.W. 

1905. Laycock, John, Sidney, Manitoba, Canada. 

1900. Labour, Miss M. V., Radcliffe House, Corbridge-on-Tyne, Northumberland. 

191 1. Leman, George C. , Wynyard, 152, West Hill, Putney, S.W. 
1910. Levett, Rev. T. T., F.Z.S., Frenchgate, Richmond, Yorks. 
1899. Lightfoot, Robert M. , South African Museum, Cape Town. 

1909. Linton, Mrs., Ye Olde Mill House, Castle Hill, Northallerton. 

1908. Longstaff, Mrs. G. B., F.L.S., Highlands, Putney Heath, S.W. 

1912. I>oyd, L. R. W., 17, Sandringham Court, Maida Vale, W. 
1898. Lucas, B. R. , WMnnington Park, Northwich, Cheshire. 

1910. Lucas, F. R. Tindall, Tewin Vale, Welwyn. 

1S91. Lyons, Lady, Kilvrough, Parkmill, R.S.O. , Glamorganshire. 

1889. MacAndrew, James J., F.L.S., etc., Lukesland, Ivy Bridge, Devonshire. 

1906. Macindoe, Dr. A., 1).P. H., Sidmouth, Devon. 

1911. MacLeod, D. J., Hof Ter Meere, 13, Reigerstraat, Ghent, Belgium. 
1S84. Madison, James, Turves Green, West Heath Rd., Northfield, Birmingham. 

1911. March, Miss M. C, M.Sc, Healey Grove, Burnley, Lanes. 

1885. Marquand, Ernest D., A.L.S., St. Mildred's Hall, Turl Street, Oxford. 

1906. ALirshall, Arthur G., 66, Victoria Street, Westminster, S.W. 
1887. Marshall, J. T., c/o Editor oi Journal of Conchology. 
i887.iPMasefield, John R. B., M.A., Rosehill, Cheadle, Staffordshire. 

1904. Massy, Miss A. L. , Tredagh, Malahide, co. Dublin. 

1905. Maxwell, Mrs. Miller, Bangholm Bower, Goldenacre, Edinburgh. 
1889. Mayfield, Arthur, Mendlesham, Stowmarket, Suffolk. 

1903. McClelland, Hugh, Stretton, Balsall Street, Berkswell, Warwickshire. 

1886. McMurtrie, Rev. John, M.A., D.D., 13, Inverleith Place, Edinburgh. 
1880. FMelvill, James Cosmo, M.A., D.Sc.,F.L.S., Meole Brace Hall, Shrewsbury. 

1904. Milne, James N., Foylemore, St. Jude's Avenue, Belfast. 

1907. Milner, Miss Lucinda, Clevelands, Ellesmere Park, Eccles, Manchester. 

1909. Milton, J. W., Harrison House, Crosby. 

1906. Monterosato, II Marchese di, 2, Via Gregorio Ugdalena, Palermo, Sicily. 

1910. Moorcock, J., 91, Broadfield Road, Catford, S.E. 

1902. Z Moore, Chas. H., 103, Mottram Road, Stalybridge. 

1908. INIoore, Albert J., 9, Brook Street, Hull. 

1907. i^Iorey, Frank, F. L.S. ,Wolverton, Carisbrooke Rd. , Newport, Isle of Wight. 

1912. Murdoch, G. H., 49, Parliament Hill, Hampstead, N.W. 

1906. Murdoch, R. , Wanganui, New Zealand. 

1907. Musham, J. F. , F.E.S., Ilaylands, Brook Street, Selby, Yorks. 

1905. Napier, H. C, 15, The Common, Woolwich. 

191 1. Nash, Rev. E. H., M.A. , Wetley Rocks Vicarage, Stoke-on-Trent. 

1903. Nash, P. B., Bruce Mines, Algona, Ont., Canada. 

1887. Newstead, A. H. L., B.A., 38, Green Street, Bethnal Green, E. 

1891. /'Newton, Richard BuUen, F.G.S., 11, Twyford Crescent, Acton Hill, 

London, W. 
1891. /'Norman, Rev. Canon Alfred Merle, D.C.L.. F.R.S., etc., The Red 

House, Berkhamsted. 
1901. Norton, Miss E. M., 20, Easttield Road, Westbury-on-Trym, near BristoL 



136 JOURNAL OF CONCHOI.OGY, VOL. I4, NO. 5, JANUARY, igU- 

1S87. Oldham, Charles, Kelvin, Boxwell Road. Berkhamsted. 
1910. Oliver, A. INI., West Jesmond Villa, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 
1896. Overton, Harry, The Newlands, Boswell Road, Sutton Coldfield. 
i905.ZO\vston, Alan, Yokohama, Japan. 



1903. Pace, S., Milneholme, Hounslow. 

1900. Pannell, Chas., 13, East Street, Ilaslemere, Surrey. 

1904. Parritt, H. W., 14, Stanhope Gardens, Highgate, N. 

1902. Pattison, Ernest, 52, Saxe Coburg Street, Leicester. 

1886. Pearce, Rev. S. Spencer. M.A., Long Combe Vicarage, near Woodstock, 

Oxfordshire. 

1913. Pellon, N. E., 60, Sampson Road, Sparkbrook, Birmingham. 

1 90 1. Penrose, G., Royal Institution of Cornwall, Truro. 

1907. Petty, S. L. , Dykelands, Ulverston, Lanes. 

1908. Phillips, R. A., Ashburton, Cork. 

191 3. Pickard, Bertram, Tregenna, Mansfield. 

1904. Piatt, Thos. H., Harpurhey Mill, Rochdale Road, ALanchester. 
1886. Ponsonby, John H.. F.Z.S., 15, Chesham Place, London, S.W. 

1905. Poole, W. G., South Lawn, Godalming. 

1913. Presbrey, E. W., 17, Trinity Place, New Rochelle, N.Y., U.S.A. 

1903. Preston, Henry, F.G.S., Hawthornden Villa, Spittlegate, Grantham. 
1897. Preston, Hugh Berthon, F.Z.S., 53, West Cromwell Road, London, S.W. 
1907. Priske, R. A. R., 9, Melbourne Avenue, West Ealing, Middlesex. 

1906. /_ Pritchard, G. B., F.G.S., 38, RLmtell Street, Moonee Ponds, Victoria. 



1906.Z Radley, Percy E., F.R.ALS., 30, Foxgrove Road, Beckenham, Kent. 

1899. Ramanan, Vedaraniam Venkata, M.A., F.Z.S., 12, Sami Pillai Street, 

Triplicane, Madras, S. India. 
1906. Reynell, Alexander, Caerleon, Whyteleafe Road, Caterham. 

1905. Reynolds, Laurence R., 233, Aspinwall Avenue, Brookline, Mass., U.S.A. 
1913. Rhodes, F. , 113, Heaton Road, Manningham, Bradford, Yorks. 

1900. Richards, C P., Mission House, Stenalees, St. Austell, Cornwall. 

1906. Ritchie, John, jr.. Box 2795, Boston, Mass., U.S.A. 
1898. Roberts, A. William Rymer, The Common, Windermere. 

1913. Roberts, J. W., 145, Withington Road, Whalley Range, Manchester. 
O P Roebuck, Wm. Denison, F.L.S., 259, Hyde Park Road, Leeds. 

1907. Rolle, Hermann, Koniggratzer Str. 89, Berlin, S.W. 

1901. Rooth, J. A., M. R.C.S., 6, Richmond Terrace, Brighton. 
1905. Rope, Geo. T., Blaxhall, Tunstall, Suffolk. 

1893. Roseburgh, John, Market Square, Galashiels, Roxburgh. 

1892. Rosevear, John Burman, 109, New King's Rd., Fulham, S.W. 

1910. ZRowe, A. W., M.S., M.B., M.A.C.S., F.G.S., Shottendane, Margate. 



1910. Saggu, M. K., M.R.A.S., etc., Common Room, Lincoln's Inn, W.C. 

1906. Salisbury, Albert E., 12a, The Park, Ealing, W. 

i877./'Scharff, Robert F., Ph.D., M.R.I. A., Knockranny, Bray, co. Wicklow. 

1906. Schepman, M. M. , Bosch en Duin, Huister Heide, Utrecht, Holland. 

1895. Z Schill, C. H., Crosten Towers, Alderley Edge. 

1 886. Scott, Thomas, LL.D., F.L.S., 280, Victoria Road, Torry, Aberdeen. 

1893. Shackleford, Rev. Lewis John, 66, Granville Road, Blackpool. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 137 

I910. ZShaw, H. O. N., B.Sc, F.Z.S., Skreens Park, Roxwell, near Chelmsford. 

1904. Shaw, Rev. W. A., Peper Harow Rectory, Godahning. 
1906. Sheppard, T., F.G.S., Municipal Museum, Hull. 

1906. Shopland, Commander E. R., i, Estivals, Oulton Broad. 

1910. Shrubsole, George, Ellesmere, Fields Park Road, Newport, Mon. 

1895. Sich, Alfred, F.E.S., Corney House, Chiswick, W. 

1906. Sikes, F. H., M.A., F.L.S., Burnham Abbey, Bucks. 

1905. Simpson, James, c/o G. Sim, Esq., A.L.S., 52, Castle Street, Aberdeen. 

1902. Smallman, Raleigh S., Eliot Lodge, Albemarle Road, Beckenham. 
i886.>PSmith, Edgar A., I.S.O., F.Z.S., 22, Heathfield Road, Acton, W. 

1892. Smith, Mrs. Louisa J., Monmouth House, Monmouth St., Topsham, Exeter. 

1899. Z Smith, Mrs. Lucy A., Cricklade Street, Cirencester. 

1907. Smith, Maxwell, Hartsdale, Westchester Co., New York, U.S.A. 

1894. Smith, Wm. Chas. , 92, Dawes Road, Fulham, S.W. 

1900. Solly, E. H., 3, South Street, Deal, Kent. 

1 886. Sowerby, Geo. Brettingham, F.L.S., River Side, Kew, near London. 
1907. Spence, G. C. , 10, Pine Grove, Monton, Eccles, Lanes. 

1906. Stalley, Henry J., Thorntona, Oxted, Surrey. 

1886. Standen, Robert, The Museum, The University, Manchester. 

1911. Standish, C. M., Prospect House, Weldbank, Chorley. 

1903. Z Stelfox, A. W., Delamere, Chlorine Gardens, Belfast. 

1906. Step, Edward, F. L.S., Oakwood House, Ashstead, Surrey. 
1910. Stephenson, H. L., 73, Colwyn Road, Dewsbury Road, Leeds. 
i9o8.ZStobart, H. J. S., Belbroughton, Stourbridge. 

1896. Stonestreet, Rev. W. T., B.D., F.R.S.L., c/o The New Church Book 

Depot, 18, Corporation Street, Manchester. 

1897. Stracey, Bernard, M.B., Priory Lodge, 16, New Walk, Leicester. 
1890. Stubbs, Arthur Goodwin, The Meads Cottage, Hailey Lane, Hertford. 

1893. Stump, Edward Consterdine, 13, Polefield Road, Blackley, Manchester. 

1912. Sturt, E. G. M., Lismore, Cavendish Road, Weybridge. 
1912. Sturt, G. L. , Lismore, Cavendish Road, Weybridge. 

1895. Swanton, E. W. , The Educational Museum, Haslemere, Surrey. 
i888.Z'Sykes, Ernest Ruthven, B.A., F.L.S., Longthorns, Blandford. 

1910. Tattersall, W. M., D.Sc, The Museum, The University, Manchester. 
1895. Taylor, Frederick, 32, Landseer Street, Park Road, Oldham, Lanes. 

1907. Taylor, G. H., School House, Higher Blackley, Manchester. 

1904. ZTaylor, Gerald Medland, Rossall School, Fleetwood. 

1907. Taylor, J. Kidson, 45, South Avenue, Buxton. 

1904. Taylor, Thos., Wotea, Grafton Road, Auckland, New Zealand. 
1903. Thaanum, D., 5, Church Street, Hilo, Hawaiian Islands. 

1908. Thomas, Rev. R. E., M.A., St, Martin's Clergy House, Salisbury. 
1907. Z Thornton, H. G., Kingsthorpe Hall, Northampton. 
i886.ZTomlin, J. R. le Brockton, M.A.,F.E.S., Lakefoot, Reading. 

1906. Turton, Lt.-Col. W. H., D.S.O., R.E., 80, Caledonia Place, Clifton, Bristol. 

1907. Upton, Charles, Rooksmoor, Tuffley Avenue, Gloucester. 

1899. Vaughan, J. Williams, J. P., Pen-y-maes, Hay, via Hereford. 

1897. Vignal, Louis, 28, Avenue Duquesne, Paris. 

1902. Vincent, W. C. W., 39, West Bank>, Stamford Hill, London, N. 



138 JOURNAL Of CONCHOLOGY, VOL. I4, NO. 5, JANUARY, 1914. 

1898. Wakefield, H. Rowland, 7, Montpelier Terrace, Swansea. 

1891. Walker, Bryant, 205, Moffat Building, Detroit, Michigan, U.S.A. 

1907. Wallis, E. A., Springfield, West Parade, Scarborough. 
1900. Z, Watson, Hugh, Bracondale, The Avenue, Cambridge. 

1908. Weaver, G. H., 31, Devonshire Road, Palmer's Green, N. 

1900. Webb, Walter F., 202, Westminster Road, Rochester, N.Y., U.S.A. 

1902. Weeks, Wm. H., jr., 508, Willoughby Avenue, Brooklyn, N.Y., U.S.A. 
1895. Welch, Robert John, M.R.I. A., 49, Lonsdale Street, Belfast. 

1913. Western, W. H., 9, Redearth Road, Darwen. 

1907. Wheat, Silas C, 987, Sterling Place, Brooklyn, N.Y., U.S.A. 

1886. Whitwell, Wm., Brookside, Darley Knowle, Warwickshire. 

191 1. Williams, James M. M., Imperial House, Pontlottyn, Cardiff. 

1889. Williams, John M., 31, Grove Park, Liverpool. 

1913. Winckworth, Ronald, 37, Upper Rock Gardens, Brighton. 

1906. Winkworlh, John F., 290, Burdett Road, London, E. 

1890. Wood, Albert, Midland Lodge, Sutton Coldfield, Warwickshire. 

1910. Woodcock. R., Fauvic, Jersey. 

1901. Z Woodruffe-Peacock, Rev. E. A., F.L.S., etc., Cadney, Brigg, Lines. 

191 1. Woods, Rev. F. H., B.D., Bainton Rectory, Driffield. 
1898. Woods, Henry, M.A., F.G.S., 39, Barton Road, Cambridge. 
1886. Z Woodward, Bernard B., F.L.S., etc., 4, Longfield Rd., Ealing, W. 

1903. Wovsdale, R. , 102, Dudley Terrace, Dudley Road, Grantham. 
1906. Wragge, Clement L., F.R.G.S., etc., Perth, Western Australia. 
1895. Wright, Charles East, Woodside, Rockingham Road, Kettering. 



Vertigo aJpestris Alder in Merionethshire.— On October ist, 1913, I found 
an example of this species beneath a stone on the top of a tree-shaded wall near 
Dolgelley. I was pressed for time, and found no further specimen during a few 
minutes search ; but the single specimen is typical in regard to size, sculpture, form 
and the number and position of the denticles, although Mr. J. W. Taylor, who has 
kindly confirmed my identification, considers that it is paler in colour than specimens 
from the North of England. The occurrence of F. alpestris in Wales constitutes an 
interesting extension of its known range, for, as Mr. Roebuck tells me, the Society's 
records for this species are restricted to the area in the north of England which 
embraces the following Vice-Counties : — Cumberland, Westmorland-with-Lake- 
Lancashire, Lancashire West, York Soulh-West, York Mid-West, and Northumber- 
land South, and to three Vice-Counties in the north of Ireland, viz., Londonderry, 
Antrim, and Donegal West. — Chas. Oldham {Read before the Socidy^ Nov. 12th, 
I9I3)- 



130 



SOME MOLLUSCAN RADUL^. 

(Presidential Address delivered at tlie Annual Meeting, Oct. nth, 1913). 

Bv The Rev. Professor II. M. GWATKIN, D.D., M.A. 



My first duty here is to express my sense of the honour you have 
done me in raising to this place of dignity an amateur like myself, 
whose life's work has been done on other fields than those of science. 
Yet, such scientific work as I have been able to do has been some- 
thing more than a priceless relief and rest from the arduous work 
officially entrusted to me. It 1ms been a strong and subtle influence 
pervading and transforming those other duties in ways which few can 
imagine and none can understand but those who follow both lines of 
study with full-hearted love. If I believe, as indeed I do believe, that 
science cannot satisfy the deepest needs and loftiest aspirations of 
human nature, I believe also that all history and all theology which 
is unscientific in its method is essentially unsound. Truth in all its 
range is one and indivisible, and there is but one sound method in 
all search for truth— that all facts must be taken into full account, 
and all authority must go for nothing. There is genuine science in 
Butler's Analogy or Westcott's Gospel of St. John ; genuine religion 
in the patient labours of a Herschel or a Darwin. The two lines of 
study are more akin than the narrower votaries of either are willing 
to allow. 

Coming down, however, from these high themes to the little corner 
of science where it has been my privilege to learn something, it is but 
a single character found only in some of the moUusca — the radula. 
Before we go further, it may be well to give a general account of it, 
with chief, though not exclusive reference to the Fuhnonata, with 
some of which we shall have to deal presently. 

The radula, then, is an organ found only in the moUusca; and even 
among these it is wanting in the bivalves and in a few degraded 
genera, like Magilus or Fyrajiiidella, though never in the Pulmonata. 
If the name radula conveys no more information than that it is a 
scraping organ, it has the negative merit of warning the unwary that 
it is not equivalent to the tongue or palate of higher animals, but 
something peculiar. It consists of what are called teeth, set on a 
transparent membrane, wanting in Conns and Bela, but never in the 
Pulmonata. Its average length is almost twice its breadth, though it 
is notably shorter in some of the arboreal genera, like Aniphidromns, 
Oxystyla, Achatinella, and some species of Drymceus^ and notably 
longer in the carnivorous Agnatha, Ancylus and some of its allies, 



140 JOUkNAL OF CONCHOI.OGY, VOL. I4, NO. 5, JANUARY, 1914. 

the Urocoptidce, and the land operculates. In the HeUcinid<B it about 
equals the length of the shell, and in the Nerltidce exceeds it ; while 
in the marine LittorinidcE it reaches three or even seven times that 
length, and has to be curled up like a watch-spring. The "teeth," 
again, are simple structures, not to be compared with the teeth of 
higher animals. Most of them have an organic basis of chitin, super- 
ficially hardened by mineral deposits ; only in the brown teeth of the 
Docoglossa the chief constituent is silica hydrate.^ In the Ptdmonata 
they are of a beautiful silvery whiteness, standing out on a dark 
ground like spun glass. So white are they that the radula of a Pupa 
or a Laomn lying in water can easily be distinguished from a particle 
of dust. The chief exception (among the Pulmoiiata) is that the 
posterior part tends to a brownish colour in most of the Agnatha and 
also in Circinaria. 

As a general rule there are many rows of teeth across the mem- 
brane, all pointing backward like the roughnesses on the cat's tongue, 
and serving a similar purpose of scraping, though the aculeate teeth 
of the carnivorous Agnatha may be used to seize their prey. In the 
Pulmonata we never find a suctorial mouth, or an aborted radula like 
that of Harpa^ or such slender and delicate teeth as those of Chenopiis 
or Cerithiopsis, which can only be used on the softest substances. I 
cannot name even a manifestly degraded radula like that of Buccin- 
opsis or Cohunbella. The teeth are always very numerous, ranging 
down from the Mexican Lydnoe ghiesbreghti, which has nearly 40,000; 
Limax viaximus has about 29,000; Helix aspersa 14,000; and even 
so small a species as Pyra/nidula rupestris can muster 5,500. But the 
number is commonly smaller when the teeth have unusual forms, and 
in Brachypodella it may come far below a thousand. It is worth not- 
ing that the English species of Vitrea fall into two very distinct 
sections. In nitiduia, pura, etc., the radula resembles that of Limax, 
and the teeth range from 2,500 to 4,500 ; while in aiiiaria, cellaria, 
and their allies, where the teeth are considerably modified, the number 
is only about a thousand. There is a similar distinction in the foreign 
species of Vitrea. 

Allowing for incomplete growth at the hinder end of the radula, 
the teeth are quite uniform from front to back. Every malformation 
runs down the whole file of teeth from back to front. This, indeed, 
is what we should expect, for every defect in the parent cell must be 
propagated the whole length of the radula. The transverse rows from 
side to side of the radula are symmetrical, in the sense that the two 
sides of the median line correspond tooth to tooth, or very nearly so; 

jNIiss Sollas in Quartcr/y Journal of Microscopical Science, vol. 51 (Felj. 1897), pp. 115 — 



GWATKIN : SOME MOI.LUSCAN RADUL.^;. I4I 

but they are never uniform, though they approach uniformity in an 
arboreal type we shall come to presently. In most cases, there is a 
central tooth, flanked on each side by laterals, and these, again, by 
marginals. The lateral teeth may be wanting, as in Achatinella, 
Physa, and what I shall presently call the Southern type of Ancyhis ; 
and the central tooth is wanting in some of the Agnatha. It is cer- 
tainly present in some, though not always or in all. Oi Ennea\ for 
instance, it is not easy to be sure. Its presence does not to myself 
seem in this case a character of much importance. Central, laterals, 
and marginals commonly shade into each other, so that while the 
central tooth is defined by its position, we cannot always draw a clear 
line between laterals and marginals. Where, however, the distinction 
is evident, the straight row or gentle curve of the row is likely to be 
sharply indented, as where we pass from the laterals of Ainylus 
lacustris to its plate-like marginals. This, however, is more common 
in the marine genera — Gibbuia, for example, or Turbo. 

Whether the primitive radula consisted of uniform tricuspid teeth, 
is more than I can say. Direct evidence is wanting, for we have no 
fossil radulae of Puhnonata, and I do not know that embryology has 
cleared the question ; but to the best of my knowledge, no such 
radulse now survive. The teeth are certainly tricuspid over most of 
the breadth of the radula in some of the Endodoiitidce — a very ancient 
family — but even there they are not uniform, while other presumably 
ancient genera, like Laoma, Ainphidoxa, and Ti'acJiycystis, shew no 
tendency at all to a uniform tricuspid arrangement. However, the 
central tooth is always symmetrical in the Pulmonata with either one 
cusp or three. Bicuspid centrals are found only in Carinifex, Plan- 
orbis, Isidora, Physopsis, and certain species of Ancyhis — whereas 
Choanomphalns and Erinna are unicuspid, like LivDicea. In Vagiiuda, 
Physa, Chilina, and Amphibola the central tooth takes peculiar forms 
not easy to understand. The unsymmetrical centrals seem limited to a 
few of the Trochidce. As a rule, it is of the same size as the laterals, 
or a trifle smaller ; but it is much smaller in Achatina and its allies. 
Much larger I have observed it only in some anomalous American 
Zonitidce, though Binney so figures it in Aviphibiilima. The laterals, 
on the other hand, are always unsymmetrical, except perhaps one or 
two inner laterals in a few of the EndodontidcR. As a rule, the inner 
cusp disappears almost at once, while the other two persist, growing 
shorter as we pass away from the centre, and gradually splitting up, 
the central cusp commonly into two denticles, the outer one into two 
or more, so that the outer marginals usually have several serrations, 
in Planorbis and Limnixa a good many. 

This is what we may call the normal radula of the Pulmonata, for 



142 JOURNAL OF CONCHOI.OGY, VOL. I4, NO. 5, JANUARY, I9I4. 

it fairly describes a majority of the species, though there are many 
small variations, and a few considerable, even among the Helices, as 
in Allogtiathus. The exceptions, however, are important — the aculeate 
type, two arboreal types, and anomalous genera, like Brachypodella, 
Physa, Gadinia, Afnphibola, and certain species of Ancylus. The 
aculeate type is so called from the thorn-shaped teeth resting on a 
base like the sole of a foot. In Iho. Agnathn all the teeth are aculeate, 
though Varicella (a section of Glandina) has an obscure second cusp 
— an important discovery we owe to the keen eyes of Mr. Hugh 
Watson. Here is one link with the normal type ; and there may be 
another in the variable central tooth of Circinaria. But the main 
transition is found in Liinax, Nanina, Helicario?i, and their allies, 
where the marginals only are aculeate. Yet. here, again, there is an 
exception in the delicate teeth of slugs like Issele?iiia, Myotesia, and 
Daviayantia, with Caldwellia and some species of Helicario7i. These 
are all Eastern, ranging from the Philippines to Mauritius. 

One of the arboreal types is represented for the Old World by 
A}iiphidronuis in Eastern Asia, by some species of Papuina . from 
Papua to the New Hebrides, and by Chlorcea in the Philippines; and 
in tropical America by Oxystyla, Ligiius, some species of BuHmuliis, 
and many of Dryniceus. It is worth notice that Helicostyla in the 
Philippines, Bulimiis (^Strophocheilus, Auris, Plekocheilus) and Xeno- 
thauma in South America do not belong here. Speaking generally, 
the central tooth is tricuspid, having a broad gouge-like central cusp, 
and two small side cusps, while in the marginals — for there are no 
laterals worth mention — the central cusp is as before, while the inner 
lateral is suppressed. It will be seen that this is an easy modifica- 
tion of the normal type. 

The other arboreal type is quite different in character and distri- 
bution, being essentially Australasian. It comprises Janella and 
Aneitea, Achatinella, Auriculella, and TornateUina. All these are 
Polynesian, except that TornateUina reaches Mauritius in one direc- 
tion, Juan Fernandez, and possibly South America in another. Here, 
again, we have angulated rows and no laterals ; but the teeth are 
clove-shaped and very numerous — the central generally with a median 
denticle and two or three laterals ; the marginals on a similar plan, 
but with the inner denticle the largest. This last is a point of strong 
contrast to the Helicoid species generally, but I suspect this is a very 
ancient type which must not be directly compared with the others. 

On the action of the radula I cannot say much, and indeed I do 
not think it is yet fully understood, at least in the marine species. It 
must be studied in life. There is a motion from front to back, and a 



GWATKIN : SOMK ^[OLLUSCA^• RADUI..*:. I43 

licking movement of the front end ; but I doubt if this is a full 
account of it. I commend to your study the little Margarita helicina, 
found in England as far south as Scarborough. It is of a convenient 
size for observation in a zoophyte trough ; and I think we shall have 
made some way when we have made out the. whirlpool motion of the 
radula. It is many years since I saw it, but I believe it gives a 
problem not even yet fully solved. 

The value of the radula in classification is variable. For the genus 
it is always important, and commonly decisive ; for the species it is 
often decisive, sometimes useless. Thus, in the Biiccinida the indi- 
vidual variation seems greater than the specific, and in huge genera, 
like Clansilia and AchatiiieUa, the species cannot generally be dis- 
tinguished by the radula. In the former, Mr. Davy Dean's researches 
would seem to shew that the clausium is a more distinctive character. 
Yet even in these, the radula is not quite useless. Achatinella separ- 
ates at a glance from Amastra, and if the material could be obtained, 
I believe a clear distinction might be found between the American 
Claiisilias and those of the Old World. But the difificulty of classifi- 
cation is always the same, whether we are classifying religions, or 
governments, or beasts — the difficulty of finding a character whose 
witness is never overborne by the convergent witness of other char- 
acters. Thus, there is no enormous difference of shell between Helix 
and JVatalina, or of anatomy between Alurex and Ranella \ yet the 
radulfe are very unlike. Conversely, we find a few curious likenesses 
of radula in genera which must stand very far apart, like Omphalotropis 
and Ovnla, Brachypodella and what I shall presently call the Coosa 
group of Ancylus. 

Upon the whole, however, the indications of the radula are more 
often confirmed by the rest of the anatomy than those of the shell. 
Thus, the huge radula of Natalifia, with its aculeate teeth and enor- 
mous retractor muscles, implies a considerable difference of anatomy 
from that of Helix with its quadrate teeth and moderate buccal mass. 
Patella and AcmcBa have very similar shells ; there is much more 
difference in the anatomy and the radula. So, too, the Laomas of 
Southern Europe and the Tesseraria of New Zealand used to pass as 
Fupas, and many another fraudulent pretender has been detected by 
the radula. 

Let me give you now an illustration more in detail. For some 
years past I have studied the genus Ancylus, so far as my material 
permitted, in alliance with Mr. Bryant Walker, of Detroit. He has 
described the shell, while mine has been the more modest part of pre- 
paring the radula. So it is only of the radula that I can speak, though 



144 JOURNAL OF CONCHOLOGY, VOL. I4, NO. 5, JANUARY, I9I4. 

I understand that the indications of the shell are in general agreement 
with those of the radula, though perhaps less conspicuous. 

Taking, then, the genus Ancylus — in a wide sense — to include 
Ferrissia, Lczvapex, Latix, and even Velletia (but not Latia) and 
classifying by the radula alone, it falls into four well-marked sections, 
with very different radulse and significant geographical distribution. 
The first or northern section is represented by Ancylns fliiviatilis 
Miill. Of this I have examined eight species : — 

A. captiloides Jan. A. abyssinicus Jick. 

A. fluviatilis IMiill. A. adnncus Gld. 

A. orbicularis Clessin. A. recurvus Parr. 

A. simplex Easter. A. striains Quoy. 

It is found all over Europe and beyond, as far certainly as Madeira, 
Oran, Damascus, and Abyssinia, and probably over Northern Asia ; 
but I have no evidence that it reaches India. In this the radula is 
long, and the lateral teeth are simple hooks in nearly straight rows, 
while the marginals have two cusps, the larger inside, but so short 
that they seem set on plates. The jaw is delicate, and segmented in 
plates, like that o'i Piindum pygmceuni. 

The second section is represented in my cabinet by Aficylus 
laciistris L. only. Its distribution is similar to the former, but more 
limited. It certainly reaches from Norway to Transylvania, though 
apparently not to Sicily or Syria, and certainly not to Africa. At first 
sight the radula is quite different. The arched rows of laterals with 
expanded bases and hooks with minute denticles remind us of the 
Trochidce ; while the plate-like marginals recall the Docoglossa. Yet 
they all seem modifications of the broad hooks of the first section, 
and I see no reason to suspect any more distant afirnities. 

A third — what I have called the Southern section — must be ex- 
tended to include the similar radulse of Gundlackia, Aviphigyra, and 
Neoplanorbis. I have examined thirty-two of these (N). They repre- 

(N). Type (A). 

Africa. — 

A. burmipi Walker. A. mooiensis Walker. 

A. equeefefisis Walker. A. ? compressus Jick. 

A. transvaalensis Craven. A. taiigatiyiceusis Sm. 

A. differ Krss. 

India.-— ■ ■ ; 

A. verruca Bens. A. sp. (Calcutta). 

Tasmania. — 

Gundl. petterdi Johnst. - ., 



OWATKIX : SO>rR N[OI.I.USCAX RADUL.-TJ. 



145 



A. 7C'alkeri Pgt. 
A. engraphis Pils. 
A. kirklandi \\'alker. 
A. rivnlaris Say. 
Ainph. alabamensis Pils. 
Gundl. 7/ieekia/ia Stimp. 
A^eopl. tantilliis Pils. 

Gundl, (Guatemala). 



A. kempi Preston. 



Hawaii. — 

A. sharpi Sykes. 

Nearctic. — 

A. caurimis Carp. 

A. fuse us Ads. 

A. ohioensis Walker. 

A. shiineki Pils. 

A. diaplianus Hald. 

A. heiinsphaericHS ^^'^alker. 

A. parallelus Say. 

Neotropical. — 

A. excentricus Morel. 
A. sp. (Cordoba S.A.). 

TvPE (B). 
East Africa. — 

A. crassistriatus Preston. 

Tasmania. — 

A. irvina Petterd. 

America. — 

A. klajnathensis Hann. 

sent Africa from Abyssinia to the Cape, India, Tasmania, Hawaii, and 
America from Vancouver and New England to Argentina. From 
these we may presume that it is also found in the East Indies, Aus- 
traha, Polynesia, and Magellanica. Then its distribution is significant. 
The Northern section bears to the Southern the relation of the higher 
Helices {Belogona siphouadenia) to the lower. Mr. Taylor's map^ may 
be copied almost unaltered, and he is likely to tell us that this is 
another illustration of Dominancy in Nature \ and such, indeed, it 
seems to be. True, I know no evidence of the former existence of 
this group in Europe, and certainly none of its present survival ; but 
the conclusion suggested by its present distribution is confirmed by 
the primitive character of the radula. The general pattern of the 
teeth is like the laterals of A. lacustris, but the rows are nearly straight 
instead of arched. The central tooth is bicuspid, as in Planorbis, the 
laterals have oblique tops and are more denticulate than those of 
A. lacustris, resembling those of the smaller species of Planorbis, 
while the marginals are not plate-like, but comb-like or feathery — 
again like Planorbis. The jaw, also, is in plates, as in the first sec- 
tion. This description generally covers the section ; but it passes 
into an extreme form which we may call Tvpe (B), of which I have 



J " Doniiiianc}- in Nature" (fig. 6), Trans. Vorks, Naturalists' Uni' 



146 



JOURNAL OF CONCHOLOGY, VOI,. I4, NO. 5, JANUARY, I914. 



seen four species — two from East i^frica, one from Oregon, and one 
from Tasmania. These also have bicuspid centrals and comb-like 
marginals, but the laterals are set on large quadrate bases, and the 
oblique tops are broader and larger — in all this resembling the larger 
species of Planorhis, which also we may distinguish as Type (B). 
The jaw is of the usual type in Limna'a, with two accessory plates. 
A. kiamathetisis from Oregon belongs here, but its unicuspid central 
brings it still nearer to Liiiincea. If, then, we divide Puinorbis into 
two groups, the smaller species almost exactly agree with this Southern 
section, while the larger differ from it by having a shorter radula with 
the front end rounded, and by having the laterals on a broader and 
more solid basis. Among the smaller species I count PI. albiis, PL 
con tortus, and even PI. marginaius ; to the larger belong PL corneus 
and PL. trivolvis. 



Merging Segmentina in Planorbis th 
Type (A) like Type (A) of AncyLus- 

Planorbis albus fMiill.). 

P. anderssoni Ancey. 

P. ariniger Say. 

P. austraLicus Sm. 

P. brazieri Allison. 

P. carlnatiis Miill. 

P. cotifortus L. 

P. costuLaLii s Krauss. 

P. crawfordi M. & P. 

P. cnltratus L. 

P. dilatatus Gld. 

P. exaciitiis Say. 

P. haldefiiani C. B. Ads. 

P. japotiiais Mtg. 

P. leucocJiiLus M. & P. 
-Thirty species, mostly small. Distr 



e list stands thus :^ 

P. liinopliilns Westl. 
P. Lineaius ^^^alker. 
P. vwntroiizieri Gass. 
P. nautileus L. 
P. nitidus Miill. 
P. opercidaris Gld. 
P. parvus Say. 
P. planodiscus M. iSc 1 
P. poLaris Schm. 
P. saigonetisis Cr. & ] 
P. soudanicus \\\\.?>. 
P. spirorbis \l\\\\. 
P. unibiHcatus Miill. 
P. vortex L. 
P. wLieatleyi Lea. 
ibution s:eneral. 



Type (B), like Liimma, but bicuspid centrals: — 



Planorbis bicarinatus Say. 
P. biitneyi Tryon. 
P: budouxianus Bgt. 
P. canipanulatus Say. 
P. corneus L. 
P. coromandelicus Beck. 
P. decipiens C. B. Ads. 
P. declivis Sby. 
P. dufouri Graells, 



P. exustus Desh. 
P. fieldii Tryon. 
P. guade!o7tpensis Sby. 
P. oregonensis. 
P. peregrinus Orb. 
P. pfeifferi Krss. 
P. straniineus Dkr. 
P. trivolvis Sa)'. 



r.WATKIX : POME MOLI.USCAN RADUL.E. I47 

— Seventeen species, fairly universal, if the want of Australian species 
is accidental. They are mostly large species. 

Our fourth section of A/uyliis appears to be limited to the Coosa 
region of Alabama, which is also the home of the Sfrepoiiuxlidie. Of 
this I have seen four species : — 

A. elatior ^V'alker. A. gwatkinianus Walker. 

A. filosiis Conr. A. rhodacme Walker. 

This, again, seems a development of the Southern type, and a very 
remarka!)le development. Tiie general contour of the radula actu- 
ally reminds us of Brachypodella, and there is a real likeness. In 
general the teeth are of the southern type; but the central is small 
and unicuspid or faintly bicuspid, the six or eight laterals very large, 
in angulated rows, with the angles pointing backwards — the rows on 
each side are straight, with the cusps rapidly vanishing. The jaw is 
of many plates, but they do not seem so separate as in A. fluviatilis: 
So far there is nothing very unlike things we have seen before ; but 
now comes a great anomaly. Each lateral has a second cusp, a 
large oval tooth with a simple broad cutting edge; and these acces- 
sory cusps grow smaller as we pass away from the central tooth, 
vanishing about where the laterals pass into marginals. As in 
Brachypodella, the second cusp is not beside the chief one, but 
rises from the hinder end of the base. 

Putting all this together, the oldest type of radula we have seen 
would seem lo be that of the southern section oi Ancylus — Type (A), 
and the weak species of Planorhis. Where it originated is best left 
uncertain, for it may date back long before climatic and other condi- 
tions gave Northern Europe its present dominant position. From this 
would diverge in distant ages the strong species oi Planorhis. Isidora, 
and Tvpp: (B) of Ancylus differ little from these. It is remarkable 
that Isidora does not reach America, though it is found as far north 
as Algeria. 

If Physa (including Aplecttx) is derived from the same stock, it has 
undergone a strange development. The radula is shorter and differ- 
ently shaped, the rows are angulated, the central tooth is peculiar — • 
perhaps a modification of a primitive bicuspid — the laterals have 
disappeared, and the whole radula is an expanse of comb-like mar- 
ginals with a basal process. The central tooth and this basal process 
are the chief ditificulties, for I have noticed nothing like them else- 
where. The distribution also of Physa is anomalous. Like the 
higher IMammalia, it has not reached Australia and Polynesia— at 
least all the Physas I have seen from those parts have the radula of 
Isidora (including P/iysopsis). Nevertheless, there is a true Physa 
(Physa coin^ada Old.) from the Hawaiian Islands. Either we have 



148 JOURNAL OF CONCHOLOGY, VOI,. I4, NO. 5, JANUARY, I914. 

overlooked F/iysas in Australia, or — what I am more inclined to think 
— this Fhysa, like some of the birds, may be of American origin. 

Returning to A?icylus, the Coosa group seems no more than a local 
variation of the primitive type, though we know nothing of the con- 
dition under which its enormous laterals arose. We can only say 
that the Coosa region is a centre for this group, and the StrepoinatidcB, 
like the Balkans for Clausilia^ the Hawaiian Islands for AchatineilidcE, 
or Lapland for the heaths. 

Velletia is also seriously modified ; and the modification cannot 
well have been caused by its habit of clinging to plants instead of to 
stones, for American species of a similar habit shew no such modifi- 
cation. It seems, however, to have arisen. in Europe, and, therefore, 
probably at no very remote geological period. Recent, also, perhaps 
is the northern group, now dominant in Europe. Direct evidence is 
hardly to be expected ; but we may presume that it has displaced 
the southern type, which is now no longer represented in Europe by 
A?icylus, but only by the weaker species of Planorbis. 

It will be seen that I have limited myself entirely to the radula. 
I am far from saying that it is the only character- — I will not even say 
that it is the chief character — which has to be considered. But it is 
an important character, and it is work for a lifetime. I have, therefore, 
set down its indications to the best of my power without regard to 
other characters, and leaye them to be discussed and amended by 
students of better training and greater leisure than myself. 



Conchological Notes from Scarborough. — Pyramiditla rolimdata var. alba: 
Having collected for many years without finding this rare variety of a common 
species, I was recently successful in discovering twenty mature specimens under- a 
heap of stones near Scarborough. Acanlhinula actilcata : Until last year I had 
only known this species as occurring in veiy small numbers, although in many 
districts. To find three or four at any time was the best success that I had known, 
and this I find is the usual experience of my collector friends. But on a visit to 
Forge Valley in 191 1, I found together under a few stones over a score of mature 
individuals, besides others not fully grown.— W. Gyngell {Read before the Society, 
Sept. nth, 1912). 

Limax tenellus in Surrey.— On the 4th of August, 1912, my friend Mr. 
II. Wallis Kew, F.Z.S., found several examples crawling on wet trunks and on 
standing beeches, along with Clatisilia laininata, etc., on a chalk escarpment below 
Netley Heath, near Gomshall. He sent them at once to me, and they were small 
typically-coloured examples of var. cerea. This is an important new record for 
the Census, and adds another to the ring of metropolitan counties in which this 
slug occurs (Essex S., Bucks., Oxfordshire and Herts.).— W. Denison Roebuck. 



t49 

PROCEEDINGS OF THE 
CONCHOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF GREAT BRITAIN & IRELAND. 

424th Meeting', held at Manchester Museum, Sept. loth, 1913. 

Mr. W. Denison Roebuck in tlie chair. 

Additions to the Library announced and thanks voted : — 
" New Land Shells from the Philippine Islands," by P. Bartsch. " Diagnoses 
of New Shells from the Pacific Ocean," by W. H. Dall. "The Philippine Mol- 
lusks of the Genus Dimya" by P. Bartsch. " Some New Hawaiian Cephalopods," 
by S. S. Berry. " The Giant Species of the Molluscan Genus Lima, obtained in 
Philippine and Adjacent Waters," by P. Bartsch. " Sur la ponte et le Developpe- 
ment du Vignot {TAttorina litlorea)" liy M. Caullery and P. Pelseneer. " Deux 
Mollusques Parasites de Moliusques,'" by P. Pelseneer. " L'llermaphroditisme 
chez les Lamellibranches," by P. Pelseneer. " The Variation of /'/a;/^;(5/.f iimlti- 
forniis Brown," by G. Ilickling {from the respective authors). " Land and Fresh- 
water Mollusca [of Ilkley]," by J.' W. Taylor (presented by W. Denison Roebuck) ; 
and the usual periodicals received in exchange. 

Donations to the Cabinet announced and thanks voted : — 
Aplecta hypmviun, Viewsley, Middlesex, J. E. Cooper ; Planorbis cornetts, 
Hereford, Apr., 191 3, A. E. Boycott; Hyalinia helvetica, Treharris, Glam., May 29, 
1913, W. J. R. Firth ; Zua Inbrica, Wicken Fen, Cambs., 1913, J. E. Black ; Zua 
Inbi-ica, Speyside near Newtonmore, Easterness, 191 3, J- E. Black ; Zita hibrica 
var. hyalina. River Nith near Dumfries, 1913, J. E. Black ; ryratnidula rotnndata, 
Thornielee, co. Peebles, 1913, J. E. Black ; Hyalinia radiatula, Peebles, hillside, 
880 feet, 1913, J. E. Black ; Hyaliitia raJiatiila, shore of Loch Cuaich, near Dal- 
whinnie, Easterness, 1913, J. E. Black. 

New Members Elected. 

Mrs. E. Fordred. H. F. D. Bartlett, F.E.S. 

Candidates Proposed for Membership. 

Edward N. Dalton, 62, The x\venue, Highams Park, Chingford (introduced 
by J. jNIoorcock and J. E. Cooper). 

W. H. Ingrams, The School House, Shrewsbury (introduced by J. W. Jackson 
and L. J. Shackleford). 

Bertram Pickard, Tregenna, Mansfield (introduced by W. Chas. Cattell and 
C. E. Wright). 

Member Deceased. 

William Moss. 

A resolution of condolence with Mrs. Moss and family was passed, and an 
intimation was made that an obituary would be published as early as possible. 

Papers Read. 

Obituary Notice : Hugh Lamont Orr, by R. Welch. 

Obituary Notice : D. D. Baldwin, by J. R. le B. Tomlin, M.A. 

Obituary Notice : Rev. G. W. Taylor, D.D., by J. R. le B. Tomlin, M.A. 

" Note on Urocoptis {Bactrocopiis) rosea Pfr.," by G. C. Spence. 

" Descriptions of Two New Species of Marginella from South Africa," by 
J. R. le B. Tomlin, M.A. 

Exhibits. 

By Prof. A. E. Boycott : Hyalinia Incida and its eggs, from Port Madoc, 
Carnarvon. 



156 jotlRNAt OF CONCHOLOGY, VOL, 14, NO. 5, JANUARY, 1914. 

By Mr. G. C. Spence : Coelocentrunt gigas Pfr. ; C, ischnostcle Pils. ; C. hiiik- 
leyi Pils. ; and rare species of the genus from Mexico and Peril. Also shells of 
Urocoptis rosea from J. R. le B. Tomlin's collection to illustrate his note. 

By Mr. R. Standen : Umax niaximns var. vtaciilata Picard, beautifully pre- 
served, showing the characteristic oblong, vivid black markings of this fine variety, 
from Melmerley, Cumb. ; collected July 14th, 1913, by Rev. W. Wright Mason. 

By Mr. W. H. Ilealhcote : Juvenile forms of Zirfaa crispafa L., and Tapes 
piillastra var. ferforans Mont, from chalk cliffs at Brighton. 

By Mr. T. H. Piatt : A beautiful series of Quadriila piistnlosa Lea, from Old 
River, Arkadelphia, Arkansas ; Arcidens confragosiis Say, from Indiana ; and 
Arkansia tuheeleri Ortmann and B. Walker. This latter species is a new Naiad 
from Arkadelphia, Arkansas, and was brought to light by the Rev. II. E. Wheeler, 
who is a resident of Arkadelphia. A description of this splendid species was 
given by Dr. A. E. Ortmann and Bryant Walker in the January number of 77ie 
Nautilus for 1912. The shell characters of this Naiad are quite distinct from any 
other species, the nearest approach to it being Arcidens confragosus Say, but even 
in this case the differences between the two species are decidedly marked, and the 
one could never be mistaken for the other. For those who would like to look 
further into the matter, the paper mentioned above will meet all requirements. 
It gives a very full description of both the soft parts and the shell characters, with 
some good comparisons with other genera and species, and there is also a beauti- 
ful plate illustrating both the outside and the inside of the shell. Also a fine 
specimen of Coehcentrufn gigas Pfr. var. and eggs of same from Guatemala 
(coll. A. A. Ilinkley). 

By Messrs. J. Wilfrid Jackson and I\. Standen : Large series of shells from tlie 
Prestatyn district. North Wales, including the following sixteen additions to the 
Census for V.C. 51 : — Hyaliitia radiatiila, Ilelicella heripensis, ]\iUonia exceii- 
irica, Balea perversa, Stucinea elegans, I.imnaa palustris, Fliysa fyntinalis, 
Aplexa hypnonun, Planorbis albiis, 1^1. crista, PI. spirojbis, Aticylus fliiviatilis, 
Pisidiuiii casei-taiin/ii, P. ohtiisale, P. milium, P. personatiun. 



425th (Annual) Meeting, held at the Museum, Manchester, Oct. ii, 1913. 

The Rev. Prof. Ii. M. Gwatkin, M.A., D.D., in the chair. 

The following members were among those present : — Messrs. K. Standen, L. J. 
Shackleford, J. R. Hardy, J. Kidson Taylor, E. D. Bostock, J. R. le B. Tomlin, 
E. Collier; J. W. Jackson, T. II. Plait, F. Rhodes, J. H. Lumb, (Ireevz Fysher, 
W. M. Tattersall, R. J.Welch, F. Booth, F. Darnhiough, II. Allan, junr., J. W. 
Taylor, W. D. Roebuck, F. Taylor, J. F. Mushain, J. 1). Dean. (t. C. Spence, 
B. Bryan, F. C. Bryan, C. II. Moore," C. Oldham, G. II. Taylor, E. C. Stump, 
A. E. Boycott, J. M. Williams, H. Brooksbank, W. H. Western, and Mrs. Gill ; 
Mrs. J. W. Jackson, Mrs. C. H. ^Nloore, and Mr. Ford were present as visitors. 

Appointment of Auditors. 

Messrs. J. Kidson Taylor and F. Taylor were appointed Auditors. 
Appointment of Scrutineers. 

Messrs. J. R. Hardy and 1". Booth were appointed Scrutineers. 

New Members Elected. 
W. II. Ingrams. 
Edward N. Dalton. 
Bertram Pickard. 



PROCEEDINGS : OCTOBER II, I913. I51 

Candidates Proposed for Membership. 

F. Rhodes, 113, Ileaton Road, Manningham, Bradford (introduced by Messrs. 
F. Booth and Alfred Hartley). 

Dr. Fred Baker, Point Loma, California, U.S.A. (introduced by Messrs. J. R. 
le Brockton Tomlin and L. J. -Shackleford). 

Greevz Fysher, 78, Chapel Allerton Terrace, Leeds (introduced by Messrs. 
J. W. Taylor and F. Booth). 

Professor G. W. Carr, University College Museum, Nottingham (introduced by 
Messrs. R. J. Welch and J. W. Taylor). 

Reports. 

The various Reports, adopted at the Council Meeting, were taken as read. 

Election of Officers and Council. 

The Scrutineers reported that the Officers and Council for the year 1913-14 had 
been unanimously elected as nominated by the Council (see p. 130). 

Honorary Member. 

On the motion of Mr. J. R. le Brockton Tomlin, seconded by Mr. John W. 
Taylor, M. Ph. Dautzenbeig, of Paris, was unanimously elected an Honorary 
Member of the Society in place of Dr. l^inney, U.S.A., deceased. 

President's Address. 

The Rev. Prof H. M. Gwatkin, M.A., D.D., gave his Presidential Address 
on "Some Molluscan Radulre. " 

Prof. A. E. Boycott moved and Mr. John W. Taylor seconded " That the best 
thanks of the Society be given to Professor Gwatkin for his intensely interesting 
address." The motion \Vas passed unanimously and with acclamation. 

Votes of thanks to the Vice-Chancellor of Victoria University and the Vice- 
Chancellor of Leeds University and the Authorities of Manchester Museum for 
the use of rooms for the meetings of the Society, were moved and seconded by 
]\Iessrs.' Collier and Welch respectively. 

These votes were passed unanimously. 

Exhibits. 

By Mr. Edward Collier : Helix, section Cepiva ; all the species of this section, 
with many named varieties, except the rare aimopJiila Bgt. and vicaria Westl., in 
illustration of his paper in J. of Conch., vol. 14, p. 118. Helicigoim, section 
Arianta ; specimens oi A riant a arbusloruin L. , and nearly all the known varieties 
from many places on the continent, mostly from the Billow collection; also Arianta 
athiops Biz., from Transylvania. 

A large series of ClaiisiliiV from China and Japan. Living specimens of Heli- 
cogena vulgaris Parr., and Cepcca vindolwncnsis Fer. , from Odessa, South Russia ; 
also Cepcea nemoralis L., and Candidiila caperafa Mont., from near Lisbon. 

By Mr. J. Wilfrid Jackson (on behalf of Dr. G. Hickling) : Series of shells and 
drawings, showing extraordinary variation in a single 5'ptc\es^Flano7l)is mulli- 
for/iiis (Bronn) from Upper iNIiocene freshwater limestone, Steinheim, Wurtemberg. 

By Rev. L. J. Shackleford : Voliila niainilla Gray, taken from lobster-pots, 
Western Port, Australia ;. and Voluta concinna Brod., dredged ofl" Kii, Japan. 

By Mr. J. Ray Hardy : Three drawers of the Genus Obba — a fine series, nearly 
all the known species being represented — chiefly from the Biilow, collection. 

By Mr. IL Beeston : A series of land shells, collected by sifting debris, from 
Eggerslack Wood, Grange-over-Sands, August 13th, 1913. From one pint of 



I52 JOURNAL OF CONCHOtOGY, VOL. I4, NO. ^j JANUARY, 1914. 

siflings the following species were oblaineil : — Vitrea pnra. Eucounliis fnlviis, 
Piinctiini pyg)ii(i:iiiii, Pyramuiiila roltiiidata, Aiantliinula lamcUata, A. aculeaia, 
VaUonia costata, V. exienirica, Coclilicopa lubrica, Jamiiiia cylindracea. Vertigo 
alpestris, V. snbstiiahi, Sfihyraditn/i edeiiii/linii, Carychimn inininiitm, and Aci- 
cilia lineata — 1,030 specimens in all. Also Succiuea oblouga fiom Meathop Marsh. 

By Mr. II. Emnietl: Series of Helix arbnsioriim from Dovedale and Trentham ; 
//. lapicida, ClaiisiHa hideitlala, and Baka perversa from Ijeeston Tor, Staffs. ; 
A^eritinaJIiiviatiiis, Weston, Stafis. ; Pliysa iieterostroplia, Colwich ; Pahidestrina 
jenkinsi, Meir Hay and Thurnet Valley ; Suceinea piitris, Bewdley and Wall- 
grange ; Spheriwn rivicola, S. corneuni, S. aiiiiiicuin, S. palliduiii, and Pupa 
ninscontni from Staffordshire localities. 

By Mr. J. R. B. Masefiekl : PJiysa lielerostropiia from Colwich, Staffs., Aug., 

1913- 

By Mr. B. Br)'an : Umax maxiiniis, Pyraiiiidii/a riipestris. Helix virgata. II. 
caperala, Eiiamovtaua, E'. obsciira, Jaiiiinia sccale, Claiisilialamijiata, CI. rolphii, 
from Cheltenham ; Siieciiiea pttlris, Liimuta palitslris, I., stagnalis, Bythinia 
ieiitaculaia, Vii.'ipara cotitecta, and Poinatias elegaiis from Norwich, 1913 ; Arion 
hortensis, Agriolii/iax agreslis, Testacella sciititltnn, H. lapicida, Balea perversa, 
Aiicyliis Jlnviatilis, LinuKPa pereger, Aplecta liypnornvi, Paludestrina jenkinsi, 
Neritiiia Jltiviatilis, Dreissensia polyniorpha, Spliecrium palliduiii, and Vertigo 
aniivertigo, Staffs. 

By Mr.. J. M. Williams : A number of very uncommon varieties of Cypriea, 
including green forms of C. canieola and its var. rubiola ; green C. argiis and 
specimens irregularly marked ; C. panlherina var. venlrosa ; beautiful varieties 
of C. pyrum ; C. onyx var. aditsta ; C. errones var. coinpressa ; C. eainica var. 
obscura ; C. cervinetta with cervus markings ; C. stolida var. crossei ; C. eribraria 
var. ex/notitJiensis ; remarkable forms of C. ebnrnea, C. arabiea, C. lurida, C. 
eylindriea, C. erosa, C. tessellata, C. rashleighaiia, C. cilrina, C. petiliana, C. 
Isabella, C. pieta, C. zotiata, C. helvola, C. talpa (with exiista base), C. caput- 
serpenfis var. '' dorso-albida," and a fine specimen of C. unibilicata, dredged alive. 
He also showed a number of remarkable varieties of Oliva, many of them both 
rare and beautiful. 

By Mr. T. II. Piatt : (a). North American Unios — Creiiodonta perplicata Conr. , 
Old River, Arkadelphia, Arkansas, U.S.A. ; Qiiadriila nietanevra Raf. , Ouachita 
River, Arkadelphia ; Q. lacJuyinosiis Lea, Ohio ; Q. kleiniana Lea, Georgia ; 
Cyprogenia irrorafa Lea, Indiana ; P^inpsilis fallaciosa (Smith) .Simpson, Old 
River, Ark. ; Obovaria castanea Lea, Ouachita River, Ark. (/'), South American 
Unios — Prisodon obliijuus Schum. (~ avicularis I>k.), Brazil; P. syrniatophorus 
Meuschen, Brazil ; Hyria corrugata Lk., Brazil ; //. riigosissima Sowb., Amazon 
River; Telraplodon quadrilaterum Orb., Brazil; T. ainbiguus (Lam.), Sowb., 
Parana River, Uruguay; and twenty-five species of OpistJiostoma, including a speci- 
men of 0. grandispinosiim with eggs in mouth of shell. 

By Mr. R. Welch : Holocene molliisca from Irish sandhill pockets and shell- 
zones in the older dunes, mostly from West Donegal localities, such as Rosapenna, 
Horn Head, Carrickfin, Mullaghderg, Narin, and Bundoran ; Magilligan in Derry ; 
and Whitepark Bay in co. Antrim. The feature of the collection was the great 
number of \'ertigos, and VaUonia pukliella with Acanthinula aculeata, Puncfiiin 
pyginceiini, Sphyradium edentuluni, Pupamuscoriim, Acme lineata, and other small 
species. A few sets were shown of freshwater species from shell-marls, and Cran- 
noge deposits in Down and Clare. A large amount of duplicate material, both 
sorted and unsorted, was presented to members present. He also exhibited some 
living specimens of Patulastrajlavida Ziegler, reared from eggs deposited by sped- 



PROCFEUIXGS : OCTOBlCk ll, IQIJ. 153 

mens collected by Mr. A. W. Stelfox, in hot-houses, Royal Botanic Gardens, 
Dublin, where tliis South European species is aljundant. 

By Mr. J. D. Dean : A series of Brazilian Olh'ida:—0. braziliana Lk., 0. aitri- 
cularia Lk., growth stages of each ; Olive/la parvula Mart. (?var. nov.), a deeply- 
coloured shell, banded chestnut and white, all collected by Mr. William Harling, 
at Santos. Also a series of the clausiuni in Clausilia, fifty species, including all 
the British species, and a large proportion of the sub-genus Alopia. 

By Mr. Lionel E. Adams: Illustrations of "Accidental Resembhince" — Larva- 
cases o{ Apleroia cieiutlata, and shell-like seeds of Medicago orbicularis, resembling 
small shells. 

By Mr. W. Denison Roebuck : Jaiiiinia secale, Melmerley Low Scar, 1,650 ft. 
altitude ; new for Cmnberland ; the most northern locality in Britain. Also offi- 
cial maps of distribution, as authenticated, so far as the collection has proceeded, 
viz., from Testacella viaugei to Acantiiinula laviellata. 

By Mrs. Gill : Three drawers containing a fine collection of Calocochka^ Chlor,ca, 
Crystallopsis, Corasia, and other Philippine species of land shells. 

By Mr. F. Booth : Liiiticolaria featJieri, Martensia voiensis, Cyclosioina anceps, 
Rluifhis rhododrnia, Streptaxis kibwecieiisis, recently described species from British 
East Africa : a number of rare land shells from the Hawaiian Isles, New Zealand, 
and Japan ; and a fine series of the genera Plectofropis, Gaiieselia, and Flirasea. 

By Mr. G. C. S pence : Specimens of //(3/i9.*7>/;«, Eiicalodiiau, and many scarce 
species of Urocoplis ; also co-types o{ Sr.hasicheila xanthica from Mexico. 

By Mr. C. II. Moore : Two drawers oi Cydostotna and Cyclophoriis. 

By Mr. T. II. Lumb : A long series of //(V/.v rz.c/^r.w, fully illustrating its life- 
history. 

By Mr. R. Standen : Fifty species of British, Continental, and Exotic shells, 
with their calcareous eggs, and, in many cases, embryo and growth-stages of the 
species shown. Also well-preserved examples of Testacella^ Liniax, and Arion. 

By Mr. J. Kidson Taylor : Cypnra poraria var. vibex Kenyon, C. poraria var. 
kauaiensis Melv., C. poraria var. albella Melv. & Stand., C. helvola var. inascar- 
iiia Melv., C. helvola var. kauilani Kenyon, C. helvola var. //w^r^«^/.f Kenyon, 
C. helvola var. (nebulous spots), C. helvola var. (ocellated spots), C.flaveola var. 
labrolineata Gask., C. gangrenosa ^■a.x. melanoseina Melv., C. gangrenosa v^r. boivini 
Kien. ; C. gooda'.li Gray ; C. beckii Gask. ; C. viiliaris var. diversa Kenyon ; 
C. erosa var. phagedaina Melv., C. eivsa var. siraminea Melv. ; C. pyri/onnisva.Y. 
sinithi Sowb. ; C. gracilis Gask. ; C. petitiana Crosse & Fischer ; C. zonata Ch. ; 
C. nebulosa Kien. ; C. zvalkeri Gx^y, C. zaalkeri \z.x. bregeriana Crosse ; C reevei 
Gray ; C. carneola var. loebbeckiana Weink. ; C. fnscodentata Gray ; C. onyx (dark 
variety) ; T. ovulata Lamk. ; C. pulchra Gray (dark form) ; C. hungerfordi var. 
kiiensis Roberts (n.v.) ; and three drawers containing a collection of small beauti- 
fully mounted species of British land and freshwater shells. 

By Mr. J. R. le B. Tomlin : {a), a long series of the new British bivalve, Pseti- 
danodonia rothomagensis Locard, from the River Teme, near Powick. {b), some 
rare species of Tritonofiisns, including T. ebnr Mrirch, T. sabini Gray, T. fitsi- 
fori/lis Brod., T. 1 11 rg idnln s ] eft'. , T. attenuafus ]ef{., T. torttiosits Sars, and T. 
kroyeri Moll. {c), a very fine collection ol Papnina, containing nearly one hun- 
dred species, and including P. hedleyi Smith, P. cJuipmani Cox, P. groulli Dautz., 
P. goldieiBxs.z., P. sachalensis Pfr., /'. macgillivrayi Forbes, P. pratti Fulton, 
P. kubaryiViM., P. pseitdolanccolaia Dsiwiz., P. spadicea Fulton, P. ////?/;« Fulton, 
P. humilis FuUon, P. boyeri C. & F., P. lacteolata Smith, P. cynthia Fulton, 
P. labillardieri 'S>xi\\i\i, P. woodlarkiana Sowb., and P. denseslriata Fulton. 



154 JOURNAL OF CONCHOLOGY, VOL. I4, NO. 5, JANUARY, I9I4. 

ANNUAL REPORT. 

The Conchological Society, having been founded on Oct. 12th, 1876, the present 
is the Thirty-Sixth Annual Report, and the Council and Members are to be con- 
gratulated on the stability and progress of the Society. 

At our last Annual Meeting the membership stood at 340, since which time the 
Society has lost eight members by death and one by resignation. On the other 
hand, nineteen new members have been elected, so that there is an increase over 
losses of ten, the membership being now 350. Of these, 294 members are resident 
in Great Britain and Ireland, and of the remaining 56 resident abroad, 21 are in the 
United States. 

The eight members whose deaths the Society deeply deplores are Mrs. Carphin, 
W. G. Binney, R. Middleton, D. D. Baldwin, II. L. Orr, W. Moss, and the Revs. 
Thos. Cook and G. W. Taylor. 

All these were members of many years standing, and their loss will be much 
felt Ijy a large number with whom they corresponded and exchanged. The decease 
of Mr. William Moss, for twenty-two years a member of the Society and long an 
active member on its Council, calls for special mention, and an obituary will appear 
in \\\& Journal of Co)ichoIo':y. 

During ihe year the usual number of meetings has been held at the Museum, 
Manchester, and there have also been field-rambles. 

The attendance has been well maintained, and an increased number of papers 
and notes has been read. The exhibits have been varied and interesting ; the special 
exhii)its in the genera Lanistes and J/arisa, Trochatella and Entrochatella, and a 
section of Helix, bringing together almost complete collections of the species included 
in tiiese genera. The April meeting, attended by members of the Leeds Concho- 
logical Club, at tlie invitation of the ^ Manchester and District members, was a 
distinct success, the addresses given by Messrs. R. Standen and J. E. Crowther 
being much appreciated. 

At the last annual meeting questions relating to Local Branches of the Society 
were raised and referred to the Council. The Council replied that there were no 
special regulations and no affiliation fee was required ; the only understanding was 
that the Branches sltould, as far as possible, be officered by members of the parent 
Society. It was suggested that a note should be put in the Journal urging the 
formation of Branches under the above ruling. This has already borne fruit in the 
formation of the North Staffordshire Branch, a report of which will be given this 
evening. The Council cordially welcomes this evidence of increasing interest in 
conchology, and hopes that wherever there are several members of the Society in 
a district they will form a Branch, and arrange for regular monthly meetings such as 
have been held for years in London and Leeds. 

The Journal of Conchology has been issued quarterly, and there are signs of 
extending circulation. In connection with this subject, the Council would call 
emphatic attention to the loss and inconvenience often entailed on the Society by 
the neglect of members to notify changes of address. Every quarter copies are 
teturned from the dead letter ofllce for this cause. Especially is it desirable that 
members notify changes of address early in December, so that the list published 
on January 1st may be as accurate as possil^le. It is also again necessary to empha- 
size the rule that missing numbers o^ \.\\e^ Jou?nal can only be supplied free to tliose 
who notify the loss during the current year of publication. 



I'ROCiiliDINGS : OCTO&Ek 11, I9I3. 



I5S 



TREASURER'S REPORT. 



Statement of Income and Expenditure 

For ihe \cav 1912. 



Receipts. 






£ 


s. 


^. 


Cash in hand ... ... 33 


12 


II 


Subsciiplions ... ... 64 


16 





Three Life Composition Fees 9 


9 





Sale of Publicalions ... 9 


16 


5 


Advertisements 2 


17 


6 



;^I20 II 10 



EXI'ENDITU 


K !■;. 


£ 




,1. 


Cost o{ Jonnial for Oct. , 


1911 


12 


16 


4 


Cost oi Journal for Jan. , 


1912 


14 


2 


6 


Cost oi Journal for A pr. , 


1912 


13 


4 


5 


Cost oi Journal for July, 


1912 


13 


15 


3 


Cost oi Journal iox Oct., 


1912 


13 


17 


8 


Taylor's Monograph, pt. 


xix. 





5 


3 


Reprints 




3 


17 


8 


Stationery 




5 


4 





Cost of Book Cases . . . 




II 


2 


8 


Library Expenses ... 




2 


18 


6 


London Meeting Expenses... 


I 





6 


Recorder's Expenses 




I 


2 


2 


Secretary's Expenses 




8 





II 


Treasurer's Expenses 




I 


7 


6 


Editor's Expenses ... 







14 





Curator's Expenses... 




I 








Cash in hand ... 




16 


2 


6 




^ 


20 


II 


10 



Interim Statement of Income and Expenditure, 



191; 



Receipts. 










£ 


.V-. 


d. 


Casli in hand ... 


.. 16 


2 


6 


.Subscriptions 


•• 33 


16 





Life Fee 


3 


3 





Advertisements 


I 


2 





Sale of Publications 


I 


17 


2 



.^56 o 8 



E.KPE.N'DITUKE. 

Co.->t of /(>//;7;(?/for Jan., 1913 

Cost oi Journal ioi .Vpr., 19 13 

Cost oi Journal for July, 191 3 

Reprints 

Stationery 

Maiacological Society Sub- 
scription ... 

Maiacological Journal, six 
parts 

Recorder's Expenses 

Secretary's Expenses 

Treasurer's Expenses 
Cash in hand 



13 9 
13 o 
12 9 

5 3 

2 4 



.. I 16 





.. Ill 


6 


.. 2 12 


6 


.. 10 





..2 2 


8 


^56 


8 



RECORDER'S REPORT. 



The Hon. Recorder reports that he is still engaged upon the laborious task of 
collating the Census and the Record-Books with the object of ensuring that every 
entry in the census is represented by a detailed record in the books. 

During the year, in spite of the dry and unfavourable character of the sununer, 
many new records liave been submitted andentered on the books. 



156 JOURNAL OF CONCHOLOGY, VOL. I4, NO. 5. JANUARY, I914. 

Msits paid lo the Kelviiigiove Museum ai Glasgow and ihe Royal Scottish 
Museum at Edinburgh have resulted in numerous records being submitted lo the 
authenticators from the collections made by Mr. Alfred Brown, Mr. David Robert- 
son, and Mr. Richard Rimmer. In former years the collections in the Museum at 
Manchester, in Essex, at Bath, Bristol, Exeter, Perth, etc., have contributed to 
the records, and your Recorder would be pleased if the authorities of museums 
whose contents have not yet been seen would lend assistance of a similar character. 

There is still a considerable number of blanks in the Census to be filled up, 
more particularly in Ireland and Scotland, and the active assistance of conchologists 
is desired, particularly with regard to the slugs, which it is necessary should be 
seen alive. 

The new records submitted are published from time to time in the yi7/^;7/a/ ^ 
Conchology. 

The report on the division of vice-counties is in draft, and available for publica- 
tion at any time the Society may deem tit. 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE LEEDS BRANCH 

For the Vkar ended 30TH September, 1913. 

Twelve meetings have been held during the year, five in the field and seven 
indoor. The field meetings were held at Selby in April ; Kirby Stephen, in con- 
nection with the visit of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union to this district in May ; 
Burnsall, Wharfedale, in June, this being also a Yorkshire Naturalists' Union 
meeting ; Shadwell and Wike, near Leeds, in July ; and the September meeting 
was the seventh annual joint ramble with the members of the Manchester centre, 
and though not so well attended as the past meetings, was equally successful 
otherwise. 

Of the seven indoor meetings three were held in the Leeds University and three 
in the Bradford Cartwright Mall. Special exhibits of British species were dis- 
played ; and Mr. J. W. Taylor has continued his remarks on the life-history, habits, 
and distribution of each exhibit in turn. Mr. Taylor's contributions to the know- 
ledge of these species have been highly appreciated, an excellent testimony to this 
being the high attendance at our indoor meetings. Special exhibits do not bar 
other exhibits, of which there have been fine displays at some of the meetings. 

The seventh indoor meeting was held in the University, Manchester, last April, 
by invitation from members of the Manchester centre. 

Two papers were given — one on the " Eggs of Mollusca,"' by Mr. R. Standen ; 
and one entitled " Notes and Observations on Sphceriuvi palliduiii in the Parish of 
Halifax," by Mr. J. E. Crowther. 

The meetings of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union are officially attended, and 
records of species kept in our minute-book. 

Though we do not expect to add any new species to our present list, we are 
continually extending the range of species already known, the result of our rambles, 
and by individual effort. 

The membership at the present time is twenty-four, with two corresponding 
members. 

Mr. F. Rhodes, Bradford, is our President. 

F. Booth. Hon. Sec, 



BRANCH ANNUAL REPORTS. 157 

ANNUAL REPORT OF THE LONDON BRANCH. 

During the past year our Branch has held nine ordinary and six field-meetings. 
The evening meetings were generally well attended, and the exhibits were both 
numerous and interesting. Following the example of head-quarters, we had 
" special exhibits" of various genera. The plan worked well, and resulted in the 
exhibition of several excellent combined series. 

A feature of the past year was the commencement of a type collection of British 
non-marine shells. This is in embryo as yet, although a useful beginning has 
been made. We shall be grateful for the gift of many northern forms, if any mem- 
bers have them to spare. The Hon. Secretary will gladly furnish lists of desiderata. 

The field-meetings were held at Esher, Weybridge, Broxbourne, Stanwell, 
Oxted, and Shepperton, The attendance was small, except at the August meeting. 
Our best finds were Vivipara contecta at Stanwell ; Vertigo stthstriota near Oxted ; 
and Aplecla hypnorian at Lower Ilaliiford. The last-named is of interest, as it 
confirms an old Middlesex record. 

The membership of this Branch remains practically the same as last year. 

J. E. Cooper, Hon. Sec. 



REPORT OF THE NORTH STAFFORDSHIRE BRANCH. 

A Miuii'iNG was held in the North Staffordshire Field Club Library, llanley, on 
the 24th July last, when there were present Rev. E. H. Nash, M.A., Messrs. 
J. R. B. Masefield, M.A. , B. Bryan, and IL Emmett; and it was decided to form a 
North Staffordshire Branch of the Conchological Society of Great Britain and Ire- 
land ; and Mr. J. R. B. Masefield was unanimously elected President ; and Mr. 
B. Bryan Hon. Sec. of the Branch. It was further decided to hold field meetings 
during the summer, and monthly evening meetings during the winter months. 

The first field meeting took place on the 21st August last, and six members 
]:)roceeded to Colwich, near Stafford, especially to work the canal and its. banks. 
The result was most successful, no less than twenty-five species of molluscs being 
obtained, including two fine specimens oi Physa heterostropha, dredged by Messrs. 
Masefield and Emmett. Dreissensia polyniorplia was found in abundance on the 
walls of the canal, and Paliideslriiia Jenkinsi turned up in several places. 

B. Bryan, Hon. Sec. 



426th Meeting-, held in the Museum, Manchester, Nov. 12, 1913. 

Mr. Edward Collier in tlie chair. 

Additions to the Library announced and thanks voted : 

" Catalogue of the British Species of Pisidiuin (Recent and Fossil) in the Col- 
lection of the British Museum (Natural History),"' by B. B. Woodward (presented 
by Dr. W. M. Tattersall). 

" Manual of Conchology," part 86, by H. A. Pilsbry. 

" Non-lNIarine Mollusca from the Old Bed of the Thames at Barn Elms with 
Maygaiitana {Pseiidiinio) aniicularius (Speng. ),"' by A. S. Kennard and B. B. 
Woodward. 

^' Helix nifescens Pennant," by A. S. Kennaid and B. B. Woodward. 

" Bibliography : Papers and Records relating to the Geology and Paleontology 
of North of England (Yorkshire excepted), published in 1912," by T. Sheppard 
{from the respective authors) ; and the usual periodicals received in exchange. 



158 JOURNAL OF CONCHOI.OGV, VOI,. I4, NO. 5, JANUARY. I9I4. 

Appointment of Auditor. 

Mr. C. II. Moore was appointed Auditor in place of Mr. J. Kidson Taylor, wlio 
had intimated his inability to accept the appointment made at the Annual Meeting. 

New Members Elected. 
Dr. Fred Baker. 
Professor G. W. Carr. 
Greevz Fysher. 
Fred Rhodes. 

Candidate Proposed for Membership. 

A. Ilarman, 5, Ilarley Street, Scalliy Road, Scarborough (introduced loy J. A. 
Ilargreaves and J. R- le Brockton Tomlin). 

Resignations. 

C. J. Sharp, M.R.C.S. 
I. Shaer, B.A. 

Papers Read. 

"Observations on the Anatomy of Helicella '•'■ heripensis Mabille,"' by A. E. 
Boycott and J. Wilfrid Jackson. 

" Limuira pereger yiuW. from Dauphine," by L. E. Adams. 

" Conchological Notes from Portugal," by L. E. Adams. 

" Reported Occurrence of Helicigoiia lapicida (L.) and Ena niontana (Drap). 
in Ireland," by L. E. Adams. 

" Helia'goiia lapicida (L. ) in Ireland," by E. Collier. 

" Note on the Changes necessary in the ' List of British Non-Marine Mollusca ' 
since its issue in 1904," by A. S. Kennard and B. B Woodward. 

" Obituary Notice : William Moss," by R. Standen. 

" Vertigo alpcstris Alder in Merionethshire," l>y Chas. Oldham. 

Exhibits. 

By Mr. G. C. Spence : Series of seven out of the eight known species of .4 r^w/j-, 
showing many colour and band variations. 

By Mr. Chas. Oldham : A very globose, dark, finely costate form of l.iiiiiiaa 
fiereger, from a little peaty tarn, Llyn Gwernan, near Dolgelley, North Wales ; 
also Veriigo alpestiis from same locality, to illustrate his note. 

By Mrs. Gill: A drawer o( Ilelic-os/rla, including^, daniahoyi Vh., H. gari- 
baldiana D. & S., H. siquijorensis Brod., and varieties of H. cryptica Brod. 

By iNIr. L. E. Adams : A number of non-marine shells from Portugal, to illus- 
trate his note. 

By Mr. E. Collier : Ena iiioiitana and Helicigona lapicida from Ireland, to illus- 
trate his and Mr. Adams' notes on the subject. 

By Mr. J. Wilfrid Jackson : Series of shells of Helicella caperata and //. '■'■ heri- 
pensis,'' from Prestatyn, North Wales (to illustrate the anatomical paper by himself 
and Prof. A. E. Boycott) ; ahso Helicella barba7-a and H. virgata var. Intescens 
from Prestatyn. 



Limnaea pereger Mull, from Dauphine. — I have recently received some 
interesting specimens of L. pereger from Le Lauteret, Dauphine, collected at the 
altitude of 6,500 feet. Mr. J. W. Taylor, to whom I submitted them, says: — 
" They do not exactly correspond with any variety known to me, but still are very 
close to the var. airia of Clessin, and, except for being somewhat more obese, 
resemble the var. blauneri Shuttl., which is a native of elevated ground in Switzer- 
land and South France," — Lionel E. AhAMS {Read before the Society, Nov. I2th, 
1913)- 



^59 

EDITORIAL NOTES. 

Members are reminded that Subscriptions for 1914 are due on January ist. 



In \\\t Journal of Conchology, xiv. , p. 72, Mr. J. T. Marshall, in his "Additions 
to British Conchology," expresses the opinion that a record of Terebratula cranmni 
Miill., from the Bay of Biscay, is incorrect. Mr. J. W. Jackson writes me that he 
has recently examined the specimen upon which this record was based, and finds it 
to be T. 'c'itrea Gmel. as Mr. Marshall surmised, and labelled as such, so that it is 
difficult to understand how it came to be recorded in 1906 as T. craiiiiini. 



With reference to Mr. Collier's paper on the section Tachea — this name, by the 
way is inadmissible and yields to Cepaa — Canon Ilorsley writes that in Switzer- 
land he always finds H. sylvatica higher up than H. nenioralis or H. hortensis, and 
that in his experience it is never abundant and does not live on grassy banks but on 
exposed rocks. 

All records of authentic localities are valuable, and we make no apology for 
giving the following list of species contained in a small collection recently received 
from Natuna Island in the China Sea : — 



Bulla ampulla L. v. hifasciata Mke. 

Oliva erythrostoiiia L. 

Mitra filaris L. 

M. corrugata Lam. 

M. ligata A. Ad. 

Nassa arcularia I^ 

N. coronata Brug. 

N. lurida Old. 

Cyprcea errones L. 

C. annulus L. 

Cerit Ilium morus Lam. 



Nearly all these species were received in some number 



C. coraliuiii Dufr. 

Vertagus obelisais Brug. 

V. vertagus L. 

Potamides fluviatilis P. & M. 

Natica lineata Lam. 

ISf. chiiieiisis Lam. 

Pyramidella veutricosa Guerin. 

Otoplenra auris-cati Ch. 

N'eritina ualanensis Less. 

Umbonium depressuni A. Ad. 

Macira auliquata Spengler. 



We learn from the Journal de Conchyliologie that the collection of recent shells 
made by the late Andre Bonnet — better known to many of our members as a genial 
and generous correspondent in Paris Basin fossils— was sold by auction on April 23rd 
in Paris. It did not contain many rarities. The following prices were given for 
single specimens: — Latiaxis majvae (large, but not in first-rate condition), iifr. ; 
Volula papulosa, I5fr. ; Turcicnla bairdi, i6fr. ; KostelLxria delicalula, 4 to 6fr. 
each ; Tiphobia horei, 'Ji.x. ; N'eothauina tanganyicense, 6fr. ; Hybocystis elep/ias, 
gfr. 



Note on Urocoptis (Bactrocoptis) rosea Pfr.— The normally decollate por- 
tion of the species contained in the Section Bactrocoptis appears to be unknown. 
At any rate I am unable to trace any description of the same. This beinc so, I 
was pleased, when looking through some Urocoptids belonging to Mr. J. R. le B. 
Tomlin, to come across specimens of U. rosea Pfr., retaining the early whorls. The 
shells are 16 -5 mm. in length, and have 18 whorls, cylindric for the lower half 
above which they taper regularly to the slightly bulbous nepionic whorls (of about 
i\ volutions). The initial half whorl is decidedly elevated, and calls to mind that 
of some of the Jamaican Brachypodellas. The upper whorls are practicallv smooth 
at first, and gradually develope riblets until at about the 6th or 7th whorl from the 



l6o JOURNAL OF CONCHOI.OGV, VOL. I4, NO. 5, JANUARY, I914. 

apex they are of normal size and strength. Similarly the apex is white and gradu- 
ally becomes tinted. I am unable to trace any definite demarcation between the 
nepionic and post-nepionic whorls. In one example at the point, viz., the 9th 
whorl from the base, where atrophy would normally occur, the riblets suddenly 
become very faint and low, as if rubbed, for about one-third of a whorl. This por- 
tion is somewhat glossy and in parts whitish, owing apparently to the plug or 
septum shining through the shell sul«tance {Read before the Socieiy, Sept. loth, 
1913).— G. C. Spence. 



Repotted Occurrence of Helicigona lapicida (Linne) and Ena montana 
(Drap. ) in Ireland. — Hitherto tlie \n'i\\x&coii\'s, ol Helicigona lapicida have been 
looked upon with suspicion. In his " Monograph," part 19, page 415, Mr. J. W. 
Taylor says :— " Dr. Leach in his Synopsis, published in 1852, describes this 
species as not uncommon in the south of Ireland ; but this is apparently quite 
erroneous, as the only ascertainable, though incorrect, records appear to be that 
by Brown in i8l8, who ascribed Belfast as a locality on the authority of Dr. Mc- 
donnell, but that gentleman's specimens were English ones ; and by Dr. Turton, 
who stated that specimens had been ' found by Mrs. Travers of Belgrove on the 
stone steps of her mansion at Cove,' Cork. It was included by Mr. J. E. Palmer 
in a list of captures in Kildare during 1884, and according to Thompson was intro- 
duced into the vicinity of Limerick in 1839." However, a few days ago Mr. E. 
Dukinfield Jones gave me several specimens of H. lapicida which he himself picked 
up at Carrick-a-Bric Castle, Fermoy, Co. Cork, in 1871, where, he says, the species 
was very common. Mr. Jones is of the opinion that Turton's record from Cove is 
probably correct. With the H. lapicida were specimens of Ena nionlana, which 
Mr. Jones is nearly sure were found by him witli the other species at Fermoy, but 
after a lapse of forty-two years he will not speak positively. Moreover, he has never 
collected shells in England, and has not been presented with them, so that it is 
difficult to imagine where else they can have come from. — I>ionel E. Ad/VMS, 
B.A. [Read before the Society, Nov. I2th, 1913). 



Helicigona lapicida (Linne) in Ireland. — Since receiving the above note from 
Mr. L. E. Adams, I have been in communication with Mr. R. A. Phillips, of Ash- 
burton, Cork, and he has kindly been over to Fermoy specially to see if this old 
record is true. He writes me that he was there on Satm-day last, Nov. 8th,. and 
was successful in finding two dead specimens and three living ones of this species. 
They were near the old ruins of Carrick-a-Bric Castle, under stones, associated with 
Helix riifescens, H. Iiispida, Pupa cylindracea, Hyalinia ccilaria, etc. The speci- 
mens were all in a very small area, a few \ ards square, and he could find none 
elsewhere in the district. He saw no signs of the other reported species, Ena 
montana, but perhaps at a more favoiu'able time of the year he might be more suc- 
cessful. Farther investigation will be necessary to prove whether H. lapicida is 
native to the district or not, and he hopes to work the surrounding woods for both 
species during the next s]3ring and summer. — Edward Collier {Read before the 
Society, Nov. 12th, 191 3). 

Paludestrina jenkinsi in Cambridg-eshire. — On August 4th, 1912, I found 
this species in a small pond on the bank of the tidal Nene at Guyhirne, where it was 
associated with Bithyuia teutaciclata. It does not appear to have been recorded 
hitherto for Cambridgeshire. — Chas. Oldiiku {Read before the Society , INIarch 12th, 
1913). [No'iE.-This species in its uncarinated form was sent to Mr. Fred Taylor 
in lune, 1909, liy Mr. Hugh Watson, who had taken it at Wisl.iech. — W. D.R.J. 



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A Systematic, Illustrated Monography of the 
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Vol. 141 



APRIL 1st, 1914. 



[No. 6. 



THE 



JOURNAL 

CONCHO LOGY. 

F0UNI>E:) 1S74. 

BEING THE ORGAN OF THE CONC HOLOGICAL SOCIETY 
OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 

I'UBLISHEP QUAKTEIILY. 



Hon. Editor : 
J.R.LEli.TOiMLIN,M.A ,F.E.S. 
i.akefoot, 
Hamilton Rd., Reading. 



Hon. SiicuKTAkv: 

Rev. L.J.SHACKLEFORD, 

60, Granvii.[.i£ Road, 

Blackpool. 



Hon. Trbasuuer : 

E. D. BOSTOCK; 

OuLTON Cross, 

Stone, Staffs. 



CONTENTS. 

r.\c.H; 

Clausilia dubia Drap. at Dover (with figures) — J. D. Dean ... i6i 

Census Authentications — The Hon. Recorder 162 

Observations on the Anatomy of Helicella " heripensis Mabille " 

(with figures) — A. E. Boycott and J. W. Jackson 164 

Obituary Notice: William Moss, F.C.A. (with portrait) — R. Stanuen 169 

Snail-shells as Lamps in Italy — S. L. Petty ... ... ... 171 

Conchological Notes from Portugal — L. E. Adams... ... ... 171 

The Non-marine Mollusca of Touraine — F. H. Sikes ... ... 172 

Proceedings: Dec. 10, 1913 ; Jan. 14, 1914; Feb. u, 1914 ... 178 

Monstrosities of Tapes pullastra and Mactra stultorum — J. E. Cooper 181 
Additions to "British Conchology," part vii. (continued) — J. T. 

Marshali 1S2 

Editorial Notes 191 

PLATE 2. 



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LIST OF" 

BRITISH NON-MARINE MOLLUSCA. 



Prepared by B. B. WOODWARD, F.L.S., 
and a OOMJVI8TTEE of the CONOHOLOGIOAL SOCIETY. 

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The Lancashire Naturalist, 

A Monthly Journal of Natural History for the County of 
Lancashire, and for the adjacent districts of Cheshire, 
Derbyshire, Westmorland, North Wales & the Isle of Man. 

Conducted by MR. W. H. WESTERN, 
Assisted in Special Departments by Competent Referees. 

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British Land and Freshwater Sliells and Foreign Shells. — Lists to Alfred 
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i6i 



JOURNAL OF CONCHOLOGY. 



Vol. 14. APRIL, 1914. No. 6. 



CLAUSILIA DUBIA Drap.^ AT DOVER. 



By J. DAVY DEAN. 

(Read before the Societj-, December loth, 1913). 



" Draparnaud separated Miiller's Clausilia perversa into two species, 
giving to them the names C. rngosa and C. diibia, and Moquin- 
Tandon followed Draparnaud, substituting the name nigricans for 
dubia, assuming on the authority of Dr. Gray that it was so named by 
Pulteney in 1 799. This is a mistake. There is no Clausilia nigricans 
in Dr. Pulteney's original work."^ In the 1892 list published by this 
Society there appears Clausilia perversa {'?u\t.)=rugosa Drap. and 
var. dubia Drap. is introduced under that species. This was the 
name generally accepted at that time for the larger shell found so 
commonly in the Craven district of Yorkshire and among the West- 
morland Fells, on the assumption that it was identical with the 
continental form. The list published in 1903 gives bidentata (Strom) 
S^^:=perversa Pult. = rugosa Drap.]. Later on the var, cravenensis 
Taylor was instituted, thus establishing the distinction from the 
continental dubia. The general feeling to-day is that this form is 
entitled to full specific rank. 

All three species or forms differ in the clausium, but it is my pur- 
pose in these notes only to shew the distinction between dubia and 
cravenensis. 

In a paper read before the Society in January, 1912/ Mr. H. 
Overton expresses an opinion that dubia and cravenensis are idfentical, 
and says he fails to discover any difference whatever. Thus his note 
recording the occurrence of C. dubia at Dover becomes puzzling and 
it was only quite recently that it occurred to me that the Dover shell 
might not be, after all, identical with the Craven form. I wrote to 

1 Not apparently identical with Draparnaud's figure and description. 

2 British L. {^ F. W. Moll, Lovell Reeve. 

3 Journal 0/ Conch., vol. 13, p. 276. 



l62 JOURNAL OF CONCHOLOGY, VOL. I4, NO, 6, APRIL, I914. 

Mr. Overton who very kindly sent three examples. Two of these I 
have examined for the clausium. 

In the clausia of these two species there is quite a marked difference 
as I hope my outlines will show. The Dover examples have all the 
characteristics of the continental dtibia. In this the " spoon " is much 
more bent, narrower, stouter at the extreme end, the angle between 
spoon and pedicle more abrupt, and the lower contour of the spoon 
more deflected towards the pedicle. 






C, dubm Drap. (Dover). C. dubia Drap. (Switzerland). C. cravenensis Taylor. 

In cases of doubt we have in the clausium a very perfect little 
register of specific values. If the clausium is different, it follows that 
the internal armature is different also. It does not seem to matter 
whether the example taken be a long or short one, the uniformity is 
there. C. diibia Drap. is certainly a dif^cult species to determine 
from the shell alone but the confusion is more likely to be with 
bidentata (Strom) than with crave?iensis Taylor, 

I would ask my friends to examine carefully any particularly 
large ^^ bidentata" from south-eastern localities before setting off for 
Dover. 



CENSUS AUTHENTICATIONS FROM THE KELVINGROVE 
MUSEUM, GLASGOW. 



By W. DENISON ROEBUCK, F.L.S., Hon. Recorder. 



All the records here given are based upon examples sent to the official 
authenticators : myself for slugs only ; Mr. Fred Taylor for Paludestrhiids ; and 
Mr. John W. Taylor for all other species. 



Through the kindness of Mr. Peter McNair, who is in charge of the Natural 
History Collections of the Kelvingrove Museum at Glasgow, we have had the 
opportunity of examining the land and freshwater mollusca contained therein, most 
of them collected by the late Alfred Brown and the late David Robertson. 
Ayrshire : From Troon there are numerous examples of Helicella itala, both 

adult and juvenile, in the Alfred Brown collection. 
Cambridgeshire : A box full of shells collected by David Robertson and labelled 
" River Camden, Ely, 10/69," evidently intended for the River Cam, near Ely, 
contained specimens of Fts^'dhifu fonfhiak ; also a few examples each of F/anoriu 
crista SinA Pisiditt??! siibtruncatum from "Canal off the River Camden [query 
Cam] at Eley." 



ROEBUCK : CENSUS AUTHENTICATION'S. 163 

Cantire : Pisidium ?/iiIiii/n, a few small, Crinan, D. Robertson. 

Clyde Islands and Wigtownshire : Helix acuta in abundance, var. strigata 
numerous, at Millport and Port Logan, in the D. Robertson collection. 
Millport is on Cumbrae, Clyde Islands, and Port I,ogan is in Wigtownshire. 

Donegfal East : From Bundoran three Helicella itala, and Hygromia riifescens in 
abundance. 

Dumbartonshire : In the Alfred Brown collection is a tablet with several examples 
of Acaulhintilalamellata labelled " Dumbartonshire " ; an example oi Pisidiuvt 
obhtsale from shallow water in Loch Lomond taken 30th August, 1906, in 
company with the already authenticated P. pnsillmn ; and Sncciiiea ptttris and 
Succinea elegaiis from Loch Lomond, mixed on one tablet, one of the latter and 
several of the former species. 

Ebudes North : A few each of Pisidium obtiisalt and P. pidcheUtiin, along with 
other species, Skye, August, 1879. 

Glamorgfanshire : Among the collections made by the late David Robertson are 
several examples of Pisidiu/n siipiniint, taken in the Cardiff canal, July, 1871 ; 
also a few P. inilitun, taken along with three other species of the genus in the 
Swan Pond, Sophia Gardens, Cardiff, in 1877 ; also an example of Bythinia 
leachii, a juvenile specimen of Liinn(ea auricularia, a few Hyalinia alliaria. 
and Pahidesfrina stagnalis in great abundance, all collected at Cardiff. 

Isle of Man : In a box of shells collected in various places in the Isle of Man are 
several examples o^ Pisidium fontinale and a few of Planorhis crista var. lavi- 
gata, the collector's name not being stated. 

Lanarkshire : We have been enabled to fill up some blanks for this not well 
worked county as follows : Planorbis albus abundant, Pisidium cbtiisale and 
Sphcerium coneitm, both numerous, all collected by the late Mr. Alfred Brown 
in Possil Marsh ; Spiicerium lacustre numerous in a pond near Possil Marsh, 
collected by the late David Robertson ; Valvata pisciualis, a few found by the 
same collector in a marsh between Uddingston and Fallside, on the roadside at 
bridge in 1S82 ; and a collection made at Hairmyres, 28th September, 1872, by 
D. Robertson contained a few Punctum pygmaum, several Vertigo pygmcra, a 
few Pisidium fontinale, a few P. pulchellum, and a few P. milium. 

Main Argyll : Numerous examples of Planorbis contortus, a few Pisidium obtusale 
and one Paludestrina stagnalis, found " in a pond near shore, Lochgilp." 

Monmouthshire : Planorbis corneus (several adults) and PI. carinatus (a few small 
darkly encrusted examples) collected at Newport by Mr. Alfred Brown. Also a 
few examples oi Balea perversa from Tintern Abbey neighbourhood. 

Renfrewshire : From the Paisley canal (D. Robertson) are several Valvata cristata 
and several Pisidium henslowanum ; and from Houston (D, Robertson) 
numerous Pisiditim fontinale. 

Ross West ; Helicella itala, three specimens taken at Loch Carron, 



We have previously had similar help from the Museums of Manchester, Essex, 
Dublin, Perth, Bath, Bristol, Edinburgh, Exeter, etc., and would be pleased to 
avail ourselves of the opportunities of examining such specimens as may appear to 
be new for the Census in collections stored in similar institutions. 



164 



OBSERVATIONS ON THE ANATOMY OF HELICELLA 
" HERIPENSIS Mabille." 



By a. E. boycott and J. WILFRID JACKSON. 



(Read before the Society, November 12th, 1913). 



The specimens on which the following anatomical observations have 
been made were collected during September last at Prestatyn, North 
Wales, by Mr. R. Standen and one of the present writers (J. W. J.), 
and besides being a new record for Flintshire (v.c. 51), they are also 
the first specimens to be recorded for North Wales generally, and the 
locality is the most north-westerly one known for the species. The 
reference ^' H. caperata var. heripensis" in Mr. J. F. Musham's paper 
on the 'Land and Freshwater MoUusca of lona' {antea p. 60) is a 
mistake, the specimen in question being a malformed juvenile H. 
itala, according to Mr. A. W. Stelfox. 

The species was found to be fairly common in several places on 
the hedge-banks around Prestatyn, from the shore to the foot of the 
steep limestone hills behind the town, and was accompanied in every 
case by its ally, H. caperata. Its extreme abundance, however, was 
more particularly noticeable (especially after rain) in an enclosed 
stretch of marsh-land behind a line of old sand-dunes on the left of 
the road (Bastion Road) leading down from the station to the shore, 
and here it was associated with almost equal numbers of H. caperata, 
and a fair sprinkling of H. virgata var. lutescens. All the shells of 
this latter species were remarkable for their small size, while those of 
both the other species were fairly large. 

The specimens upon which our observations have been made were 
all taken from this area, and almost all the shells were found on the 
ground, only a few occurring on the wall bounding the field. 

The habitat, about 15 feet above sea-level, is only scantily covered 
with grass which is closely nibbled by sheep ; in places the sandy soil 
overlying the marsh-clay is plainly visible between the grassy patches. 

Neither here, nor anywhere around Prestatyn, does there appear to 
be any evidence of special plant associations having any influence on 
the distribution and welfare of this species. 

In collecting we experienced no difficulty in distinguishing caperata 
and " heripensis" as apart from differences in shell-sculpture and 
ornament, the bodies, in general, of the ^'heripensis" were notably darker 
than the caperata, though a few of the latter were darker than the 
palest of the former and vice-versa. The pigmentation of the mantle- 
edge was also different : in ^' heripensts" there was an obvious, almost 



BOYCOTT AND JACKSON: ANATOMY OF HELICELLA " HERIPENSIS. '' 165 

continuous, band of bright brick-red pigment mixed with the usual 
black J in caperata this was reduced to one or two spots about the 
centre, often microscopical in size, or was absent altogether. 

The " heripensis " shells were relatively flatter than the caperata, the 
indices '^'^aiutudV"" ' being about 165 and 145 respectively. 

The variation in colour and markings of the two species was not 
very great. 

^ In the '■'■heripensis'" the majority of the specimens were of a 
brownish colour, sometimes quite pale, with radiating markings and 
more or less interrupted bands above the periphery, and several finer 
bands below. A few specimens, however, were of quite a unicolorous 
brown all over and entirely without markings except in one or two 
instances where there was a peripheral whitish band. This plain 
colour variety appears to be the one referred to by Rev. C. E. Y. 
Kendall as var. lutescens} 

In caperata the only noteworthy variation was the ornata form which 
occurred very sparingly. 

A number of specimens of both forms was dissected. As regards 
the alimentary system and the larger nerves and ganglia no difference 
could be made out, except that (i) the jaw in ^'heripensis" was 
stronger, darker and more markedly rugose, and (2) there appeared 
to be rather fewer transverse rows in the radula in "heripensis." In 
a series of caperata radula^ taken from shells of from 8'4 to 9*9 mm. 
diam." (mean 9*2 mm. diam., 6'3 mm. alt.) the number of transverse 
rows varied from 85 to 119, average 99; the parallel series of "heri- 
pensis" ranged from S'l to ii'2 mm. (mean lo'i mm. diam., 62 mm. 
alt.) and had from 87 to 94 transverse rows, average 91. The 
difference is not large but becomes perhaps more significant from the 
fact that in both caperata and "heripensis" the number of rows tends 
to increase as the shell becomes larger. Hence we should have 
expected the "heripensis" to have had rather more rows than the 
caperata. The number of teeth in a transverse row varied from 47 to 55 
(average 51) m caperata and from 51 to 61 (average 55) in "heri- 
pensis.'' The total number of teeth was therefore in both forms just 
about 5,000. The shape and size of the individual teeth were the 
same in both series, and corresponded with Bowell's figure^ oi caperata. 
The bifidity of the endocone on the marginal teeth to which Bowell 
drew attention^ was, perhaps, more easily perceptible in "heripensis" 

1 Journal 0/ Conch., vol. 13, igi2, p. 345. 

2 It has, we think, now become clear that the radula must be described with reference to the 
size of the shell from which it comes. 

3 Proc. Malac. Soc, vol. viii,, (1909), p> 384. 

4 Ibid, p. 379. 



l66 JOURNAL Ot^ CONCHOLOGY, VOL. I4, NO. 6, APRIL, I914. 

but the extent to which this cliaracter is developed varies a good deal 
in both series : it was, however, always present in some degree. 

As regards the generative system the following points were noted : 
(a) the ovotestis was rather darkly pigmented in some speci- 
mens of both forms and more frequently so in " lieripensis " than 
in caper at a : 

(h) the vesicula seminalis was generally quite dark, and not 
seldom practically black, in both forms, and the pigmentation was 
better developed in ^' heripensis" than in caperata : 

(c) the albumen gland and oviduct tended to be more ample 
and voluminous in 'Wie ripens is": 

(d) the mucous glands in both species were primarily four in 
number, and each usually divided into two terminal branches ; in 
rare cases, however, there was no division and in others three 
terminal branches arose from one stalk ; the total number of 
branches found varied from 7 to 1 1 and no difference between the 
two forms could be made out in this respect : 

(e) the duct of the spermatheca was darkly pigmented in 
" /le ripens is," free from pigment in caperata : 

(/) the neck of the dart sac was free from pigment in caperata 
whereas in '' heripensis" it was diffusely pigmented with a special 
concentration into two small oval patches on the lower side : 

{g) the darts of both forms were of the simple type and 
corresponded with Ashford's classical description^; they were 
distinctly larger in caperata than in ^^ heripensis^' the average 
measurements being about 3^ mm. as against 2^ mm. ] for caperata 
Ashford gives from 2| to 3I mm. long. 

It is not very easy to appraise the value of these various points of 
difference. The pigmentation of the ovotestis and vesicula seminalis 
was inconstant, and the difference in size in the albumen gland, ovi- 
duct and dart may well be due to differences in sexual activitj^, 
though the dart is probably worth further investigation, especially as 
the ''^ lieripensis'^ were on the whole distinctly larger than i\\Q caperata. 
The black or grey pigmentation of the duct of the spermatheca and 
the neck of the dart sac were, however, more definite distinctions ; 
in these regions the caperata were quite unpigmented and, though the 
degree varied in different specimens, in " lieripensis " it could always 
be described as dark. The pigment was ascertained to occur right 
through the wall in each case, and was not confined, as such coloura- 
tions not infrequently are, to a connective-tissue sheath on the surface. 

I Journal of Condi., vol. iv. (1SS4), p. 131, and plate v. Ashford's figure of the genitalia in 
crt/i;;-a/(i shows 7 or S primary branches of the mucous gland; the arrangement was different 
in our specimens. 



BOYCOTT AND JACKSON: ANATOMY OF HELICELLA " HERIPENSIS." 167 

As has been already mentioned, the external surface of the body was 
on the whole a good deal darker in the ^^ /leripensis" ; the internal 
pigmentation seemed, however, to be independent of this since the 
usual arrangement was found in two specimens of " heripensis " with 
pale grey bodies and in one caperata with a body almost black. 
In two specimens of caperata there was much more diffuse pigmenta- 
tion of the inner wall of the pulmonary sac and in the connective 
tissue elsewhere than was present in other specimens of caperata or 
"■ heripensis'''' \ in both of these, however, the neck of the dart sac and 
the duct of the spermatheca were quite free from pigment. 

The significance of these differences was finally tested experiment- 
ally. A number of each form was taken by one of us, the bodies 
extracted and labelled A or B according as they were one or other 
form as judged by the shell. Tiie bodies so labelled were then given 
to another person, ignorant of what shells they had come from and 
indeed of the question under examination, who rearranged them under 
distinguishing numbers. Under these numbers they were then 
passed on to the other of us who made a diagnosis oi'''' heripensis''^ or 
caperata by anatomical results. Finally the conchological and 
and anatomical diagnoses were compared and found to correspond in 
every case. 

The conclusion which we should like to draw from this enquiry is 
that the anatomy of the forms known as " heripensis " and caperata is 
worth further investigation. The present material is particularly 
suitable for direct comparison because both forms were collected at 
the same time in the same habitat and did not differ very widely in 
size. But whether there are any anatomical differences which could 
be added to the differences in shape and sculpture of the shell to 
substantiate the claim that ^^ heripensis " is a "good species " cannot, 
of course, be settled from a single instance. We would, therefore, 
suggest that conchologists who are in a position to obtain the necessary 
material should further investigate themselves the points which we 
have raised or should send us specimens for examination. The snails 
are best sent alive, soon after collection ; we shall be glad to return 
the shells if desired. 

Note.-— It is perhaps as well to point out here that although we 
have used the specific name of heripensis Mab. for the form differing 
from caperata by reason of its finer sculpture and excentric umbilicus, 
it must not be inferred that we consider this to be the correct name of 
the species in question, as in our opinion the form agrees exactly with 
H. gigaxii (Charpentier ms.) Pfeiffer, 1850. If this identification 
proves to be correct the specific name gigaxii has priority. . 



JOURNAL OF CONCHOLOGY, VOL. I4, NO. 6, APRIL, 1914. 







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OBITUARY NOTICE. 



WILLIAM MOSS, F.C.A. 



By R. STANDEN. 



(Read before the Society, November 12th, 1913). 



(With Portrait). 



By the death of Mr. William Moss, which took place at his residence 
at Ashton-under-Lyne, after a short illness, on the 1 7th of June last, 
the Society loses a prominent and highly-respected member, who for 
many years had been a welcome figure at our meetings, where he will 
be greatly missed. 

Mr. Moss was the son of the late Mr. Benjamin Moss, of Hurst, 
and was born on January 3rd, 1845. On leaving school he entered 
as pupil teacher at the Hurst British School, but as the scholastic 
profession did not appeal to him, he eventually commenced business 
in Ashton as accountant and estate agent. In course of time he took 
a practical part in many local concerns, and became noted as an 
expert in arbitration cases and Government Board enquiries. He very 
early became interested in natural history, and all his life kept in 
touch with the results of research and discovery, reading everything 
he could obtain bearing upon them, and not fearing to express his 
opinions thereon. 

Mr. Moss joined this Society in 1891, and for a number of years 
served on the Council. He was a regular attendant at the meetings 
until quite recently, when failing health prevented him from venturing 
out in the evenings. His last appearance amongst us was on the 
occasion of the joint meeting of the Yorkshire and Lancashire mem- 
bers on Saturday, April 12th, 1913. He was one of the original 
members of the Malacological Society of London, and for over thirty 
years a member of the Manchester Microscopical Society. He con- 
tributed some valuable papers to each of these societies, and also to 
our own. 

About forty years ago he was keenly interested in geology, and, in 
the congenial companionship of his friends Mr. J. H. Grundy and 
the late Mr, Robert Cairns, carried out exhaustive researches into 
the Palaeontology of the numerous coal-pits around Ashton. In course 
of time these researches were extended into the rich Carboniferous 
areas of Clitheroe, Ingleton, the Isle of Man, Castleton, Derbyshire, 



170 JOURNAL OF CONCHOLOGY, VOL. I4, NO. 6, APRIL, 1914. 

and other places. Later he became interested in Microscopy and 
recent Conchology, and although a busy man, devoted much of his 
spare time to these subjects. Combining the two with his skill in 
photography, he eventually took up as his speciality the study of the 
moUuscan radulse, more particularly those of the HxalinUz, a group of 
which he was very fond, and not only prepared them as microscopic 
objects in his own inimitable way, but made exquisite photomicro- 
graphs of them as well, from which he produced beautiful lantern 
slides. His study of this subject brought him into touch with the 
most expert students of the radulfe both at home and abroad. He 
was in continuous correspondence with the Rev. Prof. H. M. Gwatkin, 
the best exponent of the subject in this country, and with the 
Smithsonian Institution, and leading American and Japanese 
conchologists. 

He was also keenly interested in the general anatomy of the genera 
in which he specialized,, more particularly that of the reproductive 
organs. I believe he was the Jirst to note and call attention to the 
curious, slipper-shaped, internal calcareous organ in Helicella barbara 
{Bulimus acutus), and carefully studied its functions. He did not 
much care for or collect marine shells. The British non-marine 
mollusca had first place in his regard, but he took great interest in 
certain groups of exotic terrestrial shells, and in the problems of 
insular faunas, notably those of New Zealand, Hawaii, Madeira and 
Trinidad. He was especially proud of a long series of Parypliatita 
hochstetteri from New Zealand, in all stages of growth from the egg 
upwards. Knowing my own partiality for the calcareous eggs of the 
mollusca he very generously handed over to me his set of eggs and 
embryo shells of this rare species, which, needless to say, are now 
amongst the most treasured specimens in my collection. As a matter 
of fact he was always generously disposed towards anyone working at 
particular groups, and ever ready to help young beginners when he 
had duplicates to spare. Quite recently he enriched the Museum of 
the Manchester Grammar School by a munificent gift of shells. 

He was largely instrumental in inducing the late Mr. R. D. Darbi- 
shire to acquire the large collection of Lifu mollusca formed by his 
friends the Rev. James and Mrs. Hadfield. This collection, after 
being worked out, and the results published in our Journal^ finally 
found a fitting resting place in the Manchester Museum. Of the 
numerous new forms described from this collection, one species, 
Syrtiola mossiana Melvill and Standen, was named in his honour. 

The following are the most important papers written by Mr. Moss, 
either singly or in collaboration with others : — 



STANDEN : OBITUARY NOTICE — WILLIAM MOSS. 17^ 

" Notes on the Anatomy of Trachycystis, Donasia, and Isoineria" W. 

Moss and W. M. Webb (Proc. Mai. Soc, vol. iii., p. 263). 
"The value of the Radula as an aid to classification" (Ann. Rep. 

INIanch. Micro. Soc, 1894, pp. 21 — 25, 2 pis.). 
"Reproductive Organs of Bulimus acutiis {Helix acuta)" W. Moss 

and F. Paulden (Ann. Rep. Manch. Micro. Soc, 1892, pp. 75 — 

79, I pi.). 
"Genitalia and Radul^e of the British Hyalinia" (Ann. Rep. INIanch. 

Micro. Soc, 1898, pp. 24 — 28, 2 pis.). 
"Observations on the Radulas of Hyalinia draparnaldi, cellaria 

alliaria ^n(^ glabra" W. INIoss and A. E. Boycott (Journ. of Conch. 

vol. 12, pp. 157 — 160). 
" A Preliminary Note on the Genitalia of Hyalinia {Zonitoides) nitida 

Miill., and Hy. excavata Bean " (Journ. of Conch.., vol. 8, p. 421). 



Snail Shells as Lamps in Italy.— The following appears in "Folklore," 
xxiv., p. 215 (1913) : " On Holy Thursday at Limone the windows are illuminated 
by lamps consisting of wicks in snail shells full of oil. . . ." — Miss Canziani, 
" Piedmontese Folklore," I.— S. L. Petty {Read before the Society., January 14th, 
1914)- 



Conchological Notes from Portugal.— A month's wandering about Portugal 
during May and June of last year (191 3) was disappointing from a concho- 
logical point of view. Considering that the country is a mass of granite hills 
interspersed with pine forests, bracken, gorse and heather, and that not a drop of 
lain fell during the whole time of my stay I was not surprised to find comparatively 
few species. The rivers and streams are devoid of weeds and the only living beings I 
could find in them were small trout which struggled for a precarious living, feeding, 
presumably, on the very few insects that exist along the banks. My quest was for 
British species in particular and the following short list may interest British collectors. 
I cannot help thinking that some of the sandy bays and the dykes near the sea near 
Coimbra and Valenca, which I was unable to search, would yield a more abundant 
harvest. Avion ater L., a few typical specimens on street fountains at Bom Jesus ; 
abundant around Mondariz (over the Spanish border), mostly of the aterrinia form. 
Liiiiax aiboruui. B.-Ch., one typical specimen at Bom Jesus and one at INIondariz. 
Helix pisaria IMull., common and typical at Belem, Cascses and Caldas da Rainha. 
Helix aspersa Miill., sold in Lisbon market. Helix nemoralis L. , scarce, Belem 
and Cintra. Helicella caperata Mont., Belem and Caldas da Rainha. FI. barbara 
L., Belem and Lisbon. Pupa cyliiidracea DaCosta, two specimens at Belem. 
Physa acuta Drap. ? Li a pond at Monserrata, Cintra.— L. E. Adams {Read before 
the Society, November 12th, 1913). 



172 



THE NON-MARINE MOLLUSCA OF TOURAINE. 



By F. II. SIKES, M.A., F.L.S. 



(Read before the Society, February i2th| 1913). 



I HAVE considerable compunction in offering a plain and almost 
unvarnished catalogue of the Non-marine Mollusca that I recently 
took in various Departments of Central France, to wit — Loiret, Loir 
et Cher, Indre et Loire, Indre, Eure et Loir and Eure. 

For it is impossible to invest a record of this kind with much more 
literary interest than is possessed by Bradshaw's Guide, and were it 
not for the fact that five of these Departments had, according to Mr. 
J. W. Taylor, hitherto almost entirely escaped the notice of con- 
chologists (which is a matter for wonder, since they include the 
greater part of the celebrated Chateaux) I should not think of offering 
my results to i\\& Journal. 

Possibly, however, since the district cannot long evade the collector's 
eagle eye and dextrous scoop, it might be well to put the numerous 
records in evidence, so that such small credit as may result from the 
work may be attached to the British Society. 

The April weather (19 12) did not come up to its reputation, and, 
as is usual in all my expeditions in search of shells, was uniformly 
fine, but, as I have another string to my bow in the shape of painting, 
I am able to bear with equanimity any dispensation of the weather 
bureau ; still, the fineness materially affected the appearance of the 
land species, and I had to fall back (in one case literally) on the 
denizens of pond and river. 

One, as I take it, tour de force was accomplished, and that was the 
finding of all the Limnceidcz (except, of course, L. involiita) together 
with Afiiphipeplea ghifinosa in the space of ten yards, one or two 
members of that fraternity being, so far as my experience goes, always 
absent. On one side of the road, in a mill-stream near the R. Indre, 
were L. stagnalis, L. pereger, L. auricidaria, and A. ghitinosa, and in 
a ditch on the other side L. palustris, L. truncattda and Z. glabra 
obligingly put in an appearance. 

The place was Glion in the Department of Indre, and here I found 
34 species. 

I might add that Z. glabra seems fairly common in France, at any 
rate I have found it in three very different provinces, and always in 
narrow ditches. In Jersey, however, it was found by me once in a 
large pond and once in a running stream. 



SIKES : THE NON-MARINE MOLLUSCA OF TOURAINE. 



173 



Of the 63 species (exclusive of slugs which arrived home too 
decomposed for identification) that I took in the course of a fortnight 
29 were land and 34 freshwater species. 

As to the geology of the Departments worked, I append the 
formation, but as I naturally worked as close to the rivers as possible, 
the weather being so dry, not much value can be attached to it. 

At Loches (Indre-et-Loire), over the Eocene formation, there is a 
thick stratum of yellow micaceous chalk, in which many Troglodytes 
have carved out their houses, as at Saumur, Ponce, etc. At Amboise 
this micaceous chalk is of a grey colour. 

LoiRET Dept. LoiRET Miocene (=L. in Catalogue). 

Oligocene (=L. et C). 

Do. ( Do. ) 

Upper Chalk (=1. et L ). 



Bury 




Loir et Cher 


Vendome 




Do. 


Amboise 




Indre et Loif 


MONTRESOR 




Do. 


Loches 




Do. 


Glion 




Indre 


BONNEVAL 




EuRE ET Loir 


Chartres 




Do. 


EVREUX 




EURE 



( 



Do. 
Do. 



Do. 

Eocene ( 

Upper Chalk (=L). 

Eocene (=E. et L.). 

Do. ( Do. ). 

Upper Chalk (=E.). 
I have only to add that all the shells were, as usual, submitted to Mr. 
J. W. Taylor, who kindly confirmed or altered my conclusions, 

ZOTSHTWJE. 



Vitrina diaphana (Drap.) 

Hyalitiia crystallma (Muller) 
Hyalinia hicida (Drap.) 

Hyalmia cellar ia (Muller) 
Hyalinia nitidula (Drap.) 
Zonif aides nitidus (Muller) 



Vendome, L. et C. ; among castle 
ruins, Bonneval, E. et L. ; Ev- 
reux, E., in beech wood with 
H. pomatia, H. aadeata, etc. 

Glion, L, in rejectamenta of River 
Indre. 

Vendome, L. et C. Var. obsairata 
Porro ; among castle ruins, 
Montresor, I. et L. ; on castle 
walls, Bonneval, E. et L., Char- 
tres, E. et L., and Evreux, E. 

Montresor, I. et L., with H. lucida, 
on castle walls. 

Loches, I.etL.; Bonneval, E. et L.; 
Evreux, E. 

Amboise, I. et L., in marshes by 
R. Loire ; Glion, I. 
Endodontid^. 

Fyra7nidula rotundata (Miiller) .Loches, I. et L. ; var. turtotii 

Fleming, in forest of Loches. 



174 



JOURNAL OF CONCHOLOGY, VOL. I4, NO. 6, APRIL, I914. 



Helicid^. 

Helicella itala (L.) 



Candidula caperata (Mont.) 
Ca?ididu!a heripensis (Mabille) 

Theha ca?'fusiafia (Aliiller) 

Hygro?nia fusca (Mont.) 

Hygromia hispid a (L.) 

Hygrofuia rufescens (DaCosta) 

Acant/iinula acukata (Muller) 

Vallofiia excentrica Sterki 
Helix aspersa Muller 

Helix potuaiia L. 

Helix nemoralis L. 



Helix hortensis Miiller 



Bury and Vendome, L. et C, type 
and var. mi/tor Locard; Amboise 
and Leches, I. et I.., type with 
var. minor Locard. 

Montresor, L et L. ; Glion, I. 

Loiret, L., on white-washed wall ; 
Montre'sor, I. et L. 

Amboise, L et L., on banks of R.' 
Loire ; Loches, L et L. 

Evreux, E., in beech wood two 
miles from town. 

Loiret, L.;x'\mboise, Let L.; Glion, 
L, var. conciiina Jeff. ; Chartres 
and Bonneval,E.etL.; Evreux.E. 

Vendome, L. et C, var. viinor 
Locard ; in castle grounds, 
Loches, I. et L., var. viino)-. 

Evreux, E., in beech wood, with 
H. pomatia, etc. 

Glion, I., by R. Indrc. 

This I found throughout and all 
were typical. 

Evreux, E., sub - var. compada 
Hazay, in beech wood. 

Loiret, L,, 20 feet up on poplars ; 
Bury, L. et C., Vendome, L. et C. ; 
Amboise, I. et L.; Loches, L et 
L., var. rubello-labiata CocktreW, 
°034Sj var. albo-labiata Von 
Mart., etc., etc. ; GHon, I. ; 
Chartres and Bonneval, E. et L.; 
Evreux, E. ; also var. w'olaceo- 
labiata Taylor, at Puys (Seine 
inferieure). 

Loiret, L., var. fusco-labiata Von 
Mart. ; Bury and Vendome, L. 
et C. ; Amboise and Loches, 
I. et L. ; Glion, I. ; Bonneval 
and Chartres, E. et L. ; Evreux, 
E.; also at Puys (Seine infdrieure) 
var. arenicola MacgilL, var. 
fusco-labiata Von ]\Iart., var. 
minor Moq.-Tand., 122345, etc. 



SIKES : THE NON-MARINE MOLLUSCA OF TOURAINE. 



175 



Enid/e. 

En a oiscura (Miiller) 
StenogyriDjE. 

Cochlicopa lubrica (INIuller) 

Vertiginid^.. 
Jaminia miiscorum (L.) 

Vertigo pygmcea (Drap.) 

Clausiliid.^. 

Clausilia bidentata (Strom.) 
Clausilia parvula (Turton) 



SUCCINEID-'E. 

Succifiea piitris (L.) 
Succiuea elegans Risso 



LTALNyElD.-E. 

A ncylns fluvia HI is Miill er 



Aa'oloxns lacustris L. 
Limnaa aiiriadaria (L.) 



Limncea pereger (Miiller) 



Loiret, L. ; Bonneval, E. et L. 

Glion, I., in rejectamenta of River 
Indre. 

Glion, I., in rejectamenta of River 

Indre. 
Glion, I., in rejectamenta of River 

Indre. 

Bonneval, E. et L. 

Montresor and Loches, I. et L., 

in forest ; Chartres, E, et L., on 

city walls. 

Loiret, L. ; Amboise, I. et L., var. 

sarsii Esmark ; Loches, I. et L. ; 

Chartres, E. et L. ; Evreux, E. 
Bury, L. et C. ; Amboise, I. et L., 

var. charpii Baudon ; Loches, 

I. et L. and pfeifferi Baudon ; 

GUon, I., var pfeifferi and var. 

albida Taylor. 

Montresor, I. et L., in R. Indrois; 
Bonneval, E. et L., var. obtusa 
Morelet. 

Bonneval, E. et L., in pond by 
R. Loir. 

Loiret, L., var. expansa Colb., in 
R. Loiret ; Bury, L. et C, in 
R. Cisse ; Montrdsor, I. et L. ; 
Chartres and Bonneval, E. et L, 
Glion, I., var. ienera Parreyss ; 
Evreux, E. 

Bury, L. et C, var. i?iflata Kob. ; 
Loches and Amboise, I. et L, ; 
Montrdsor, I. et L., var. i?iflata 
and var. ampullacea Rossm., in 
R. Indrois; Glion, I., var. inflata^ 
var. oblonga Jeff., and var. ovata 
Drap. ; Bonneval and Chartres, 
E. et L. ; Evreux, E. 



176 JOURNAL OF CONCHOLOGY 

Linmaa truncatida (Miiller) 



Ltmvcea pahistris (Miiller) 



Li7nnaa stagnalis (L. 



Lim7icBa glabra (Miiller) 
Amphipeplea ghitinosa (Miiller 
Planorbis corneus (L.) 



Planorbis carinafus Miiller 



Planorbis iimbilicahis Miiller 
Planorbis albus Miiller 
Planorbis vortex (L.) 

Planorbis spiroi'bis (L.) 

Planorbis contortus (L.) 
Segmentina Jiitida (Miiller) 

PHYSIDiE. 

Physa fo7itinalis (L.) 

Aplecta hypnoruni (L.) 

Paludestrinid^. 

Bithynia tentaadata (L.) 



Bithynia leachi (Sheppard) 



, VOL. 14, NO. 6, APRIL, I914. 

Vendome, L. et C, var. vetitricosa 
Moq.-Tandon ; Loches, I. et L.; 
Montfesor, I. et L., var. tnrrita 
Sow. ; Glion, I. ; Bonneval and 
Chartres, E. et L. 

Loiret, L.; Bury, L. et C, aff. var. 
(?(^<?.rfl Taylor ; Amboise, I. et L., 
var. obesa ; Loches, I. et L., var. 
obesa and var. tiirricula Held ; 
Glion, I., var, obesa; Bonneval 
and Chartres, E. et L. ; Evreux, 
E. 

Bury, L. et C; Amboise, I. et L., 
w^r.fragilis L. and type; Loches, 
L et L. ; Glion, I. ; Bonneval, 
E. et L.; Evreux, E. 

Glion, L, var. elongata Jeff. 
) Glion, I. 

Bury, L. et C. ; Loches, L et L. ; 
Amboise, I. et L., var. bicolor 
Colbeau ; Glion, I. ; Bonneval, 
E. et L. 

Bury, L. et C., var. disciformis Jeff.; 
Amboise, I. et L., var. disciformis) 
Glion, L ; Bonneval, E. et L., 
var. disciformis ; Evreux, E. 

Loches, I, et L. ; Glion, L 

Glion, L 

Loiret, L.; Bury, L, et C; Glion, I.; 
Bonneval, I. et L. ; Evreux, E. 

Amboise. L etL.; Loches, L et L.; 
Glion, L 

Bury, L. et C.; Bonneval, E. et L. 

Bury, L. et C. 

Loches, L et L. ; Glion, I. ; Bon- 
neval, E. et L. 

Loches, I. et L. ; Glion, L, var. 
major Moq.-Tand. 

Bury, L. et C. ; Loches, I. et L. ; 

Glion, L ; Bonneval, E. et L. ; 

Evreux, E. 
Loches, L et L. 



SIKES : THE NON-MARINE MOI.LUSCA OF TOURAINE. 



177 



ViVIPARID/E. 

Vivipara conteda (Millet) 

Valvatid^. 

Valvata piscinaJis (Miiller) 

POMATIIDyE. 

■ Pomatias elegans (Miiller) 



NeRITID;E. 

Ncriiina fluviaiilis (L. ) 

Unionid^e. 

Unio batavus Nilsson 
Unio asterianus Dupuy 

Ufiio pictoriim (L.) 
Anodo7ita cygficea (L.) 



Anodonta a?iatifia (L.) 



CyRENIDjE. 

Spharimn corneum (L.) 



Sphceriutn lacustre (Miiller) 
Pisidinm amnicum (Miiller) 



Pisidium stihtrnncatiwi Malm 
Pisidhan pusillum (Gmelin) 
Pisidium gassiesianum Dupuy 
Pisidium pulchellum Jenyns 



Amboise, I. et L. ; Boniieval and 
Chartres, E. et L. 

Evreux E. 

Bury and Vendome, L. et C. ; 
Loches and Montresor, I. et L.; 
Evreux, E. 

Montresor, I. et L. ; Glion, I. ; 
Bonneval, E. et L. 

Amboise, I. et L. 

Loches and Montresor, I. et L. ; 
Glion, I. 

Glion, I. 

Bury, L. et C; Montre'sor, I. et L., 
var. arenaria Schroter ; Char- 
tres, E. et L. 

Loches, L et L, var. grateloupiana 
Gassies, and var. normandi 
Dupuy ; Glion, L, var. grate- 
loupiana and var. subarealis 
Fagot; Bonneval, E. et L., var. 
arelaiensis Jacquemin. 

Bury, L. et C. ; Loches, L et L., 
type and var. gibbosa Gray ; 
Glion, L ; Bonneval, E. et L., 
type and \2i\ . flavescens Macgill.; 
Evreux, E. 

Loches, I. et L. 

Bury, L. et C., var. intermedia 
Gassies ; Evreux, E., type and 
\2LX.flavescens Moq.-Tand. 

Loches, L et L. 

Glion, L 

Bonneval, E, et L. 

Evreux, E. 



17S 

PROCEEDINGS OF THE ' 

CONCHOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF GREAT BRITAIN & IRELAND. 



427th Meeting, held at the Museum, Manchester, Dec, lOth, 1913. 

Mr. E. Collier in the chair. 
Additions to the Library : — 

The Librarian reported that the usual periodicals and exchanges had been 
received, and thanks were voted. 

The thanks of the Society were also accorded to the Rev. Professor H. M. 
Gwatkin, D.D., for presenting his portrait for the Society's collection of Portraits 
of Past Presidents. 

New Member Elected. 

A. Harman, 5, Harley Street, Scalby Road, Scarborough. 

Resig^nations. 

W. G. Reynolds. 
F. B. Jennings. 
H. G. Gower. 

Deaths. 

Dr. Fitzsimons ; Dr. Plant. 

Revision of the Roll of Members. 

In accordance with Rule 4, the following names were reported as having been 
struck off the Roll : — 

Messrs. Colwell, Cundall, Dalgleish, Ensor, Harrington, Ward, and Walton. 

Paper Read. 

" Clansiiia diihia Drap. at Dover," by J. Davy Dean. 

Exhibits. 

By Professor A. E. Boycott : — Hyalinia helvetica (i) from Tremadoc, Carnar- 
von, with normally coloured shell, and animal in which there is none of the normal 
black pigment, the mantle edge being red— evidently the same condition as 
described by C. Oldham {Journal of Cojichology, xiii., p. 312). (2) from Banstead, 
Surrey, with white shell and normally pigmented animal. 

By Mr. J. Davy Dean : A series of Clausilia bideniata, C. dnbia, C. craven- 
eusis, and their clausia, to illustrate his paper. 

By Mrs. Gill : Series of South African Achatina ; South American Orthalicus ; 
Porphyrobaphe adafiisoni ; and BtiUmits dux. 

By Mr. Thos. Edwards : Cypi'cea aitraniia, Cy. arabica var. eglanfjna, and var. 
reticulata ; and an interesting and very perfect sinistral, c?iXina.\.Q B7icci7ium Jindatum 
from the Kentish coast. 

By Mr. F. Taylor : Hclicigona lapicida showing extreme variation in colour, from 
albina to very dark forms, from near Lynmouth ; Unio niargaritifer and pearls, 
from River Lune ; Plelix virgaia, var. alba, and var. ochroleuca, ixom near Llan- 
dudno ; Physa heterostropha from a mill lodge at Chadderton, Oldham, where it 
occurred this season in thousands, and has probably been inti'oduced with cotton, 
as there is no connection with any canal or other body of water, the sole supply 
being derived from the Corporation main. 

By Mr. G. C. Spence : Newly described Urocoptis (^Gongylostonia) cara P. & H., 
from San Jose Rocks, S. Clara Province, Cuba ; also species of Ano/na and Placo- 
styhis porphyrocheihis Dautz. 



PROCEEDINGS : JANUARY I4, I914. I79 

By INIr. R. Standen : Voltita afi-icana Rve., V. ponsonbyi 'amiih, and very fine 
^rope'cnffra Fer., from South Africa, recently presented to the Manchester Museum. 

It was decided to have the following Special Exhibits at future meetings : — 
The Caiididnla s&clion oi Heltcel/a - - Jan. 14, 1914. 
T\\Q gexwM Heltcigona . . . . Feb. 11, 19 14. 
Urocoptidce Msrch 11, 1914. 



428th Meeting, held at the Museum, Manchester, January 14th, 1914. 

Mr. J. Cosmo Melvill in the chair. 

Additions to the Library announced and thanks voted : — 
"Report on the Investigation of Land MoUusca in the North of Scotland," by 
W. D. Roebuck and J. W. Taylor. "General Notes on Habitats and Occurrences 
of Land and Freshwater Mollusca in the North of Scotland," by F. Booth. 
"Observations on the Non-Marine Mollusca of Prestatyn, North Wales," by J. 
Wilfrid Jackson and R. Standen. " New Mollusks from the Bahama Islands," by P. 
Bartsch. "On a Brackisn Water Pliocene Fauna of the Southern Coastal Plain," 
by W. H. Dall. "Manual of Conchology, pt. 87," by H. A. Pilsbry. "Die 
Unioniden des Gebietes zwischen Main und deutscher Donau in tiergeographischer 
und biologischer Hinsicht," by F. Haas and E. Schwarz (from the respective 
authors); and the usual periodicals received in exchange. 

Resig^nations. 
A. G. Marshall. 
W. A. Green. 
C. Dayton Gwyer. 

Candidates Proposed for Membership. 
Anthony John Arkell, Hinxhill Rectory, Ashford, Kent (introduced by F. H. 
Sikes and W. D. Roebuck). 

Ernest Stainton, 70, Jubilee Road, Doncaster (introduced by L. J. Shackleford 
andjohn W. Taylor). 

The Hermann Strebel Celebration. 

It was reported that notice had been received by the Hon. Librarian of the 
intention of various scientific associations to celebrate the eightieth birthday of the 
distinguished scientist. Dr. Hermann Strebel, of Hamburg, on januarj' ist, 1914. 
On the occasion of his seventieth birthday, 1904, a letter of congratulation (in Latin), 
signed by the President and Secretary, was sent in the name of the Society. The 
very short notice on the present occasion, coupled with the fact that it arrived 
during the Christmas vacation, prevented the carrying out of the coarse adopted in 
1904, but the Hon. Curator and Hon. Librarian took it upon themselves to send a 
congratulatory letter, signed on behalf of the Society, and received from Dr. 
Hermann Strebel a letter thanking the Society for their friendly wishes, as follows : 

Hamburg, 

Jth Idnitary, igi4. 

To THE CONCHOT.OGICAI. SOCIETV OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 

Please accept my heartiest thanks for the congratulations to my eightieth 
birthday, presented to me by two representatives of your Council, whose 
friendly wishes I accept with great satisfaction. 

Yours very truly, 

HERMANN STREBEL. 



l80 JOURJS'AL OF CONCHOLOGY, VOL. I4, NO. 6, APRIL, I914. 

Honorary Member. 

It was also reported that a letter had been received from M. Ph. Dautzenberg, 
of Paris, through the President of the Society, expressing his great pleasure in 
having been elected an Honorary Member of the Society. 

Papers Read. 

"Snail Shells as Lamps in Italy," by S. Lister Petty. 

"Notes on the Candidula Section of Helicella," by J. Wilfrid Jackson. 

Exhibits. 

By Messrs. J. C. Melvill and R. Standen : The interesting series of Falkland 
Island Mollusca collected by Mr. R. Vallentin and described in the Amtals and 
Mag. Nat. Hist., Jan., 1914. 

By Mr. G. C. Spence : Isocardia cor L. , Peden opercnlaris L. , and var. Untaia 
A2i.C., Scaphander lignariHs L. , Aporrhais pes-pelicani L. and others, dredged in 
the Bay of Biscay, off the Spanish coast, November, 1913. 

By Mr. J. Kidson Taylor : Two beautiful specimens of Cypraa kiiensis Rob. 

By Mr. J. C. Melvill : A fine example of Conns natalis Sowb. ( = natalensis 
Sowb. emend.), from S. Africa. This species is textile in its markings, and has a 
very strong superficial resemblance therefore to one of that group, but it is in reality 
more allied to C. rosacens, tinianns, etc., which would be classed as of the section 
Chelyconus. The textile pattern appears in other sections of Conns — in the Alar- 
ihorei, for instance, it is seen in C. arachnoides, pepliim, etc., in the Leptoconi \n 
acttminatjis and am mi rati sl^. and also in clytospira M. & St., first, indeed, described 
in Aug., 1899, as of the Textile group, and then transferred to Leptoconns. 

The special exhibit of the evening was the "Candidula Section of Helicella," 
and a large numljer of species was exhibited by the Manchester Museum (" Layard " 
and "Crosse" collections), Messrs. J. Wilfrid Jackson, J. Davy Dean, E. Collier, 
J. R. le B. Tomlin, B. R. Lucas, and the Rev. Canon J. W. Horsley. Mr. J. W. 
Jackson read some notes on the more familiar forms of this Section, and brought 
forward conclusive arguments against the inclusion of II. candidula Studer in the 
British List. This species, or rather its var. alpicola, has recently been reported 
fossil at Woodston {a7iiea, p. 83), but Mr. Jackson points out in his paper that this 
identification is incorrect. 

Owing to the large number of forms in this Section it was decided to defer the 
discussion of the remaining species until a later meeting. 



429th Meeting, held at the Museum, Manchester, Feb. nth, 1914. 

Mr. E. Collier in the chair. 

Additions to the Library announced and thanks voted :— 
"Notes on Mollusca collected in the North-West Falklands by Mr. Rupert 
Vallentin, F.L.S., with Descriptions of Six New Species," by J. C. Melvill and 
R. Standen. " Die Unioniden des Gebietes zwischen Main und deutscher Donau 
in tiergeographischer und biologischer Hinsicht," by F. Haas and E. Schwartz. 
" Northern and Arctic Invertebrates in the collection of the Swedish State Museum 
(Riksmuseum), vi. Prosobranchia, 2 Semiproboscidifera," by N. H. Odhner (pre- 
sented by the respective authors) ; " Guide to the Exhibition of Specimens illustrating 
the modification of the Structure of Animals in Relation to Flight," by W. G. 
Ridewood ; " Catalogue of the British .Species of Pisidium (recent and fossil) in the 
Collections of the British xMuseum (Natural History)," by B. B. Woodward [pre- 
sented by the Trustees of the British Mnseuin) ; and the usual periodicals received 
in exchange.' 



COOPER : MONSTROSITIES. l8l 

New Members Elected, 

A. J. Arkell, Hinxhill Rectory, Ashford, Kent. 

E. Stainton, 70, Jubilee Road, Doncaster. 

Candidate Proposed for Membership. 
Alan Gardiner, B.Sc. (Lond.), Quies, Porchester Road, Newbury (introduced by 
J. W. Taylor and L. J. Shackleford). 

Resignation. 

F. W. Fierke. 

Revision of the List of Members. 

In accordance with Rule 4, the following names were reported as having been 
struck off the Roll :— 

iSIessrs. G. W. Brindley, C. S. Carter, H. F. Edgar, H. Fogerty, F. M. 
Gripper, R. C. Harrison, J. W. Milton, A. H. L. Newstead, S. Pace, C. Pannell, 
M. K. Saggu, T. Sheppard and J. F. Winkworth. 

Papers Read. 

" Caecilioides acicida, Vallonia excenirica, etc., in Denbighshire," by J. W. 
Jackson, F.G.S. 

" The Radula of Hyalinia, I.," by Prof. A. E. Boycott. 

" The Radula of Hyalinia, II. : Variation in the Radula of H. helvetica " by 
Prof. A. E. Boycott. 

" Notes on Helicigona," by E. Collier. 

Exhibits. 

By Mr. R. Standen : A very beautiful specimen ui Liinax Jlavus var. coltibrina, 
collected at Newport, Isle of Wight, December, 1913, by Mr. Frank Morey. 

In the special exhibit of the evening, the genus Helicigona, Mr. Ed. Collier 
showed an extensive series, comprising most of the known species. He gave an 
interesting account of the chief characteristics of the various sections into which the 
genus is subdivided. Mrs. Gill also exhibited a number of fine examples of the 
genus. 

Monstrosities of Tapes pullastra and Mactra stultorum. — The two shells 
figured were found in Studland Bay, Dorset, on March 25lh, 1913. The Tapes 
pullastra is remarkably narrow and is much swollen. It bears a superficial 
resemblance to the variety ovata (which also occurs in the Bay), but it is really a 
monstrosity as its curious form is due to the abrupt truncation of the anterior end. 




Studland Bay has also yielded me some abnormal forms of Tapes aureus. The 
iMacira stulforinu mimics a Corbula in shape. The smaller valve is flattened, while 
the laiger is more tumid than usual. I am unable to suggest any cause for this 
monstrosity. — J. E. Cooper {Read before the Society, May 21st, 1913). 



ADDITIONS TO "BRITISH CONCHOLOGY." 



By J. T. MARSHALL. 



Part VII. {continued from p. 128). 



Adula (Myrina) simpsoni Marsh. — In the Journal for October 
last, p. 126, under this name, I omitted to add the following additional 
particulars of this interesting species : — Soon after its original dis- 
covery, attached to the skull of a whale brought into the Aberdeen 
fish market by a trawler, some further specimens were discovered in 
a piece of pitch pine, which had been bored by Xylophaga and Teredo, 
and in the deserted tubes of which were about two dozen of these 
Adula, attached by a byssus. Several were alive, and were placed 
under examination. " They were quite at home in a watch-glass, and 
travelled by first protruding the foot, and then contracting it, so as to 
draw the shell along," while under the microscope "the action of the 
current through the tubes could be seen through the valves of the 
shell" (Simpson in. liiL). A specimen sent me in spirit yielded the 
following results, which demonstrates that the animal is not far 
removed from Modiolaria : — Body dirty white, viscera light brown, 
mantle free, plain ; incurrent tube formed by two flaps of the mantle; 
excurrent tube short, thick, and conical ; foot white, tongue-shaped, 
with a conspicuous groove down the centre for the byssus. The 
habitat of these specimens in perforated wood brings it into com- 
plete harmony with the discovery of A. argenteus Jeff., from frigid 
water in the Shetland-Faroe Channel, which also occurred in per- 
forated wood. 

Soon afterwards, a few examples were found on a whale's skull 
trawled about 25 miles N.W. of Fair Isle, and a dozen more were 
trawled off the East Shetlands in 80 fathoms on the broken jaw of a 
whale. These latter were aged specimens, equal in length and breadth 
to the largest previous examples, but more than twice the girth, and 
darker in colour. 

As bearing on the peculiar affinity of tlie Adula for whales' skulls 
and bones, the Faroe Islands ought to produce a rich harvest of these 
molluscs, seeing that there is a considerable whale fishery carried on 
by the Faroese, and the Faroe seas are strewn with the skulls and 
bones of whales, which are frequently brought to land. The Faroese 
Avhales are chiefly of the bottle-nose and Grindeval species, which are 
captured for the sake of the blubber, while the ribs are frequently 
used for the construction of wails and fences. 

Galeomma turtoni Eds. Zool. Journ. — Alderney, a valve m 
shellsand (Marquand)! 



MARSHALL: ADDITIONS TO "BRITISH CONCH-OLOGY," 1S3 

Galeomma differs from all other bivalves in that it attaches itself to 
the undersides of stones with the valves open, like an open book laid 
page downwards, and in this position no part of the shell is visible, 
the animal, which resembles a small lump of opaline jelly, and highly 
distended with water, enveloping the whole shell with the mantle. 
When detached, the Galeomma very slowly and gradually draws the 
valves together, there being some difficulty in finding room within the 
valves. 

I have taken the very young, about a line in length, during the 
month of May ; in this stage the shells are extremely delicate, and 
under the lens appear like a membrane. 

Their habitat under somewhat large stones, and the fragility of their 
shells render the latter peculiarly liable to fracture, and they are fre- 
quently found in a mended state. One specimen in my cabinet has 
been completely crushed, and the pieces, lying in confusion one over 
the other, are held together by a new shelly film formed inside. 
Other specimens are abnormally thickened by successive layers of 
shelly material, also formed on the inside of the shell. 

In ordinary specimens, a more or less shallow furrow runs down the 
centre of each valve, a feature omitted from the published figures. 

An interesting paper "On the Animal of Galeomma," by Dr. 
Philippi, will be found in xA.nn. Mag. N. Hist, 1839, vol. iv., p. 92, 
with figures. 

Lepton squamosum Mont. — Milford Haven (Vaughan and 
Span) ! This tends to confirm the record " Tenby (Lyons and 
Hanley)," given in "British Mollusca," as to which there had been 
some doubt; off Loch Ryan 25f., a single damaged valve. The 
only previous Scotch record — -"Oban (Barlee)"^requires confirmation. 

L. nitidum Turt. — Mr. William Baillie, of Brora, obtains this 
species habitually from the stomachs of haddocks. Dredged in Korea 
Straits 36f , with var. hevis Jeff.! The latter variety is an unpunctured 
form of the type, and also L. prismaticiim of Monterosato. 

var. lineolata Jeff — Guernsey 2of , Scilly 4of, The longitudinal 
sculpture in this variety is similar to that of Z. clarkice. 

var. pisidialis Jeff. — With the type from haddocks (Baillie)! off" 
Loch Ryan 25f., Mull of Cantire 26f. Figured in "Crag Mollusca," 
vol. iii., tab. ix., fig. 7b. 

L. sykesii Chast. — Scariff, S.W. Ireland, 4of. (R.I. A. cruise). 

L. sulcatulum Jeff. — Alderney (Marquand)! Benbecula Sound, 
in the Hebrides, from shallow water ; valves only ; a remarkable 
locality for this southern species. For many years it was known only 
from the Channel Islands, but I have taken it in the Scillies and at 
the Land's End, and it has also been recorded from the Isle of Man. 



184 JOURNAL OF CONCHOLOGY, VOL. I4, NO. 6, APRIL, I9I4. 

Associated with it at Benbecula were other southern species — Diplo- 
donta roiundaia, Cerithiopsis concate?iata, and on the shore Littorina 
ohtusaia van ornata. Another interesting locaHty for this Httle 
bivalve is the Japanese seas. 

L. clarkise Clark. — Rathlin Island, Antrim (Chaster) ; Sanda 
Island 27f., Davar Island 26f., and Ailsa Craig 2']{. (Knight)! Caldy 
Island, off Loch Ryan 25f., off Arran 6of., and Benbecula Sound lof. 
Also Straits of Korea, 33"i5 N., i29"5 E., in lof. ('Sylvia')! The 
supplementary figure in "British MoUusca" is perfect. 

L. obliquatum Monts.^ — S. W. Ireland, io-4of. (R.I. A. cruise); 
Antrim (Chaster). 

Montacuta substriata Mont. — Straits of Korea 54f. ('Sylvia')! 

M. bidentata var. elliptica S. Wood, "Crag Moll.," vol. iii., 
supp. tab. X., fig. 21 (as M. elliptica). — Proportionally longer from the 
beaks to the front margin (being nearly as long as broad), larger, 
equally rounded on all sides except where interrupted by the beaks, 
which are nearer (almost overhanging) the posterior end. L. 0*125 ^"5 
b. o'i5o. Scalloway (Simpson)! Guernsey, Donegal Bay, Killala Bay, 
Achil. Also from Adventure Bank, Mediterranean, 92f. (' Porcupine ') ; 
these latter are nearly circular in outline. The recent form of this 
variety is more abnormal than the Crag one, and resembles the 
young of Tapes aureus in shape. In outline it is still more like M. 
ovata Jeff., an Atlantic species. Not Brown's Telliuiy a elliptica, which 
is M. ferruginosa. 

var. triangularis Jeff. — Bantry Bay ; Benbecula. This is 
possibly the M. truncata of Searles Wood. 

M. tumidula Jeff. — Straits of Korea 4of., 32-46 N., r28-59 E. 

M. ferruginosa Mont. — The umbones of this shell are frequently 
capped, similar to the freshwater species Sphceriuin lacustre and 
Pisidium henslowianum, mostly observable in the young. 

M. ferruginosa is not truly parasitic, but attaches itself to its host 
for the purpose of sharing in its nutriment, though in some instances 
it follows in its tracks for the purpose of acting the part of scavenger. 

The same conditions of habitat which I have observed in regard to 
this species in Torbay and elsewhere" also obtain at Salcombe in 
South Devon, but it seems to have escaped the observation of Colonel 
Montagu, to whom Salcombe was a favourite collecting-ground, and 
also of Canon Norman, who discovered Lepton squamosum on the 
same ground commensal with a shrimp {Gebia stellata), but missed 
\.\\e Montacutce, while, on the other hand, though I have frequently 

1 Lepton (NeoleJ'ton) ohligiiaUim Monts., Niio. Riv. Conch. Med., p. 12; Irish Naturalist, 
July, 1897, p. 86, woodcuts. 

2 Habitat oi MoniactiiaJ'eri uginosa, Joiirit. 0/ Conch., 1891, vol. vi., pp. 399-404. 



MARSHALI: : ADDITIONS TO " BRITISH CONCHOLOGY." 185 

taken the Montacutce, I have never met with a specimen of the Lepton 
or Gebia. My use of the term " byssal threads " in the paper above 
cited (pp. 400 and 402) did not mean byssi of the same nature as 
that of Mytilus, etc. It would, perhaps, be more correct to describe 
them as "glairy threads." 

A remarkable specimen from the Scillies, dredged in 4of , looks at 
first sight like a new species. It is double the size of the type, more 
solid, and underneath the hinge-plate, about a line from the beaks 
and almost hidden from view, is a small pearl-like tooth in each 
valve on the anterior side. Perhaps these latter may be accidental 
excrescences, but outwardly the shell is more strikingly different, 
each valve being rayed with shallow corrugations from the beaks to 
the margins, somewhat after the manner of var. nivea G. O. Sars,' 
which he describes as " radiatum striolate." 

var. oblonga Turt. — Very local. Off Loch Ryan 2^i., Clyde 
i8f. 

M. donacina S. Wood. — Church Bay, Antrim, two valves 
(Chaster). 

M. dawsoni Jeff. — A dwarf and obliquely-triangular variety of 
L. clarkice was mistakenly recorded by me as M. daivsoni from 
Scilly, Torbay, Bantry Bay, and Bartra Island.-^ They have a close 
resemblance outwardly, and are, indeed, indistinguishable, but an 
examination of the hinge reveals the dentition of L. clarkice. My 
only reliable records for M. daivsoni are one valve from Killala Bay, 
and five from West Orkneys. It is evidently variable, because both 
the preceding are different in outline from the Donegal Bay form 
dredged by the 'Porcupine,' which again is different from the Arctic 
form. 

M. (Decipula) ovata Jeff. — I do not consider the hinge of 
Decipida Jeff, to be -" generically different" from that of Montacuhi 
Turt., but that the name should be relegated, equally with Telltmya 
Brown, to synonyms of Mofttacuta. 

A few small valves, which I have not seen, were said to have been 
dredged at Scariff in 4of., Great Skellig 48f., and off Baltimore 3of., 
all in the south-west of Ireland, during the Royal Irish Academy 
cruise of 1885. 

Kellia SUborbicularis Mont.— Rock-pools on the Kincardineshire 
coast, among the roots of zoophytes (Simpson)! 

Kelliella miliaris Phil, has been dredged off the Shetlands in in f., 
and between the Shetlands and Norway in i^'ji. (Simpson) ! 



Tellhitya nivea G. O. Sars, Moll. Reg. Arct. Norv:,p. 71, tab. 20, figs. 2 a-c. 
Journ. 0/ Conch., 1S97, vol. viii., p. 350. 



lS6 JOURNAL OF COIsCHOLOGY, VOL. I4, NO. 6, APRIL, I9I4. 

Loripes lacteus L. — Mr. Robert Dawson has dredged a valve 
off Cruden, and Professor Macgillivray found some valves on the 
sands at Belhelvie, but it is essentially a southern species. Sowerby's 
figure represents the var. desmarestii. 

The shell varies greatly in convexity and obliquity, and also in the 
angularity of the margins. Specimens from Palermo are unusually 
large and solid, exceeding an inch in length and breadth. 

L. divaricatus L. — Specimens from the Scilly Islands agree with 
the Mediterranean form in size, convexity, and texture, and are 
markedly different from the valves occasionally washed ashore at the 
Land's End. 

Lucina borealis L. — This shell is usually circular in outline, but 
occasionally it is broader than long and vice versa. There is also great 
diversity in the number of riblets, even in specimens living together. 
Many examples from Scilly are ribbed only on the umbonal area, the 
lower riblets coalescing and disappearing towards the margins. It is 
most abundant and attains a large size in the Salcombe Estuary — i^ 
inches. Gwyn Jeffreys' valve from Tenby (2 inches) must have been 
quite exceptional, and has not been repeated, but specimens such as 
the one noticed by him as containing a " pearl " are not uncommon, 
where living in shallow water, and especially in shifting sands at the 
mouths of rivers, where they are liable to the intrusion of .sand particles, 
which are then cemented over. I have a large series containing these 
internal excrescences or "pearls." 

var. gibba Jeff. — Salcombe, Torbay, Tenby i2f., Gairloch 2 2f. 
Mr. Marquand's record of Z. borealis being "common at Alderney," 
and Mr. Tomlin's " common at Herm,"^ should be relegated to this 
variety, the type being almost unknown in the Channel Islands, 
though I have one specimen from Herm. 

Axinus J. Sow. — Professor Dall has revived the Thyaslra of Leach 
for a section of Axinus, and Professors Verrill and Bush that of 
Leptaxlnus for another section. 

A. croulinensis Jeff. — Off Skate Island loyf. (Scott) ! Loch Ryan 
2 of.. North Rona ^of 

var. truncatus Marsh, n. var. — Proportionally broader than the 
type, and inequilateral in consequence of the posterior side being 
truncated, while the hinge-plate on that side is reflected and leaf-like. 
Dredged in the Shetlands, in 85f , by Jeffreys, who did not notice the 
differences between this and the Hebridean and Doggerbank forms, 
which is obliquely oval and only half the size. The Norwegian and 
Faroe forms also belong to this variety, as well as those dredged by 
the ' Porcupine' on the Portugal coast in 1095 fathoms. The figures 

I Marine Shells of Guernsey, etc., Trans. Giiern. Soc. Nat. Sci., 190T, p. 5. 



MARSHALL: ADDITIONS TO "BRITISH CONCHOLOGY." - 187 

of Sars and Jeffreys will at once show the differences between the two. 
This variety has some resemblance to A. incrassatus var. succisa Jeff., 
though I consider the latter shell to be distinct from A. iticrassatus. 

A. incrassatus Jeflf. — Between the Orkneys and Slietlands i45f., 
a single specimen; off the Shetlands inf. and i55f., several; also 
some valves off the Faroes in 71-85^ (Simpson)! 

A. ferruginosus Forb. — Off Loch Ryan 2 of. 

A. cycladius S. Wood. — Straits of Korea 4if., 32*42 N., i29"49 E. 
('Sylvia')! 

Gwyn Jeffreys' original figures in the "Annals " for 1858 are good as 
outlines, but the dentition is incorrect ; the latter should be as stated 
in his description.' Each valve has one cardinal tooth and two 
laterals. 

Scintilla? eddystonia Marsh., " Journ. Malac", 1895, vol. iv., p. 
35, fig. I. — After much reconsideration and recomparison, I am con- 
firmed in my opinion as to the specific distinctness of this shell from 
Diplodonta rohmdata, but think it may be removed from Scintilla 
and placed in Diplodonta as D. eddystonia. I had already stated 
that " I have been greatly puzzled where to place this species." I 
am further convinced that should it prove not to be a true species, it 
will at any rate not be D. rotundata. To be so, one would have to 
assume thai D. rotundata in its junior stage can take on two distinct 
forms, externally and internally, a phenomenon unknown in my ex- 
perience. It is really nearest to D. trigoniila of the same size, some 
specimens of which are more transverse or oblique than the type ; 
but from that S. eddystonia is thinner, the beaks are not so obtuse, 
and the teeth and hinge-line, though similar, are not nearly so solid 
nor developed. 

A young specimen of D. rotundata ot the same size as S. eddystonia 
differs in being much thinner, the beaks less prominent and more 
equilateral, and the contour roundish instead of oblique. The dentition, 
though somewhat similar, differs in the cardinals not being nearly so 
strong and developed, except in specimens six times as large ; they 
have a different slope, and there is a plate-like lateral on each side of 
the beaks, whereas in S. eddystonia the lateral is on the posterior side 
only. It is also significant that none of my specimens of S. eddystonia 
exceed a line, and they all appear adult so far as one can fairly judge. 
I am indebted to the Marquis di Monterosato for a graduated series 
of the young of D. rotundata, and on a comparison it is impossible to 
assume that the two shells can be the same species ; the differences 
would strike the most casual observer. 

Searles Wood, in his " Crag Mollusca," says that the young of D. 
rotimdata of al! sizes are abundant in the Crag deposits, but he does 

I Brit. Conch., vol. ii., p. 228. 



l88 JOURNAL OF CONCHOLOGY, VOL. I4, NO. 6, APRIL, I914. 

not remark on any differences in their shells from the adult, while his 
figure of D. rotundata, as also that of Forbes and Hanley, exhibit 
their lines of growth markedly, and at no stage do they conform to 
the obliquity of S. eddystonia. 

Again, Gwyn Jeffreys' figures of his Diodonta barleei {Diplodonta 
rotundata juv.) agree with those of Sowerby, Forbes and Hanley, and 
S. Wood ; they are identical with the umbonal area of adult Diplo- 
donta, and are what one would readily concede to be the young of D. 
roiundcita, while my figures of S. eddystonia, which are drawn fairly 
true to form, do not appear so, nor will they correspond to the 
umbones of D. rotundata. 

Before describing my species, the shells were seen by Dr. Boog 
Watson, Mr. Edgar Smith, Canon Norman, and the Marquis di 
Monterosato. The Marquis considered them "allied to Scacchia^' 
Canon Norman pronounced them (erroneously) Kellia cydadia, while 
the other gentlemen could not recognise the species. 

Diplodonta rotundata Mont. — Borve Bay, Barra, valves from 
the shore (Knight) ! Rum Island, near Skye, a valve; Benbecula 
Sound, I of., another valve. 

Cardium echinatum L. — Colour '-'yellowish-white" (Jeffreys), 
often shaded or zoned with reddish-brown of various shades, as in 
C. tuberculatum. A chalk-white variety comes from Paignton, but is 
scarce ; outwardly they look like bleached shells, but all my specimens 
have contained the animal. 

Sowerby's figure is depicted with the same sculpture as his C. tuber- 
culatum ; it should be as Jeffreys', with the reminder that such perfectly 
spined examples as the latter are seldom met with. 

C. tuberculatum L. — Very rare in the Channel Islands. Mr, 
Marquand has a valve from Alderney, and also a fine perfect specimen 
which he was assured was purchased in the Guernsey fish market. 
Another valve was found by me at St. Aubin's, Jersey, and still 
another valve is in the Duprey collection at the Jersey Museum. Mr. 
Duprey cites Mr. Piquet, of Jersey, as having found C. tuberculatum 
"living with C. echinatum some years ago" in that island,^ but I think 
this must have been an error. 

The following records are doubtful and require confirmation — 
Ballantrae (Knight), Stornoway fSomerville), Bute (J. Smith), and 
Lewis (Robertson). 

The Mediterranean form (var. mediterranea Monts.) is different from 
ours — very much smaller, more tumid and oblique, with narrower ribs, 
and minus the spines. 

C. papillosum Poll. — Alderney (Marquand) ! A previous record 
for Alderney by Mr. Marquand was an error for C. exigtmm var. sub- 

I Marine Shells of Guernsey, etc., Trans. Guern. Soc. Nat. Sci., looi, p. 4 (sep. copy). 



MARSHALL: ADDII'IONS TO "BRITISH CONCHOLOGY. ISQ 

quadrata, but I subsequently found among his shells Several valves 
undoubtedly belonging to this very rare species. 

Nof South Devon. See my note under Donax trunailus. 

C. exiguum Gmel. — Jeffreys' figure, by an error of the artist, is 
inscribed C. exignum. 

var. subquadrata Jeff.— Aldemey (Marquand) ! 

C. nodosum Turt. — Upper Loch Fyne, 30 to 70 fathoms (Scott. 
Fish. Board Report, 1897); Aberdeenshire, not uncommon (Dawson); 
off Loch Ryan 2^i. 

A remarkable specimen taken from a haddock in Sutherlandshire 
by Mr. William Baillie could easily be mistaken for C. papillosum. It 
is deeper than usual, rounder, and more globose, and the ribs are 
adorned with papillae instead of plates, 
var. ovata Jeff. — Achil Island. 

C. edule L. — The inequivalve monstrosity appears to be very rare. 
There is one in the Natural History Museum, and I have seen another 
and larger one from Southend. 

A C. edule distinguished itself in a remarkable manner during the 
summer of 19 10 by vanquishing a sea-gull single-handed. The gull 
was observed in the air near the river Taw in Devon, flying in a very 
erratic manner as if unable to keep its equilibrium, and it finally fell 
to the ground. When approached it was found that its beaks were 
closed and firmly held by the Crtr^/V/;;/, which had gradually suffocated 
the gull. 

An equally curious episode occurred in the summer of 191 1 at 
Craigton, near Linlithgow, where a water-hen was observed pecking 
at an open Mytilns edulis attached to a rock, when the mussel 
suddenly closed its shell and caught her tightly by the beak. The 
poor bird made a desperate struggle, but could not release herself, and 
was ultimately drowned by the rising tide. 

In this connection it may be interesting to add that quite recently, 
at the Collingwood Hotel, Newcastle-on-Tyne, a plate of oysters was 
stored in the pantry overnight, and next morning one of the oysters 
was found to beholding a mouse between its valves. The "timorous 
beastie " had made a desperate struggle for freedom, and had dragged 
the oyster about a foot away from the plate, but the honours rested 
with Ostrea edtilis, and the mouse was ignominiously captured. 

Far different from the above examples is the action of the New 
Zealand "professional oyster-catcher," who deliberately thrusts its long 
and powerful beak into the mollusc and invites a firm grip ; then, 
with a determined and calculated wrench, it detaches the oyster from 
its stronghold and takes it ashore to discuss at leisure. 

C. minimum Phil. — Off Fair Isle (Simpson) ! 

C. norvegicum var. rotunda Jeff. — Poole ; Milford Haven. 



igO JOURNAL OF CONCHOLOGY, VOL, I4, NO. 6, APRIL, I9I4. 

■■■• Isocardia cor L.— Moray. Firth, from trawlers (Simpson) t • . 

Cyprina islandica L. — Herm Island, valves (Tomlin). 

Astarte sulcata var. paucicostata Jeff. — Aberdeenshire. This 
is Sowerby's fig. 19, pi. iv. 

var. scotica Mat. and Rack. — Outwardly, this variety cannot be 
separated from the type ; inAvardly, the plain bevelled edge is the 
only reliable character. Occasionally most of the other varieties are 
combined with it. 

var. elliptica Brown. — Jeffreys' figure represents an intermediate 
form ; Sowerby's is right. 

var. trigona Jeff— Aberdeenshire. 

- var. fusca Poli. — Aberdeenshire. 

A. compressa Mont. — Sowerby's figure (pi. iv., fig. 20) applies to 
the var. striata. 

var. globosa Moll. — Off Aberdeenshire. In dealing with this 
variety in the 'Lightning' Report, Gwyn Jeffreys gives it the later 
name of var. warehavii Hanc, and writes : — -^' My variety g/obosa is 
not Moller's species of that name, but agrees with a specimen from 
the collection of the late Mr. Albany Hancock, which was named by 
him var. 7varehatni. The A. sulcata of Gould (fig. 45) represents this 
last variety."' But Gwyn Jeffreys does not here tell us what is 
Moller's species if not this. Great doubts have prevailed as to what 
\^ A. globosa Moll, and A. warehami Hanc, but I have little doubt 
they are synonyms, and Moller's name has the precedence of four 
years over Hancock's. Jeffreys at one time attributed A. warehajtii 
Hanc. to A. f ah til a Reeve,- which it resembles in shape and sculpture; 
but the latter has sharper beaks, a deeper and clean-cut lunule, is 
ribbed only on the umbones, and obscurely rayed longitudinally. 
Later on he attributed it to A. crenata Gray=^. crehricostata Forb.," 
which it resembles in its more circular outline ; but the latter is a much 
coarser and more regularly ribbed shell. The figure of A. compressa 
\2uc globosa given by Sars, without author's name, "* appears to bean 
aged and thickened specimen of the var. striata. The v3iV\ciy globosa 
is not really more globose than tiie type, but it is much larger, cir- 
cular instead of triangular, and the ribs disappear towards the margins. 
Hancock's figure of the var. globosa as A. warehami'' is fairly correct 
in outline, but is too coarsely executed. All the Arctic and British 
specimens I have seen of var. globosa are outwardly nearly black, 
indicating a habitat of tenacious black mud. 
(To be continued). 

1 Moll. 'Lightning' and ' Porcupine,' Proc. Zool. Soc, 1881, p. 712. 

2 Moll. 'Valorous' Exp.,, Proc. Roy. Soc, vol. xxv., No. 173, p. 192. 

3 Arctic Post-Tert. Foss., Ann. Mag. N. Hist-;, 1S77, p, 234. 

4 Moll. Reg. Arct. Norv., tab. 6, figs, i a, b. 

5 Amy, .Mag. N. IJist., iS46,-vq1. xviii., p. -336, pi. v.,. figs, 15, i6, .."._. r 



191 



EDITORIAL NOTES. 



The Nelson collections were formally presented to the University of Leeds on 
February 28, by Mr. J. W. Taylor, chairman of the Memorial Committee. The 
Leeds Conchological Club specially invited Manchester members of the Concho- 
logical Society over for the occasion, and afterwards entertained them to tea. 



Messrs. Melvill and Standen^ have recently published another paper on the 
Falklands Mollusca, with plate, and descriptions of six new species. When one 
reads of the conditions under which the marine fauna of these islands lives, it is 
surprising that so many species survive the struggle for existence. Most of the 
larger shells seem invariably to bear evidence of the severity of wind and weather. 



We have received an interesting series of papers that appeared last year, by F. 
Booth, on Land and Freshwater Mollusca in the North of Scotland.- These notes, 
which are prefaced by a short report by Messrs. Roebuck and Tajdor, are the 
results of a tour made by Mr. Booth, in 1910, to investigate the shell fauna of the 
vice-counties of Ross East, Ross West, Westerness, Ebudes North (Isle of Skye), 
Aberdeen North, Aberdeen South, and Kincardine, and show an addition of 84 to 
the authenticated records. Attention is called to the greater advance of most life 
along the coasts of Great Britain on the east side. Mr. Booth's articles make very 
interesting reading, as a very clear and concise account is given of the geographical, 
physical and geological features of each area explored. 



An important paper" has just appeared on the " Pleurotomidre of New Caledonia 
and its dependencies," by MM. Bouge and Dautzenberg, and is of more than 
ordinary interest to some of us as it deals incidentally with a very fascinating item of 
the fauna of Lifu. This revision was especially necessary in the case of the Lifu 
things, as there was unintentionally considerable overlapping between the papers of 
Melvill and Standen in vol. 8 of this Journal and those of Abbe Hervier in the 
Journnl de Conchyliologie about the same time. MM. Bouge and Dautzenberg 
ha^ve been able to clear up authoritatively the resulting synonymy, as they had 
before them most of the types in question— those of Melvill and Standen, thanks to 
the complaisance of the authorities of the Manchester Museum^ while most of 
Hervier's types are in the official collection of the Journal de Conchyliologie. We 
are surprised that they did not unite Glyphostouia lamproideuni Herv. with G. 
creinonilla M. & S., as there can be hardly any doubt as to the identity of these two 
names. A great many of these new forms from Lifu are now being turned up in 
Japan by Hirase's collectors. The reference which the authors could not find for 
the original description of C/«//^K;-£//rt rufozonata hxi^2^% is in P.Z.S., 1877, p. 38. 
The name should, however, be deleted as far as Lifu is concerned, as we are able 
to state, from an inspection of specimens, that it was based on examples of 
Glyphostoma granosuin Dkr. 

1 Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. S, vol. 13, Jan., 1914, pp. no — 136. 

2 Scottish Nat., 1913. 

3 Jour, de ConcJi,., vol. 61, pp. 123 — 214. 



192 JOURNAL OF CONCHOLOGY, VOL. I4, NO. 6, APRIL, I9I4. 

Probably no work bearing on our Land and Freshwater r^Iollusca has been more 
urgently needed than a monograph of Pisidhim, and this Mr. B. B. Woodward has 
at lenglli given us in his "Catalogue of the British species of Pisidiiiiii (Recent and 
Fossil)," published under the auspices of the Trustees of the Brit. Mus. , and illus- 
trated with 30 admirable plates. The title 'Catalogue' is hardly adequate and one 
only gradually realises the immense amount of work that this volume represents, 
whether from the point of view of the enormous mass of material examined, the great 
extent of literature studied and summarised, or the amount of synonymy established. 
The leading, one may say cardinal, feature of Mr. Woodward's work is the compre- 
hensive use made of hinge-characters for discriminating species. We gather that 
Bourguignat was the first to suggest the hinge as a basis for classification in 1854; 
Clessin advocated the same point twenty years later in the "Conchylien-Cabinet," 
but it has been left to Mr. Woodward thoroughly to inaugurate and elaborate the 
idea, and to revolutionise the study of the genus. Fourteen recent British species 
are catalogued and the fossil P. astartoides Sandb., while P. parvuhuii Clessin, 
though not yet recognised in these islands, is included on the chance of its turning 
up in quick-running water, in fine sand rather than mud. It is described as coming 
near to P. supinum in form, but squarish rather than triangular. The fossil dis- 
tribution of each species is most adequately dealt with, as one would expect from 
the qualifications of the author. We offer him our heartiest congratulations on so 
valuable a contribution to our study. 



Mr. Woodward has also recently written "The Life of the MoUusca," the 
oliject of which is "to give a succinct account of what is known concerning the 
life of that branch of the animal kingdom to which the Snail, the Oyster and the 
Cuttlefish belong." Special attention is, therefore, paid (the preface says) to their 
history, relationships and everyday life, with only general notes on the anatomy, 
classification, distribution, etc. It is copiously illustrated with plates, most of them 
taken from Dr. S. P. Woodward's classic " Manual of the Mollusca," and we par- 
ticularly note a very useful one, reproduced from photos, illustrating the ' topography 
of bivalve shells. ' The book is extremely interesting throughout and will be very 
useful for reference — the chapter on evolution being, perhaps, the best and full of 
suggestive points. The publishers are Messrs. Methuen & Co., and the price 6/- 
nett. 



We welcome most cordially part 20 of Mr. J. W. Taylor's " Monograph," with 
plates 26 (not 16, as on cover), 33, 34 and 35, thus completing the third volume. 
Two plates which are still lacking are promised, together with the index, etc., with 
part 21. Part 20 contains a complete monograph of Helicigoua arbustorum (L. ), 
and appendical notes on certain of- the Zonitidie and Endodontidce, and on Helix 
pomaiia. The text figures are as excellent as ever, and the two coloured plates — 
one of Helix nemoralis and one of Helicigona arbustorum — are very beautiful 
specimens of work, though the mottlings of arbustorum are naturally much harder 
to reproduce than the bandings of nemoralis. Mr. R. Welch contributes a very 
effective photo of the Winyats, near Castleton, in Derbj'shire, where arbustorum 
abounds. 



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CONTENTS. 

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Notes on the Candidula Section of Helicella — J. W. Jacksok ... 193 

Additions to " British Conchology,'"' part vii. (continued) — J. T. 

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Two hitherto unnoticed Varieties of Helicella heripensis Mab. — 

J, E. A. JOLLIFFE 213 

The Radula of Hyalinia, I. (with Plate) — Prof. A. E. Boycott,.. 214 

The Colonisation of H. cantiana in Herefordshire — Prof. A. E. BoYCO it 220 

Some New Records from South Wales — J. W. Vaughan ... ... 220 

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JOURNAL OF CONCHOLOGY. 



Vol. 14. JULY, 1914. No. 7. 



NOTES ON THE CANDIDULA SECTION OF HELICELLA. 



By J. WILFRID JACKSON, F.G.S. 



(Read before the Society, January 14th, 1914). 



The Candidula Section comprises a large number of species of small 
Helicellae of which the most familiar to British collectors is the Heli- 
cella caperata (Montagu). 

The sectional name Candidula was proposed by Kobelt in 187 1 
(Catalog., p. 22), but various members of the group have at different 
times been described under other sectional names, such as Helicopsis, 
Striatella, etc., while in 1892 Monterosato proposed a number of new 
sectional 'names all beginning with Xero — . 

The type of the section is H. candidula Studer. 

Like many of the allied sections of Helice/Ia, the group contains a 
large number of indefinite species, mostly founded on slight individual 
variation, or on young examples of well-known forms. 

The intricate synonymy of the group, and the dearth of data for 
discrimination on anatomical grounds renders it extremely difficult 
for the serious student to decide upon the correct name of any 
particular species. The species are very numerous throughout Middle 
Europe and the Mediterranean region, and at least two species are 
living in the British Isles. 

In some parts of their anatomy they present features linking the 
members of this and other sections of Helicella with Hygrojiiia. The 
chief among these is the simple form of dart and the frequent dupli- 
cation of the dart sac. Pilsbry^ points out that in the Candidula 
section it is probable that two sections will be distinguished, the 
division to be based on the number of dart sacs ; but at present so 
few species have been dissected that such division is not possible. 

In this paper I propose to discuss only the two British species, 
H. caperata and H. gigaxii, and the type species of the Section, H. 
candidula. 

I Tryon's " Man. Conch.," ix., p. 254. 



194 .lOURNAL OF CONCHOl.OGV, VOI,. I4, NO. 7, JtTLY, I9I4. 

The following may be taken as a general description of shells of 
this group : — 

'' Shell rather small, depressed, narrowly umbilicated (as a rule), 
solid and chalky ; surface striated ; apex corneous or dark ; whorls 
about 4^ to 5, the last rather wide and rounded. Aperture round- 
lunate, lip simple, strengthened by a submarginal rib within " 
(Pilsbry, etc.). 

The surface is usually encircled with one or more fuscous bands, 
but in some instances the bands are more or less interrupted and 
faint, or absent altogether, the shell being unicolorous. In others, 
again, the ornamentation takes the form of ' mottlings,' />., blotches 
of different colour, more or less irregular in size and shape (//. apicina, 
H. conspurcata, etc.), with sometimes a tendency to run together and 
thus produce an almost unicolorous form, such as the var. /?/;/z;fl' o{ H. 
caperata. 

They inhabit a variety of situations, such as hedgerows, meadows, 
grassy banks, sides of water-courses, under stones, and on the stalks 
of grasses and other plants on dry sandy soils, often in close proximity 
to the sea. Many of the species are particularly hardy, enduring 
great changes of heat and cold. 

The individual species, too, are subject to a certain amount of 
variation as regards size and number of individuals, according to the 
prevailing environmental and physical conditions in diff'erent'localities. 
Thus there is a tendency for large forms and large numbers to be 
present where a calcareous soil is combined with abundant food- 
plants, while the plant-association alone, or the calcareous soil alone, 
does not appear to produce the same effect. 

Helicella caperata (Mont.). — This was first described and 
figured as a British species by Montagu in 1803 (Test. Brit., p. 430, 
plate ir, fig. 11), but the figure of the shell 'is an exceedingly poor 
one. The description, however, is excellent, and removes any doubt 
as to identity.^ 

On the continent this' species bears various other names, such as 
fasciolata and interseda of Poiret ; intersecta Michaud ; striata Drap. 
(in part), etc. Poiret's names are certainly earlier than that of 
Montagu, but his descriptions are much too brief and obscure for 
accurate discrimination. As to Draparnaud, his striata appears to 
cover several species, including profuga Schmidt and candidiila 
Studer, as well as caperata Mont. Apart from this his name cannot 
be adopted since it had been used previously by Midler for another 
species of Helix (also of this Section). 

Stelfox has adopted the name H. intersecta of Poiret in his Irish 

I Since I read this paper Mr. J. W. Taylor has told me that he has seen Montagu's type 
and it is undoubtedly our British species. 



JACKSON : THE CANDIDULA SECTION OF HELICELLA. I95 

IMollusca paper^ and Clare Island Report,- and distinguishes two 
forms — one, which he calls the large western form, found in the west 
and north-west of Ireland, and the other, a smaller form, from the 
central limestone plain. This latter form he considers to be more 
akin to that found on the chalk downs of the south of England, and 
referable to Montagu's H. caperata. This would also appear to be 
the H. striata of Draparnaud (in part). 

In a footnote on p. 24 of his Clare Island Report he admits that 
" the synonymy of this group of shells has been so muddled that it is 
now quite impossible to be certain of the identity of Poiret's species. 
This has led to the adoption of Montagu's name by many authorities." 

Since so much confusion exists regarding Poiret's intersecta no 
useful purpose is served by adopting the name and it is preferable to 
adhere to H. caperata Mont. 

The large ' western ' form is not restricted to Irish localities, as it 
occurs with the smaller form at several places in this country. 

H. caperata is widely distributed in the British Isles ; it has been 
recorded from the Channel Isles, Isle of Man, Wales (10 vice- 
counties), England (52 vice-counties), Scotland (19 vice-counties), 
Ireland (33 vice-counties). 

On the continent it is also widely diffused and ranges through 
France and Germany, Spain, Portugal, and Italy, to N. Africa 
(Algeria), mainly as H. intersecta. It is said to occur also in Greece 
and Palestine. It appears to be distinctly of western European 
distribution, and has not been found in North Europe. 

There are some eight or nine well-known varieties in this country, 
of which the most familiar are ornata z.x\6.fuiva. 

Some excellent notes on the variation of this species are given by 
the Rev. S. Spencer Pearce in the pages o^ i\\\?, /ojimalf' 

Its fossil distribution has been investigated in the South of England 
by Messrs. Kennard and Woodward, who record it from numerous 
Holocene and Pleistocene deposits.^ On the continent it has also 
been recorded by Locard and others as fossil at several places and 
horizons. 

Helicella gigaxii (Charp. MS.) Pfr. — For many years this 
species had been looked upon, and recorded as, a variety of U. 
caperata, notwithstanding the fact that it presents such striking 
characters, and had been considered as a good species by reliable 
continental authorities. 

1 Proc. Roy. Irish Acad., vol. 29, 191 1. 

2 Op. cit. vol. 31, igi2. 

3 Jovrn. of Conch., vi., iSSg, p. 123, ei seq. 

4 Note. — There is a possibility that all tliese records do not apply to H. caperata but 
include also,^r belong entirely to, the following species, H. gigaxii. 



196 JOURNAL OF CONCHOLOGY, VOT,. I4, NO. 7, JULY, I9I4. 

It was first described by Pfeiffer in 1850/ this author adopting 
Charpentier's manuscript name of gigaxii, and it is of some interest 
to find in the original description that British specimens are referred 
to, viz.: — "Commons near Highbycombe, Bucks.," Cuming. 

In 1853- the same author gives a further description of the species 
and includes a larger variety, "(i major: diam. maj. i2|, min. io|, 
alt. 7 mill." In this work he gives the distribution as France (Aries, 
Vaucluse, Grasse, Valence), and Britain (including the var. /3). 

Both the small form (diam. 8 mill, from Vaucluse, etc.), and the 
larger form, var. f/iajor Pfr. (diam. maj. \2\ mill., from England), are 
excellently figured by Pfeiffer,-' and he refers to these figures in his 
later diagnosis of 1853. Tryon^ also adopted Pfeififer's figures 23—25 
as typical of the species. 

Through the kindness of the Rev. Canon Horsley I have been able 
to see and compare a shell of H. gigaxii from Avignon, Vaucluse, 
and find it agrees in every way with the figures and descriptions 
referred to above. The same remark applies with equal force to some 
specimens labelled H. heripensis Mabille from Lyons, kindly lent to 
me by Mr. B. R. Lucas. 

With this experience I have now no hesitation in considering the 
large form (var. major Pfr.) as undoubtedly representing the shell 
described by Mabille'^ as H. heripensis, under which name it has been 
brought forward as a British species by Mr. A. W. Stelfox'' to whose 
interesting paper I would refer collectors for comparative figures and 
descriptions. 

The most obvious characters distinguishing it from H. caperata are 
undoubtedly the beautiful fine striation and the eccentric umbilicus. 
The shells, too, are relatively flatter than in H. caperata. There is 
quite an appreciable difference in the character of the umbilicus 
among the shells of one gathering from any one locality. In some 
specimens the whole of the interior of the columella and a large por- 
tion of the penultimate whorl are visible ; in others, whilst the 
penultimate whorl is amply exposed, the interior of the spire is 
scarcely visible owing to the pinching in, as it were, of the shell. 
This character does not appear to be connected with any particular 
form of shell, whether flat or with somewhat produced spire, as I 
have met with it in each kind in specimens from several localities. 

Internally the two species also differ somewhat in pigmentation, 
a point which has recently been fully dealt with by Prof. Boycott 

1 Zeit.f. Mai. p. 85. 

2 Monog. He lie. Viz>., iii., pp. 133-4. 

3 Conch. Cab., i., 12, p. 316, pi. 128, -f. 23 — 30. 
Manual, iv., pi. 3, f. 25 — 27. 

5 Bull. Soc. Zool. France, 1877, p. 304. 

6 Proc. Malac. Soc, Lond. ,x., 1912, p. 39, pi. ii. 



JACKSON: THE CANDIDULA SECTION OF HELICELLA. I97 

and myself, based upon specimens collected last summer at Pres- 
tatyn, N. Wales {antea, p. 164). 

H. gigaxii appears to live under pretty much the same conditions 
as its congener If. caperata, by which it is often accompanied. As in 
this last species the size of the shell varies according to locality and 
environment, i.e., whether largely calcareous or otherwise. The 
largest specimens I have seen are from I.ewes, East Sussex, and 
these measure up to 15 mm. in diameter ; the smallest I have in my 
own collection come from Southport, Lanes., and these measure 7 mm. 
These two extremes, however, can be linked together by intermediate 
forms from various localities. 

The Southport specimens are from the coastal sand-dunes and are 
interesting from the fact that they are small in size and agree in every 
particular with Canon Horsley's specimen from Avignon, as well as 
with Pfeiffer's figures and description. 

Judging from specimens in the Layard and Crosse collections (in 
the Manchester Museum), the following species, H. idanica Locard 
(Avignon) ; H. lieuranensis Bourg, (Avignon) ; H. scnipellina Fagot 
(Haute Garonne), and H. derogata Rossm. (Spain), are synonymous 
with H. gigaxii. 

Two varieties have recently been distinguished by the Rev. C. E. Y. 
Kendall,^ (i) var. lutescens — shell a wet sand colour without markings; 
(2) var. albicans— ^q}\ white, without markings, apex dark brown to 
black. 

There is an interesting remark in Montagu's " Testacea Britannica " 
(p. 432), which may possibly have some reference to this species. 
Under his description of H. caperata Montagu refers to a variety from 
Kent "of a light cinereous colour, with so little appearance of bands or 
fascia; that it might readily have been mistaken for a distinct species, 
was it not for the strong, regular strige, which, amongst the British 
Helices, seems to be confined to this [i.e. caperata^ and the radiata 
\=rotundata Miill.j. Mr. Boys favoured us with this shell, by the 
name of Apex-tiiger, by which it was known to Dr. Solander, and 
placed as such in the Portland cabinet." 

As to whether the above variety refers to H. gigaxii or not can only 
be decided by an examination of the specimens. 

It is not without interest to note that H. gigaxii frequently presents 
a unicolorous creamy or brownish shell, without a trace of any 
markings, though the apex is conspicuously of a dark fulvous colour. 

Two very early figures of what appears to me to be H. gigaxii are 
given by Captain Thomas Brown in his 1827 work on British Shells.^ 

1 Journ. of Conch., vol. 13, igi2, p. 345. 

2 Ulus. Conch. Gt. Brit, and Ireland, Lend., 1S27, pi. 40, f. 37 and 39. 



198 JOURNAL OF CONCHOLOGY, VOL. I4, NO. 7, JULY, I9I4. 

The umbilical vibw (f. 37) certainly suggests this species rather than 
H. caperata. 

In the British Isles the known range of this species is Kent, Sussex, 
Hampshire, Surrey, Middlesex, Gloucester, Bucks., Herts., Suffolk, 
Cambridge, Hunts., Northants, Leicester, Lincoln, Yorks., Pembroke 
(Stelfox's list). To these can now be added Worcester (G. S. Tye, in 
R.U.D. Coll.); Lancashire (R.S. Coll.); Cheshire (C. O., in Conch. 
Soc. CoU.); Flintshire (J.W.J. Coll.); and North Berwick, Hadding- 
tonshire (J. McMurtrie in Conch. Soc. Coll.). 

From this list it will be noticed that its known distribution at 
present is more particularly south-eastern England with a few out- 
lying counties further north and west which may ultimately be linked 
up with the more southern ones. 

Helicella candidula (Studer) (non Michaud). — This species, 
known to many collectors under the name of H. unifasciata Poiret, is 
widely diffused on the continent, ranging through Germany, France, 
Switzerland, Italy, Spanish Peninsula, etc. ; it is unknown, however, 
in the north of Europe ; whilst in N. Africa it is said to be replaced 
by H. reboudiana Bourg. 

It is a somewhat depressed shell, small in size, and minutely 
striated ; umbilicus narrow ; whorls 42-5, slightly convex, suture deep : 
aperture roundish-lunate, strongly labiate within. Size : diam. 7 — 10: 
alt. 5 — 7 mm. The shell is whitish, sometimes unicolorous, and at 
times variously banded with one or more brown bands, which may be 
continuous or interrupted. 

A good deal of interest is attached to this species owing to its 
having been recently reported fossil in this country by the Rev. 
C. E. Y. Kendall, in his paper on the Pleistocene MoUusca found at 
Woodston, North Huntingdonshire.^ 

In working through the large amount of material met with in this 
interesting deposit, Mr. Kendall found a number of a small Helicella, 
previously noticed in Britain (Barnwell and Crayford) as a Pleistocene 
aberration of H. caperata Mont., but not hitherto recorded. After due 
examination and comparison these shells were referred to H. candi- 
dula Studer, var. alpicola Stabile. 

Having recently had an opportunity of studying some of the 
Woodston examples (kindly lent by Mr. J. Davy Dean) and some 
twenty specimens of exactly the same form from Ilford (presented by 
the late Mr. R. D. Darbishire) alongside of authentic specimens of 
H. candidula and its var. alpicola, together with the chief literature on 
the subject, both French and German, I am reluctantly compelled to 
disagree entirely with the above identification. 

I Journ. 0/ Conch., vol. 14, 1913, pp. S3 — 91. 



JACKSON: THE CANDIDULA SECTION OF HELICEI.LA. I99 

The var. alpicola was described by Stabile in 1864^ as follows: — 
" [H. unifasciata] var. \i alpicola iiiihi; minor, tenuiuscula, apertiira 
magis rotundata, apice corneo-fiisca^fasciis angustis, pallidis, inlerrnptis, 
evanescentibus. Haut. 4"5. Diam. 6"5 mill. =^7". «///>/«? Megerle 
non Faure-Biguet." 

A critical examination of the Ilford and Woodston specimens 
reveals several characters whereby they differ from the above variety, 
as well as from any form of If. candidula with which I am acquainted. 

The Woodston and Ilford shells, which are 5-whorled, are distinctly 
keeled and depressed, and the aperture, instead of being round, is 
compressed and of a somewhat squarish outline, with a tooth-like 
protuberance at the base ; the umbilicus is large and open, exposing 
a large part of the penultimate whorl and the interior of the columella; 
the striation is of the rough type as in H. cciperata and unlike that of 
H. candidula and its varieties. 

The banding is well preserved in many of the shells, and consists of 
one broad band above the periphery (this band borders the suture of 
the upper whorls almost to the apex), and two to three broad bands 
below the periphery. One or other of the latter bands is occasionally 
split in half, thus producing four bands. 

The dimensions of 12 adults from Ilford are: — diam. max. 
6'5 X 375, min. 5'2o x 3-20 ; alt. max. 375 x 6'5, min. 3'io x 5-30 mm. 
Three adults from Woodston (in Coll. J.U.D.) measure 6*20 x 375 \ 

5'5o^3'5o; 5"5o=^ 3"25 mm. 

These discrepancies are such as to negative entirely the idea of the 
specific identity of the AVoodston-Ilford specimens (and likewise those 
from Crayford and Barnwell) with H. candidula Studer. They do 
not appear to agree with any described continental Helicella, recent 
or fossil. German authorities, Dr. F. Haas and others, to whom I 
submitted specimens, support my contention that they certainly do 
not belong to H. candidula, but are the Pleistocene ancestors of 
recent English H. intersecta (=^caperatci) — so far undescribed and 
well deserving a name. 

This suggestion is interesting but requires further careful investiga- 
tion. Pending such study, which can only be made when more 
material is available, it seems desirable that the shell in question 
should receive some distinctive name, and the most suitable one, in 
my opinion, is that of H. crayfordensis (A. S. Kennard, MS.), as 
indicating the locality where the species was originally discovered. 



I Moll. Piemont, p. 48. 



ADDITIONS TO "BRITISH CONCHOLOGY." 



By J. T. MARSHALL. 



Part VII. {continued from p. igo). 



Circe Sebum. — The claim of Circe Schum. against that of Gouldia 
C. B. Adams, having been dealt with by Mr. E. A. Smith,^ whose 
conclusions were sustained by Dr. Boog Watson,- subsequently pro- 
voked a reply from Professor W. H. Dall in favour of Gouldia f but 
Mr. Smith's further elucidation of the subject in the ' Challenger ' 
Reports^ may very fairly be taken as settling the controversy in favour 
of Circe. 

Venus chione L. — Good wick Bay, South Wales, odd valves 
(Vaughan) ! 

V. fasciata var. pallida, var. nov.^ — Mr. Simpson records some 
white specimens which were dredged by the Scottish Fishery Board 
on the Fair Isle Bank in 43f., and at Broad Bay in 6f This white 
form is scarce, but generally diffused with the type. 

var. radiata Jeff. — Freshwater West (Span)! Exmouth. Probably 
occurs everywhere with the type, but sparingly. 

V. verrucosa L. — Mr. David Robertson is said to have obtained 
a living specimen from off Garroch Head, Clyde, on a fisherman's 
line ; but this and various other Scottish records attributed to this 
species are extremely doubtful. 

V. gallina var. gibba Jeff. — Menai Straits ; Dornoch Frith. This 
shell is longer, or less broadly triangular than the type. 

Tapes aureus Gmel. — The very young and fry differ from those 
of other Tapes in being circular and resembling the same stages of 
Venus. 

T. pullastra Mont. — Gwyn Jeffreys gives the dimensions as i"5 in. 
by I 7 in., but that is an error, and applies to the var. ovata ; they 
should correspond to his figure — 1*3 in. by 18 in. 
var. ovata Jeff. — Milford Haven (Span) ! 

var. plagia Jeff. — {Venus plagia Jeff., Ann. Mag. N. Hist., vol. 
xix., p. 313). — I am strongly of opinion that this variety is only a 
form of var. perforans, as some specimens of the latter are similarly 
upturned at one or both ends. Gwyn Jeffreys records only a valve 
from Lerwick, a small specimen from Deal Voe, and a still smaller 

1 Proc. Zool. Soc, 1S81, p. 4S9. 

2 Journ. of Conch., 1SS2, vol. iii.,p. 299. 

3 Jovrn. of Conch., 18S3, voJ. iv., p. 60. 

4 'Challenger' Pelecypoda, p. 221. 

5 Notes on Rare Moll., /ot»«. of Conch., 1910, vol. 13, p. m. . 



MARSHALL: ADDITIONS TO " BRITISH CONCHOLOGY." 201 

one from Loch Fyne, and I suspect that these are specimens of var. 
perforans which have been washed out of their rocky habitat. 

T. decussatus L. — I have not met with this species in the 
Channel Islands save a small specimen at Herm, and Mr. Tomlin 
has an adult specimen from the same island ; but I suspect that 
Gwyn Jeffreys' record, " on the shores of our southern and western 
counties,'" should apply to the strictly British coasts. Mr. Marquand 
gives Alderney, and cites "Guernsey and Herm (Tomlin),"^ but in the 
former instance I have seen the specimens, and they prove to be 
large, coarse examples of T. pullastra. There is a tablet of six 
specimens in the Guernsey Museum, but they are from the British 
coast proper. There is also a single specimen in the Duprey collec- 
tion in the Jersey Museum, but without locality, and in his paper Mr. 
Duprey cites the name only. 

Gastrana fragilis L. — Milford Haven (Span and Vaughan) ! 

Tellina balaustina L. — Straits of Korea lof. (H.M.S. 'Sylvia') ! 

T. balthica L. — Very large from Eastbourne, exceeding i] in. 

T. donacina L.— "A fact in connection with this species, which I 
believe has not been previously recorded, is the presence of a small 
internal ligament. This is especially noticeable in young shells, and 
is placed obliquely behind the cardinal teeth. Several other species 
also possess this feature,"" 

Psammobia tellinella var. gracilis Jeff. — Gairloch 2 2f 
P. COStulata Turt. — Alderney (Marquand) ! 

P. ferroensis var. pallida Cockerell (Zoologist, 1887, p. 1)5). — 
Tenby (Span)! 

Donax vittatus Da Cos. — It is surprising that this very common 
species has not indisputably been met with in the Channel or Scilly 
Islands, although Mr. Marquand records a " valve " from Alderney 
(which, by the way, was a perfect specimen), and cites " Herm 
(Tomlin).'*^ It is abundant on the coasts of Normandy and Brittany 
adjacent to Jersey, and specimens may often be met with in the Jersey 
fish market, brought with other shellfish from St. Brieuc, St. Malo, 
Granville, etc. These specimens are larger and broader than our 
type, are not unlike var. tiirgida Jeff, except in being flatter, and are 
similar to a form I have received from the Mediterranean as var. 
prolongata. 

var. turgida Jeff. — Aberdeen beach, cast ashore (Simpson)! 

I Biit. Conch., vol. ii., p. 360. 

?. M.ii-ine Shells of Guernsey, etc., Trans. Guern. Soc, Nat. Sci., igoi, p. 6 (sep. copy). 

3 E. A. Smith, ' Challenger ' Pelecypoda, p. 106. 

4 Marine Shells of Guernsey, etc.. Trans. Guern. Soc. Nat. Sci., igoijp. 6 (.sep. copy). 



202 JOURNAL OF CONCHOLOGY, VOL. I4, NO. 7, JULY, I914. 

var. truncata Marsh. — Portstewart, Antrim (Knight)! Mochras 
Island, North Wales (Cooper) 1 The Marquis di Monterosato writes 
me that this variety conforms to D. atlantica Hidalgo. 

var. cuneata Marsh. — Besides having the posterior end wedge- 
shaped and gaping, this variety is smaller, thinner, and much more 
depressed. 

D. trunculus L. — A dealer was selling this pseudo-British species 
in 1885-6, ostensibly from South Devon, to various collectors for a 
small sum ; but some of the specimens being submitted to me by a 
purchaser, I was able to recognise them as Mediterranean, and not 
British as represented, although this dealer may possibly have been 
himself deceived by a more experienced naturalist. His account to 
me was that in the spring of 1885 several Brixham trawlers from South 
Devon, on arriving at his port for the usual season's fishing, brought 
him some trawl refuse from their coast, and that he found in it eight 
specimens of D. trunculus. However that may be, I subsequently 
discovered that he was at the same time selling Cardiiim papillosxim 
and Loripes divarkatus, also for very small sums, and also ostensibly 
from the South Devon coast, where these very rare species have 
never been found. 

Mactra solida var. intermedia Jeff. — Scarborough, very fine 
(Tomlin). 

M. glauca Born. — The Jersey habitat for this fine shell is 
situated in a dangerous locality in the south-east part of the island 
known as La Rocque, and should not be negotiated without a local 
guide or fisherman, easily to be obtained in the neighbourhood. M. 
glauca is found sparingly in the coarse sandy patches which occur 
among the rocks, living comparatively near the surface, and easily 
procurable with a fork or spade ; but the safest and most prolific 
locality is on the further side of a lofty and prominent quadrangular 
tower, where the rocks terminate and the large sandy bay of Grouville 
commences. (I have known 40 specimens taken here in one tide). This 
picturesque tower, situated among a wilderness of rocks, is readily 
accessible between tides, and is always kept provided with fuel, so that 
any one cut off by the tides or shipwrecked may obtain shelter and 
fire until they are relieved. The tides recede here to an enormous 
distance, while still beyond the uncovered rocks extend for miles 
towards the coast of France, which is plainly in view. On reaching 
these rocks and looking backward on Jersey the stranger is at first 
appalled at the apparent disappearance of the island and at the utter 
chaos of rocks which surround him. But it is all safe enough while 
the tides are receding and tlie key to the position is kept in view ; 
it is when the tides return that the danger is great, as the incoming 



MARSHAI.I- : ADDITIUNS TO "BRITISH CONCHOLOGY. 203 

rush of waters gradually cuts off rock after rock with surprising sudden- 
ness, the tide taking seven hours to recede and only five to return to 
its high-water mark, which sometimes exceeds forty feet. This 
dangerous coast frequently claims its victims from among seaweed 
cutters, conger hunters, and ormer gatherers. 

To the islanders of Herm, where M. glaiica is rare, it has always 
been known as the " five-shilling shell," as that was the price originally 
given for it by old collectors when first discovered. 

At one time M. glaiica was sold by the dealers at the then fair price 
of 7/6, but a Jersey naturalist having offered an expert discoverer 6d. 
each for as many as he could obtain, to be again retailed at i/-, he 
got so inundated with specimens that he had to stop the supply, after 
"glutting the market." 

The animal makes a substantial and appetising ban boiicke, but the 
supply for culinary purposes is non-existent. I only once bought a 
specimen in the Jersey fish market, which was offered for sale as a 
"clam." The smaller Madras are occasionally eaten. At Teign- 
mouth on one occasion I noticed outside a gipsy encampment a heap 
of the shells of M. solida, which had evidently been cooked and the 
contents eaten. 

Scrobicularia alba var. oblonga Marsh.— Garelochhead i6-2 2f. 
(Knight) ! The specimens from this locality are very thin and glossy, 
and come wonderfully close to 6". nitida. In some dredgings by the 
'Porcupine' in Vigo Bay, 2of., this was found to be the normal form. 

S. piperata Gmel. — Mr. Tomlin finds this species commonly used 
as food by the peasantry at Torcello and Burano, two outlying islands 
in the Venetian lagoon. 

S. longicallus Scacc. — Between the Shetlands and Norway igyf. 
and 2oof. (Simpson) ! Also on the Atlantic slope of the English 
Channel, about 150 miles off the Scillies, in yiyf. ('Porcupine.') 

Solecurtus SCopula Turt.— Off Peterhead, a perfect specimen 
and several valves (Dawson) ; several dead specimens from the Aber- 
deen Bank on trawl boats (Simpson) ; Gairloch, valves on the shore 
after storms. 

Ceratisolen legumen L. — Herm, a fine but dead specimen on 
the beach (Marquand). 

Solen ensis L. — Sowerby's figure represents S. siliqua\a.r. arcuata 
and not this. 

Pandora inaequivalvis L.— Studland Bay, plentiful after gales. 
Recorded from the Antrim coast by Dr. Chaster, but doubtless a 
mistake for the var. pinna. 

Thracia praetenuis Pult. — Gairloch, frequently cast ashore by 
storms. 



204 JOURNAL OF CONCHOLOGY, VOL. I4, NO. 7, JULY, I9I4. 

var. villosiuscula Macg. — A large specimen from St. Aubin's 
Bay, Jersey, measures i-i- in. by ^ in. An equally large valve has been 
recorded from Alderney by Mr. Marquand, but erroneously as Mya 
tnincata. 

T. pubescens Pult. — Mr. James Smith ofjordanhill and the Rev. 
D. Landsborough have recorded this species from Arran, and Pro- 
fessor Macgillivray has also recorded it from Footdee, Aberdeenshire, 
" a perfect individual adhering to a fishing line," but these identifica- 
tions have been held in doubt. T. pubescens is only rarely obtainable 
from the trawlers of Plymouth and Penzance. On one occasion in 
the sixties a comparatively big haul was made of this rare shell from 
Cornwall (I suspect in ballast sand), which brought the dealers' price 
from 15/. down to 5/- each. 

A specimen of Lyonsiella (or Pecchiolid) abyssicola M. Sars has 
been dredged by the Scottish Fishery Boai'd off the Butt of Lewis 
in 545f., with some fragments of another species of the genus in the 
same district in gpf. (Simpson) ! 

Neaera Gray. — Researches in the 'Porcupine' and 'Challenger' 
expeditions have proved this peculiar genus to be a very extensive 
one in deep water. In addition to the large number of new species 
described and figured in the respective reports of these expeditions, 
there are many others remaining undescribed, besides numerous 
rostral extremities of other species. The latter projecting portions of 
the shell appear to be especially liable to breakage, judging from the 
large number of these rostra that are met with, and their great 
diversity of sculpture denote that they all belong to different species, 
and indicate that many more remain to be discovered even in the 
limited areas traversed by these expeditions. 

Neaera abbreviata Forb. — Off the Great Skellig, S.W. Ireland, 
79-1 lof. (R.I. A. cruise)! 

N. COStellata Desh.— Off the Great Skellig, S.W. Ireland, 79- 
I lof., and off the mouth of the Kenmare River, 23-38^ (R.I. A. cruise) ! 
Sanda Island, Clyde, 19-25^ (Knight) ! off Battle Island 4of. (Scott)! 
Minard Narrows, and off Furnace, Loch Fyne, io-25f. (Scot. Fish. 
Bd. Rep., 1897). 

N. cuspidata Olivi.— Off Dursey Island, S.W. Ireland, 35f. 
(R.I. A. cruise); Turnberry, in Ayrshire, 33f, and Lamlash 22f. 
(Knight) ! 

Mr. Richard Howse, in " Notes on a Dredging Excursion off 
Durham,"^ records a specimen taken from a haddock. Mediterranean 
specimens differ from British and Norwegian in being smaller and 
thinner, with a proportionally longer rostrum. 

1 Ann. Mag. N. Hist., vol. xix., p. 162. 



MARSHATJ. : ADDITIONS TO "BRITISH CONCHOLOGY." 2O5 

N. rostrata Spengl — Off the Shetlands iiif , a perfect specimen 
and two valves (Simpson) I The animal has been shortly described 
by Gwyn Jeffreys.^ 

JV. obesa Lov. and N. striata Jeff, have been dredged off the 
Butt of Lewis in 53of by the ' Knight Errant.' 

Three specimens of N. lamellosa M. Sars have been dredged by 
the Scottish Fishery Board off the Butt of Lewis in S45f., " with the 
ribbing nearly obliterated ;" several others midway between the 
Shetlands and Norway in igyf., various other examples between the 
Orkneys and Faroes in ig4f. and off the Faroes in 7 if. (Simpson)! 
while Mr. Tomlin's collection contains two examples of this pretty 
species from the reputed depth of 160 fathoms off East Shetlands. 

Mr. Edgar Smith described in the Annals for 1889 a new species 
of Necera as N. {^Cuspidaria^ greenly a specimen of which was dredged 
by the Rev. ^V. S. Green in the Atlantic off Ireland in 1,000 fathoms, 
and he identified another valve which was dredged by the ' Triton ' 
Expedition in the Shetland-Faroe Channel in 57of 

Corbula gibba Olivi. — It has been observed that certain 
specimens of C. gibba in the young stage " have spines on the right 
valve at the anterior side of the beak,"'-^ these spines varying from 
three to five in number. 

Mya truncata L. — St. Aubin's Bay, Jersey, a valve, and there is 
another in the Jersey Museum. Mr. Marquand's record for Alderney 
is not this, but a large valve of Thracia papyracea var. villoshiscula. 

var. abbreviata Jeff. — Great Fisher Bank, off Aberdeenshire 
(Simpson) ! Gwyn Jeffreys alludes to this form as " the variety 
ziddevallensis or abbreviata,^'''^ though in his work he cites var. 
nddevallensis as a separate variety.'* They are scarcely the same 
thing, however. Var. abbreviata Jeff differs from the type only in 
the posterior end being abruptly shortened ; in the var. iiddevallensis 
Forb. it is still shorter, and cut obliquely inwards just clear of the 
beaks, giving it the curious appearance of only half a valve ; it is also 
smaller, more depressed, and very much more solid. 

Panopea plicata Mont. — Garelochhead i6-25f , large and 
perfect but dead; and Lamlash 22f (Knight) ! 

Saxicava norvegica Spengl. — From trawl-boats arriving at 
Grimsby, Scarborough, Aberdeen, etc., rarely containing the animal. 
East Shetlands loof., a dead but fresh and perfect specimen. I have 
also a specimen trawled 40 miles N.E. of Kinnaird's Head which is 

1 Moll. ' Lightning' .-ind ' Porcupine,' Proc. Zool. Soc, 1881, p. 939. 

2 Massy : " Note on an early spinous stage of Corbula gibba Olivi," Journ. 0/ Conch., 191 1, 
vol. 13, p. 191. 

3 Arctic Fossils, Ann. Mag. N. Hist., 1S77, p. 235. 

4 Brit. Conch., vol. iii. , p. 70. 



206 JOURNAL OF CONCHOI.OGY. VOL. I4, NO. 7, JULY, I914. 

3^in. by 2|in.,and another trawled 80 miles N.E. of Aberdeen. 
S. rugosa L. — Korea Straits 30-54^, young only ('Sylvia') ! 
The Rev. Frank Knight dredged a large specimen of this shell 
at the mouth of the Clyde measuring i|in. by fin. It grows still 
larger in the Arctic Seas, whence my collection contains a valve from 
Spitzbergen 2in. broad by -^in. deep, and which must have been a 
veteran, as it is abnormally thick and solid. 

S. rugosa is unusually variable, and there is no dividing line 
between it and its varieties. Wliile some are sharply and others only 
obtusely keeled, still others have not the slightest trace; some are 
ridged across the valves, and in others these ridges are serrated, but 
they all merge one into the other by imperceptible gradations. 

The immature forms are especially deceptive, both in their outward 
appearance and in the nature of their habitat. They live in a free 
state in the corallines of rock pools, instead of the rocky habitat of 
their parents. They are depressed and inequivalve, and there is an 
absence of any distortion, epidermis, or rugosity, until they arrive at 
a stage when their specific instincts or ambition induce in them a 
desire to excavate a more secure and permanent home, when they 
seek the rocks, though in the absence of stone they will put up with 
oyster shells. Thracia distorta is similarly deceptive, and has very 
similar habits in its young stage, living in corallines and later seeking 
a shelter, but not excavating, the burrows left by other molluscs in 
oyster shells or stones, limestone by preference, and while the adults 
are polymorphous in shape, the young are always regular in form and 
outline. 

var. pholadis L.— An unusual specimen from Torbay has the 
frontal gape, which distinguishes this variety from the type, closed as 
in Pholadidea. 

Venerupis irus L. — Alderney, a valve (Marquand) ! It is 

said to have been found at Brodick, in Arran, by the Rev. J. E. 

Somerville. 

Petricola pholadiformis Lam. — This species has come to stay. 

]\Ir. T. Edwards in 1899 found it rather plentiful near Heme Bay, 

between tidemarks, about six inches below the surface, living in the 

Thanet sand, the lowermost strata of the tertiary group. Mr. Arthur 

Mayfield has recorded its appearance along the Suffolk coast, Mr. 

Gyngell from Lincolnshire, Mr. Sikes from the Medway, and Mr. 

Arthur Smith from Mablethorpe, Lines. See also a note by Mr. 

J. E. Cooper mjoitrn. of Conch., 1899, vol. ix., p. 243. 

Pholas dactylus L. — This may occasionally be dug up alive, at 

low spring tides, from the submarine forest bed on the Torre Abbey 

sands at Torquay. 



MARSHALL: ADOmONS TO "BRITISH CONCHOLOGY." 207 

P. Candida var. subovata Jeff. — Paignton, S. Devon. 

var. cylindracea INIarsb. n. var. — Smaller, thin and fragile, and 
much broader in proportion to length. L. o"5oin., b. i"5o. From 
soft peat on Torre Abbey sands, Torquay, with a corresponding 
variety of P. dnctyliis. 

Xylophaga praestans Smith. — Vide Journ. Make, 1903, vol. 
v., p. 328. 

X. dorsalis Turt. — The Alder ney record is an error. I have seen 
the shells, and they prove to be Teredo megoiara. In the same paper^ 
the record of Teredo navalis is also an error for T. pedicellata. 

Teredinida^ Flem. — It is necessary to study the pallets of the 
Teredines, owing to the confused manner in which several forms will 
sometimes mix themselves up with the valves in the same piece of 
wood. The pallet of Sowerby's figure of T. norvegica, for instance, 
is incorrect ; it should be as Jeffreys.' The same faults attach to the 
pallets of T navalis and T. megotara. The pallets of the latter 
species are most variable, Jeffreys' and Sowerby's figures representing 
the extremes, while those of its variety excisa are polymorphous. 

Teredo Sellius. — Countless remedies have been tried for over- 
coming the destructive powers of the Teredo, or "ship worm," but it 
still remains the worst enemy with which marine engineers have to 
contend. Its powers in that direction may be estimated from the fact 
that the most substantial timber erections are sometimes riddled within 
-four to six months. Ships may be made immune by metallic sheath- 
ing, but not timber erections. The latest method to be adopted for 
overcoming this destruction and loss to wharves, harbours, and sub- 
marine works generally, has been successfully carried out by American 
contractors, who can now electrocute them by millions, and although 
the process is not altogether permanent in its effects, yet by occasional 
applications it is proving sufificient to overcome the difficulties experi- 
enced in many extensive operations, and to supersede the use of 
divers and other highly-skilled operatives. The method of electrocu- 
tion is carried into effect by the use of a floating electric-power plant, 
capable of generating heavy currents of electricity at a comparatively 
low intensity. A network of wires is first lowered into the sea facing 
the wharf or harbour to be attacked, and these are coupled with one 
of the poles of the dynamo on the vessel ; similar wires are then sus- 
pended beneath the ship in electrical contact with the other pole. 
Directly the current is switched on, electrolytic action occurs in the 
sea water between the two metal nets, and chlorine gas is thereby 
liberated. This deadly gas envelopes the Tei-edines in their borings, 
and speedily causes death. 

I Marquand ; Marine Shells of Guernsey, etc., Trans. Guern. Soc. Nat. Sci., 1903, Suppl. 



208 JOURNAL OF CONCHOLOGY, VOL. I4, NO, 7, JULY, I914. 

T. megotara var. subericola Macg. (non Jeff.). — This was first 
discovered and named by Professor jMacgillivray, who contributed a 
paper " On a Species of Teredo found in Cork Floats on the Coast of 
Aberdeenshire," to the Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal, 1832, 
vol. xxxviii., pp. 138-141. 

Siphodentalium lofotense M. Sars. — S.W. Ireland (R.I. A, 
cruise) ! off Ailsa Craig, 2of., one specimen only. 

S. affine M. Sars. — Off the Shetlands, iiif.-i25f. (Simpson) ! 
S.W. Ireland (R.I.A. cruise) ! Sars' figures well represent the differ- 
ences between this species and S. lofotense, though the latter should 
be a little more cylindrical at the base. Dr. Chaster writes that 6". affine 
should be united with S. lofotense, because it is "quite impossible to 
separate the specimens when dealing with them in hundreds ; the 
name affine must, therefore, be relegated to varietal rank."^ And he 
quotes in corroboration of this extraordinary dictum the fact of my 
having written "that one form merges into the other." I must repudi- 
ate this interpretation of my words; though in outline "the extreme 
forms of the two species meet," that does not dispose of their specific 
characters, which are not open to doubt. 

S. quinquangulare Forb. has been dredged between the Shetlands 
and Faroes in 73-197^ (Simpson) ! and in the Atlantic off Ireland 
in ioo-345f. (R.I.A. cruise) ! 

Cadulus subfusiformis M. Sars. — Atlantic off S.W. Ireland, 
345 f. (R.I.A. cruise) ! 

C jeffreysi Monts.— Atlantic off S.W. Ireland 345^ (R.I.A. 
cruise) ! also in the Faroe Channel (' Triton '), with var. tuniidula 
G. O. Sars ! 

C. propifiquns G. O. Sars has been dredged midway between the 
Shetlands and Norway in i97f. (Simpson) ! and in the Atlantic off 
S.W. Ireland in 345^ (R.I.A. cruise) ! 

C. tumidosus var. minor Jeff, has been dredged in N. Shetland in 
345f., and also on a shallow bank in the Atlantic off Ireland in 85f 
(' Porcupine'). 

Dentalium L. — With reference to "the separation of the Dentalia 
by the absence {Dentalwm) or presence {Entnlis) of the cleft pro- 
cess," Dr. Boog Watson gives some very good reasons why that 
division "cannot be maintained."" 

D. entails L. — Alderney, " abundant on the shell-beach," and 
" dredged alive between Guernsey and Herm (Tomlin)."^ These are 
doubtful identifications. 

1 Proc. R.I. Acad., iSgS, vol. v., p. 25. 

2 ' Challenger ' Gastropoda, p. 9. 

3 Marquand : Marine Shells of Guernsey, etc.. Trans. Guern. See. Nat. Sci., 1901, p. 8, 
Sep. copy. 



MARSHALL: ADDITIONS TO "BRITISH CONCIIOLOGY." 209 

Having subsequently had an opportunity of examining Mr. Ma'r- 
quand's Alderney and other Channel Islands' alleged specimens of 
D. entalis, as well as other shells under that name in the Guernsey 
Museum, I have found them without exception to be as I suspected 
D. vulgare. Mr. Tomlin's examples I take to be in the same cate- 
gory. Though there would be nothing remarkable in the occurrence 
of this very common shell in the Channel Islands, yet as a matter of 
fact I do not know of any reliable record of its presence in those 
islands. There are certainly no examples in the Jersey or Guernsey 
Museums, and Mr. Duprey in his list of Jersey shells does not even 
mention the name. 

var. striolatum Stimps. — -Shetlands ySf. and Saf (Jeffreys) ; 
N. of the Hebrides iSgf. and 65of. ('Lightning'); Faroe Channel 
57of ('Triton'); Skye and Hebrides, apparently semi-fossil (Jeffreys). 
An examination of Norwegian specimens will show the continuity of 
these two forms as one species. In some parts of Norway they live 
together and range from the smooth entalis to the sculptured sfrio- 
latum. D. agile M. Sars and var. orthnim Wats, are in the same 
relation to each other, and although Dr. Boog Watson considers these 
two forms to be also varieties of D. entalis, I think they are sufficiently 
marked off from that species to stand by themselves. 

D. agile M. Sars has been dredged between the Shetlands and 
Norway in ipyf. (Simpson) ! in the Shetland-Faroe Channel 57of. 
and 64of. ('Triton'), and in the Atlantic off Ireland in i,ooof. (Smith) 
and in 34Sf. (R.I. A. cruise). One of the 'Triton' specimens was 
described by Mr. Jordan as D. (enigtnaticiim n.sp.^ I have seen this 
shell, which, with his figure and description, is indistinguishable from 
D. agile. He says that he relies on its "persistent ribs and more 
slender form" to distinguish it from D. agile, but as a matter of fact 
these two characters are never constant in any two examples of the 
species. 

Chiton L. — Montagu described a seven-valved specimen of C. 
IcRvis as C. septe/nvalvis ; a six-valved Chiton was recorded in the 
Nautilus for 1901, while a remarkable example of C. contractus 
Reeve, in the Natural History Museum, has only three valves. 

C. fascicularis L. — The tubercles on the plates are variable in 
size ; even in specimens found together they are twice as large in 
some examples as in others, and only half as numerous. In the Sal- 
combe estuary C. fascicularis lives near high-water mark, on the sides 
of caves in the rocks, in company with Patella vulgata and OttJia 
otis, where they may be found breast high crawling freely among the 
barnacles. 

I Proc. Mai. Soc, 189s, vol. i, part 6. 



2IO JOURNAL OF CONCHOLOGY, VOL. I4, NO. 7, JULY, I9I4. 

var. attenuata Jeff. — Salcombe. 
C. discrepans Brown. — Braye Bay, Alderney (Marquand). 

C. debilis Gray, — Sutherlandshire, from haddocks (Baillie) ! off 
Loch Ryan, 2of, plates only; Ailsa Craig, 2of, plates ; Mull of Can- 
tire, 3of , plates. 

Length, 07 in. ; breadth, 0*3 in. 

Gwyn Jeffreys has recorded an exceptional specimen an inch in 
length, dredged by Mr. Barlee in the Shetlands. 

C. scabridus Jeff. — Prof. Gwatkin's remark^ on the radula of this 
species, he tells me, was meant to apply to C. IcRvis. That of C. scab- 
ridus, though distinctly different from its congener C. cancellata, "is 
not at all remarkable in the way C. IcBvis is, which wants the major 
uncinus." 

C. cancellatus G. B. Sow. — Tenby and Milford. 

C. albus L. — Aberdeenshire, " not uncommon on stones and dead 
shells from deep water" (Dawson). Being in some doubt of Dr. 
Dawson's record "not uncommon," I have examined his tablet of six 
specimens under this name deposited in the Aberdeen University 
Museum, and I find that four only belong to this species, the remain- 
ing two being C. cinereus var. rissoi. It must still be considered a 
rare species in British seas. 

C. marmoreus Fab. — Sutherlandshire, from haddocks (Baillie)! 

Patella vulgata L. — I have already written''^ on the observations 
of Gwyn Jeffreys, Mr. Collings of Sark, and myself of the limpet- 
eating habits of rats. But it would appear that P. vulgata is not the 
only food from marine sources that rats may acquire a taste for, for 
a fisherman in the Island of Stroma, in the Hebrides, having tracked 
a huge rat to its lair and killed it, found that it had accumulated a 
large store of good things, including 115 sand-eels i in. long, nine 
young cod 9 in. long, besides thirty-two birds of various kinds, all 
neatly and methodically arranged in its retreat. I do not think it is 
a regular habit of these rodents to store up food, especially as this 
source of supply is always open to them, but it may be that this 
particular rat was anticipating the advent of its usual prolific progeny, 
and had the bump of acquisition abnormally developed. That rats 
have an unusual capacity for assimilating a varied diet is further borne 
out by the fact that in the summer of 191 2 at Ormsby, in Norfolk, 
they climbed a plum tree (Victorian) trained against a wall, and 
devoured the crop before the cause was discovered and measures of 
prevention adopted. 

I Adds, to Brit. Conch., /o?/;-«. of Conch., 1898, vol. ix., p. 63. 
8 Journ, of Conch., 1898, vol. ix., pp. 64-5. 



MARSHALL: ADDITIONS TO "BRITISH CONCHOLOGY. 211 

In the same paper I also suggested that there may be a connection 
between hmpet-eating rats and the number of Rat Islands scattered 
round our coasts. One such island (or islet) is attached to Herm, 
and I have frequently disturbed Miis rattus there, but never noticed 
any stores of its food. Another such named Rat Island is adjacent to 
the Scillies, while another attached to Lundy Island, in the Bristol 
Channel, has the reputation of being so called because it was the last 
refuge of the old English black rat before its final extinction in England, 
but that is a legend which would equally apply to every Rat Island in 
the kingdom. 

To digress for a moment from conchological matters, Mus rattus, 
the black or Alexandrine rat, is by no means extinct in England, 
being still occasionally found about the London wharves and docks, 
while at Great Yarmouth and a few other places it is comparatively 
common. In the Island of Sark particularly Mus rattus has always 
flourished undisturbed, and the brown or Norwegian rat has never 
gained a footing there, probably owing to the fact that no ships call 
at that little island. Where the brown rat does gain a footing, how- 
ever, it invariably drives away the English black one. Nor is the black 
rat always nor often black, though it is generally darker than our 
ordinary brown one, from which it otherwise differs in being a smaller 
animal, having larger and more expanded ears, with a longer and 
more slender tail. 

Helcion pellucidum var. laevis Penn. — I have two white speci- 
mens from Benbecula in the Hebrides. One of these is uniformly 
conical, with the apex erect instead of drooping, which gives it a 
deceptive resemblance to Tectura initra Esch. from the Aleutian Isles, 
var. elongata Jeff. — Torbay, not uncommon, but always under 
stones; Aberdeen, dead on the shore (Simpson) ! 

Tectura virginea Miill. — Mr. J. A. Hargreaves considers that 
this species affords an instance of colour protection, at any rate at 
Scarborough, " the protection being so marked as to render the shell 
almost invisible even at close quarters." ^ They particulary affect 
those rocks which are coated with a pink nuUipore, with which the 
pink-rayed limpet harmonises marvellously ; " even an experienced 
collector has to examine the nuUipore over and over again to obtain 
all the specimens exposed, so completely does the background agree 
with the shell colour," He adds that Chiton ruber l^oviQ "also occurs 
on this nuUipore, on which it is almost invisible." 

var. lactea Jefif. — Aberdeen, very large (Simpson) ! 

Lepeta fulva var. albula Jeff. — The Minch 65f , off the Butt of 
Lewis 99f, and Shetlands 5 if and i55f. (Simpson) ! 

I " Protective Resembla.nce in British Miiriije MoHusca ' Jotirn. of Conch., 1911, vol. xjii., 
pp. 215-216, 



212 JOURNAL OF CONCHOLOGY, VOI.. I4, NO. 7, JULY, I914. 

van expansa JefF. — The Minch 63f. 

Propilidium ancyloides Forb. — Mull of Cantire 19 — 55f. 
(Knight) ! off Flugga Light, North Shetlands (Simpson) ! off Loch 
Ryan 2^t 

Puncturella chasteri was a name conferred by Mr. Jordan on an 
immature example of P. noacJiina. 

Emarginula fissura L. — A variety of this shell, from Guernsey, 
compressed at the sides, is analogous to Puncturella noachitia var. 
princeps. 

E. rosea Bell. — Recorded from Whiting Bay, Clyde,^ but the 
identification is more than doubtful. 

E. crassa J. Sow. — S.W. Ireland (R.LA. cruise). 

Li reference to my record of a specimen of E. elongata Costa, from 
Herm Island,' it may be noted that Emarginula abounds on the 
Herm beach in a bleached and worn condition, among which this 
species could easily be overlooked ; but if some of the debris was 
searched with special reference to this shell, I think more specimens 
would be found. E. elongata is a most unlikely species to be used 
in ornamental shell work, or by any other means to stray to this little 
island, and, therefore, its presence on the Herm beach, in my opinion, 
is strong prima facie evidence of its existence in the district. I have 
not paid another collecting visit to Herm since I found this one 
specimen. 

E. cancellata Phil, should be expunged from the British list. A 
final search which I have made in the Guernsey Museum after the 
discoverer's (GalHenne's) collection had been laid out, has again failed 
to reveal the existence ot these specimens. 

A living and a dead specimen of Crepidula fornicata L., attached to 
a Eusus antiguiis, have been recorded from the beach at Sandwich by 
Mr. Cooper ; also from Cleethorpes by Mr. Gyngell ; and from the 
Medway by Mr, Sikes. 

Judging from various specimens of C. unguiforniis Lam., occasion- 
ally sent me from the River Crouch, in Essex, during the past few 
years, it would appear that the species is destined to become natural- 
ized in this country, together with Ostrea angiilata Lam., which 
also seems to have become fairly established ; but careful observation 
is required to ascertain whether these species breed in our waters be- 
fore we can claim them as British. Specimens of both species are fre- 
quently dredged in the Salcombe estuary, in South Devon, the results 
of an importation many years ago ; but they are always dead, showing 
that in this instance at least the conditions were not favourable to 
their propagation, 

1 Rep. Fish. Bd. Scot., 1896, p. 66. 

2 Alterations Brit. Conch., Jourii. 0/ Conch, 1895, p. 30. 



MARSHALL: ADOITIOKS TO "BRITISH CONCHOLOGY. ' 213 

According to Mr. Orton, who has examined its natural history, 
" it is a protandrous hermaphrodite," which being interpreted in un- 
scientific language means that it is first male and then female. 

Ci-epiduloi are very prolific, and have multiplied in a marvellous 
manner on our oyster beds since they were first noticed. Their pro- 
geny in the larval stage, like that of many other species, are free 
swimming, and so capable of rapidly spreading. 

They have crossed the Atlantic on American oysters, and when laid 
down in British waters have combined to rob the Britisli " native " of 
its legitimate food. This was becoming so serious that the Kent and 
Essex Fisheries Commission, as well as the Oyster Merchants' Asso- 
ciation, directed attention to the advisability of destroying all the 
so-called " American limpets '' that might be caught, owing to the 
damage and destruction done to the fisheries. They assert that these 
limpets intercept a great deal of the oysters' food, and were becoming 
a nuisance to the oyster industry generally. So an edict went forth 
that all American limpets were to be ruthlessly exterminated. 

At recent meetings in London of these authorities it was reported 
that the measures taken to prevent the increase of these limpets had 
been successful, though costly. At Colchester during 1912 over one 
hundred tons of the limpet debris had been brought ashore and dis- 
posed of, and although this had cost a great deal of money, a serious 
peril to the oyster trade of this country had probably been averted in 
time. 

At a conversazione ot the Royal Society, held on May 8, 1912, the 
Marine Biological Society exhibited an interesting colony of the 
Creptdula, or " slipper limpet," which, on account of the difficulty of 
watching them feed under cover of their shells, had been induced to 
attach themselves to plates of glass, and then fed with specially pre- 
pared food of a scarlet colour, when they could be observed daintily 
selecting the finer morsels to feed upon, and rejecting the coarser 
particles for the oysters. 

(To be continued). 



Two hitherto unnoticed varieties of Helicella heripensis Mab. — When 
collecting H. heripensis at Princes Risborough in Buckinghamshire, I found very 
plentifully a white form with strong black-banding, entirely analogous to the var. 
ornata of H. caperata. I would suggest that the analogy be followed and the 
varietal name ornata adopted for this form, which occurs on the ridge of the Chiltern 
Hills. At E. Fleet and at Coryates in Dorsetshire, I have taken a deep chocolate 
form of the same species, which might be known as var. Jitlva from the corresponding 
form oi H. caperata. — J. E. A. JoLLlFFE {Read before the Society, May 13th, 1914). 



2i4 



THE RADULA OF HYALINlA. 

I. 

By Prof. A. E. BOYCOTT, F.R.S. 

(Read before the Society, February tith, 1914). 

Plate 3. 

Before one begins to use the characters of the radula in conjunction 
with other malacological and conchological features as an aid in the 
definition of species, it is obvious that one ought to know (i), the 
changes which are associated with growth in specimens from a single 
locahty ; (2), the amount of variation which occurs in specimens of 
the same size from a single locality ; and (3), the variation between 
examples from different localities. There are many subsidiary points, 
such as whether the radula is related to age or size, but these three 
enquiries are fundamental before we can properly discover (4), the 
difference between different species. I purpose to take up these 
matters in order, using, in the first place, Hyalinia helvetica as material. 
" The most likely way," wrote the immortal Stephen Hales not far 
short of two hundred years ago, " to get any insight into the nature 
" of those parts of the creation which come within our observation 
" must in all reason be to number, weigh and measure." A pretty 
firm conviction that the ingenious minister of Teddington is right 
has led to the subject being treated in a quantitative or numerical 
manner whenever such has been possible. The superiority of quanti- 
tative over qualitative information is even now not fully recognised ; 
but I would here only remark that the application of methods of 
measurement to the shells and other parts of snails is an almost 
unexplored field of immense possibilities which I would commend to 
the notice of students of the moUusca. 

I. — The Growth of the Radula in Hyalinia helvetica. 
The snails whose radula are dealt with in the present communi- 
cation were collected at Banstead, in Surrey, in 191 1 and 1912, from 
a small nettle-bed in a hedge-bank, measuring about 4 by 2 yards. 
By laying down brick-bats and pieces of wood and cardboard, and 
visiting the place about once a week over a period of some fifteen 
months, considerable numbers oi H. helvetica were obtained in various 
stages of growth ; there is no difficulty in recognising quite young 
specimens, as the black edge to the mantle is present from the first. 
They were collected at all seasons of the year, for helvetica hardly 
hibernates in that locality,^ and may, I think, be regarded as all 

I See Taylor's Monograph, vol. iii., p. 50. 



BOYCOTT : THE RADULA OF HYALINIA. 215 

belonging to the same " family," using the word in the human sense. 
At any rate, no greater approximation to homogeneity of material 
could be attained without resource to artificial breeding which, for 
the present purpose, is clearly undesirable. The other species found 
at tlie same spot were Hy. cellaria, Hy. 7iitidula, Hy. pura, Helix 
hispida, Helix rofundata, Cochlicopa lubrica, and C. elegans. The 
locality is dry, about 460 feet above sea level, on chalk, with an annual 
rainfall of some 28 inches.^ 

The snails corresponded in every particular, external and internal, 
with the species described by J. W. Taylor^ as H. helvetica. Speci- 
mens were submitted to Mr. Taylor, who agreed that they were that 
species ; Mr. B. B. Woodward also identified specimens as Vitrea 
rogersH' Whatever the proper name may be, there is, therefore, no 
doubt as to the sort of snail with which I am dealing. 

The radulae were prepared by soaking and boiling in dilute caustic 
soda, washing in water, and mounting in Farrant's medium. As far 
as possible, the same procedure was adopted in every case, so that 
the results should be as nearly comparable among themselves as could 
be. I have not been able to make out that such differences in tech- 
nique as might occur if different people practised what was ostensibly 
the same method, have any great influence on the form and structure 
of the radula ; but such might be the case. 

In all, 125 radulae have been examined, from shells varying in size 
(major diameter) from 3.0 to 8.8 mm., no larger specimens having 
been obtained. The results are summarised in the following tables, 
the snails being grouped according to the major diameter. Shell 
dimensions were measured to o.i mm. on a microscope with a travel- 
ing stage. As regards the number of whorls, it is simplest to explain 
the procedure which I adopt, by saying that the helvetica figured by 
J. W. Taylor on plate vi. of the third volume of his Monograph 
would be reckoned as having 4I whorls, the lucida 5^ ; that figures 
8, It, and 14 on plate vi. of the tenth volume of this Journal show 
Ss' 4'!' 4^ whorls respectively. The method commonly in use would, 
I believe, attribute about half-a-whorl more in each instance. My 
procedure is very likely erroneous ; it has, however, been applied 
consistently. The number of rows — by which I always mean trans- 
verse rows — requires no comment ; the possibilities of error by reason 
of the immature rows at the posterior end are familiar to everyone, 
and are not very material when the comparison between different 
radulse is made by the same person under similar conditions. With 

1 The Water Supply of Surrey, by W. Whitaker (Geological Survey, 1912), p. 28 and map. 

2 Monograph, vol. iii., p. 45- 

3 Journal of Conch., vol. x., p. 309 ; see also E. W. Bowell, Proc. iMalac. Soc, vol. viii. 
p. 53. 



il6 JOURNAL OF CONCHOLOGY, VOL. I4, NO. 7, JULY, I914. 

regard to the nomenclature of the teeth in any one row, there is one 
central tooth, on either side three lateral teeth (which are called 
laterals whatever their shape), and the rest are marginals. The 
number of marginals is complicated by the presence or absence of a 
minute terminal denticle, and by the variation there may be in differ- 
ent parts or on the two sides of the same radula. It is somewhat 
characteristic of grown-up helvetica that the terminal tooth is generally 
of good size ; very small teeth are more frequent in young specimens 
and in other Hyalinia. No arbitrary rule will surmount the difficulty 
of these small denticles ; I have always counted them as each equiva- 
lent to one marginal tooth. Where the number of marginals in some 
parts of the radula is e.g. lo and in other parts e.g. ii, the single 
expression io\ is used. The total number of teeth is ascertained by 
multiplying the average number in a row {i.e. number of marginals 
X 2 -f 7) by the number of rows, not by individual enumeration. The 
length and width of the radula were determined from camera lucida 
outlines. I have relatively less confidence in these results, as the 
apparent sizes appear to be influenced by the details of preparation 
and mounting. The characters of the individual teeth were mostly 
examined at about the tenth row from the posterior end where they 
have reached their full development but have not become worn. 

Table I. 



Range 
of 
Group diam. 
mm. 


!Jumber 

of 
speci- 
mens. 


Mean 
diam. 
mm. 


Mean 
number 

of 
whorls. 


Number of 


rows. 


Number of marginals, 
max. min. mean. 


Total number of teeth 


max. 


min. 


mean. 


max. 


min. 


mean. 


I. 3-0-3-9 


II 


3-47 


3.16 


39 


32 


35-7 


10 8 9.1 


1026 


850 


903 


II. 4.0-4.9 


9 


438 


356 


39 


34 


36.7 


10 8 9.4 


999 


888 


943 


III. 5-0-S-9 


8 


5.22 


391 


42 


35 


38.1 


II 9 J 10.2 


I218 


945 


1044 


IV. 6.0-6.9 


8 


6.36 


4.44 


41 


36 


38.7 


12 10 10.7 


1209 


1026 


1099 


V. 7.0-7.9 


66 


7-43 


4.72 


48 


36 


41.0 


13 9? "■3 


1395 


1036 


1213 


VI. 8.0-8.9 


23 


8.34 


4.90 


48 


38 


41.8 


I31 10 II.9 


1632 


1 107 


1287 



From these figures it is evident that the growth of helvetica from 
3 to 8 mm. in diameter of shell is accompanied by («), an increase 
in the number of rows; {b\ an increase in the number of teeth in 
each row ; and consequently {c), an increase in the total number of 
teeth on the radula. It is equally evident that at all stages the range 
of variation is considerable. Thus specimens with 38 or 39 rows 
might occur in all the groups, and similarly ten marginals is a figure 
common to every size examined; a radula with approximately 1,000 
teeth can be found in each group. At the same time, this variability 
is not enough to mask the fact of a progressive and pretty regular 
increase in the number of teeth when the average figures are dealt 
with, even when these are derived from such a comparatively small 



BOYCOTT: THE RADULA OF* HYALINIA. il^ 

number of individuals. The range and significance of the variation 
will be dealt with more fully in another communication. 

Tarle II. 



Group 


Major 
mean 
diam. 


Mean 
major 
altitu. 


Mean 
calcu- 
lated 
Tolu. 


Length of radula 
mm 


Width of radula 
mm. 


Area of radula 
m.m." 


[iKNGTH 

width 
ratio. 


Mean 
area 
of 1 

tooth. 


' ^ 




.- ' N 




m. m. 


m.m. 


m.m.-'' 


max. min. mean. 


max. mm. mean. 


max. mm. mean. 




M* 


I. 


3-47 


1.84 


4-3 


1.44 0.96 1.208 


0.34 0.19 0.262 


0.39 0.19 0.316 


4.6 


3.SO 


II. 


4.355 


2.28 


8.5 


1.68 1.32 1.500 


0.34 0.29 0.31 1 


0.52 O.3S 0.466 


4.8 


494 


III. 


5.22 


2.66 


13.9 


1.88 1.56 1.729 


0.40 0.36 0.381 


0.71 0.5S 0.659 


4-5 


631 


IV. 


6.36 


3-37 


26.4 


2.38 1. 91 2.142 


0.49 0.39 0.460 


1. 15 0.79 0.985 


4.7 


896 


V. 


7-43 


3-94 


42.1 


3.09 2.03 2.401 


0.62 0.46 0.528 


1.70 1. 00 1.268 


4-5 


1045 


VI. 


«-34 


4.42 


58.6 


3.14 2.35 2.590 


0.68 0.50 0.595 


2. II 1.23 1.546 


4.4 


1201 



These data show the increase of size which the radula undergoes 
as the animal grows larger, compared with the growth of the shell. 
There is no quality of the radula which is likely to be rationally 
associated with an increase of the diameter or other linear dimension 
of the shell. If any, the association may be reasonably assumed to 
be with the bulk of the animal. Some indication of this is afforded 
by the volume of the shell. This has been calculated in Table II. 
on the assumption^ that the shell is a regular cone, the base being 
the mean of the major and minor diameters and the height the mean 
of the major and minor altitudes." To ascertain thef size of individual 
teeth is an excessively laborious and not very accurate procedure ; for 
the present, therefore, I give the only available summary of the rela- 
tive sizes of teeth by calculating, from the number of teeth and the 
area of the radula, the general mean area occupied by one tooth. 
This method assumes, of course, that the teeth are equally spaced on 
the basement membrane at different stages of growth, a point which 
requires investigation. 

A better notion of the relative importance of the various changes 
in determining the difference between a grown-up and an immature 
radula is obtained if the data are expressed as relative to an arbitrary 
index. This has been done in Table III., where the data of group I. 
are taken as 100, and the figures for the other groups reduced to 
this standard. It appears from this that the size (area) of the radula 
and the total number of teeth increase much more slowly than the 
size of the shell ; in other words, as is well known, that young snails 
have relatively large radulae, no doubt in association with the desira- 

1 Which gives results about io% too small in T. nemoralis and T. hortensis, where I have 
tested it against direct measurements of volume by weighing in air and water. 

2 The volume is then (-diam. maj. + diam. min.-j \^_^^^ 'i^t,m^T_±^X^rum, Throughout 

the present series of helvetica the major diameter, minor diameter, major altitude, and minor 
altitude are in the ratios loo : 89 : 53 : 35. 



2l8 JOURNAL OF CONCHOLOGY, VOL. I4, NO. 7, JULY, 1914. 

Table III. 



Group. 


Shell 
diam. 


Shell 
Tolume 


Shell 
whorls. 


Rows. 


Marginals. 


Total 

teeth 

in 

one row 


Total 
teeth 


Length 


AVidth 


Area 


Area of 

one 
tooth 


I. 


100 


ICO 


100 


100 


100 


ICO 


100 


100 


TOO 


100 


100 


II. 


126 


198 


"3 


103 


103 


102 


10^ 


124 


119 


147 


141 


III. 


150 


323 


124 


107 


112 


109 


116 


143 


145 


209 


180 


IV. 


183 


614 


141 


108 


118 


113 


122 


177 


176 


312 


256 


V. 


214 


979 


150 


"5 


124 


117 


134 


199 


202 


401 


299 


VI. 


240 


1363 


155 


117 


131 


122 


143 


214 


227 


489 


343 



bility of more rapid assimilation of food. The figures also show that 
by far the greater part of the increase in size of the radula is due to 
an increase in the size of the individual elements, for while the area 
of the radula increases nearly five times, the number of teeth increases 
only 0.4 times. It is an interesting speculation as to how far num- 
ber and size of teeth are related to the efficiency of the organ at 
different periods of growth, corresponding perhaps to varying dietetic 
habits. The length of the radula appears to be directly proportional 
to the diameter of the shell/ but the relations between the other 
measurements are much more complicated. 

We may next consider the form of the individual teeth. Here 
interest centres chiefly about the third lateral and the first marginal 
denticles, i.e., the third and fourth teeth from the central tooth. 
Throughout the series the first two teeth are definite laterals, i.e., 
they have three cutting points. Similarly the fifth and succeeding 
teeth to the margin of the radula are truly marginal in type, i.e., they 
have only one cutting point and no reflexion. The third tooth (third 
lateral) on the other hand, may have one, two, or three points, and 
the fourth tooth (first marginal) either one or two. The figure shows 
typical examples of the first five teeth in radulse from different sized 
snails, all drawn to the same scale with camera lucida.'-^ The third 
lateral in the smallest specimens has a mesocone only (type E), and 
is typically marginal in form ; endocone ^ and ectocone successively 
develop until a stage is reached in the largest specimens (type A), 
in which the tooth is of a definite lateral type. The first marginal 
correspondingly develops an endocone in some of the largest speci- 
mens. It will be remembered that a first marginal tooth with a 
tendency to assume lateral characters has been noted as characteristic 

1 The length of the radula may be calculated pretty accurately by dividing the major dia- 
meter of the shell by 2.6. 

2 H. V. Ihering (in C. A. Westerlund, Fundamcnta Malacologica, 1892, p. 56) says : " I am 
wholly averse to the making of drawings of teeth with the camera lucida It is unnecess- 
arily precise in details " ! 

3 I use a conventional and intelligible nomenclature. More properly, perhaps, the lateral 
teeth in Hyalinia have no endocone, but a bifid mesocone. 



BOYCOTT : THE RADULA OF HTfALINlA. ±1^ 

of Hj. lucida, while a third lateral tooth of a more marginal type was 
found in Hy. alUaria and some Hy. ^^glabra"'^ and the same tendency 
for the first tooth with marginal characters "to move outwards in the 
series glabra, allia?ia, cellaria, draparnaldi" is evident in the growth 
of the radula in a single species. 

Something in the way of giving numerical expression to these 
changes may be done. The'endocone of the third lateral may be 
absent (type E), small (D), or present in good development (A, B, 
and C). The ectocone may be present (A), represented by a 
"shoulder," which bears no cutting point (B, C), or absent (D, E). 
The endocone of the first marginal may be present, though always 
small (A), or absent (B-E). Table IV. shows how frequently these 
various forms occurred in the present series ; it is obvious that it 
must sometimes be a matter of opinion whether a cone is " small," 
or whether a corner or "shoulder" bears a minute cutting point. 
When an item occurs on one half of the radula and not on the other 
the fact may be brought into due numerical order by reckoning it as 
half an occurrence. Thus an ectocone on the third lateral tooth 
occurs in four of the sixty-six specimens in group V. on both sides, 
and in four others on one side only of the radula ; the total frequency 
of its occurrence is then reckoned as 6, and (8) is added to denote 
that it was found in 8 different specimens. 

Table IV. 



Group 


I. 


II. 


III. 


IV. 


V. 


VI. 


Specimens examined - 


II 


9 


8 


8 


66 


23 


3rd lateral : endocone : absent 


8 


3 


o 


o 


o 





small 


3 


6 


4 


5 


I6 (22) 


Ii(2) 


present 


o 


o 


4 


3 


50(61) 


2li (22) 


3rd lateral : ectocone : absent 


9 


7 


7 


6 


20 (27) 


2(3) 


'shoulder 


' 2 


2 


I 


2 


40 (48) 


I5H17) 


present 


O 


O 


o 


o 


6(8) 


5*6 


1st marginal : endocone : present 


O 


o 


o 


o 


6(7) 


2 



The other features concerning the shape of the teeth I propose to 
leave for further discussion. It is not easy to reduce the facts to 
any absolute and objective form of demonstration ; the method of 
multiple measurements, of which E. W. Bowell has given some 
examples," will doubtless prove an important advance. No examples 
of the truncated central mesocone occurred in the present series. 

1 Journal of Conch., vol. xii., p. 159. 

2 Proc. Maine. Soc, vol. viii. (1909), p. 380. 



220 JOURNAL OP CONCHOI.OGY, VOL. I4, NO. 7, JULY, I914. 

Conclusions. — The radula of Hyalinia helvetica is relatively larger 
in young specimens. The increase in size which accompanies growth 
of the snail is mostly due to an increase in size of the teeth. There 
is also some increase in the number of rows, and in the number of 
teeth in each row. The third lateral and first marginal teeth become 
more differentiated. In describing any radula, therefore, the size of 
the individual from which it has been derived should in all cases be 
stated.-^ 



The colonisation of Helix cantiana in Herefordshire. — In 1891 seventy- 
nine specimens of H. cantiana from near Oxford were turned out on a hedge Lank 
near Hereford. They all disappeared in a few months, and though the place was 
examined on many occasions nothing more was seen of them till April 1914, when 
two half-grown specimens were found about 50 yards from the place where the 
original snails were put. With the exception of a record (which I have n^ver been 
able to confirm) for Dinmore (some seven miles distant) by H. T. Soppilt, I do not 
know of the occurrence of this species in Herefordshire, and it appears probable 
that the attempt at naturalisation was really successful after all. But it is curious 
that the species managed to remain undetected for 23 years. — A. E. Boycott 
{R tad before the Society, May 13th, 1914). 



Some New Records from South Wales. — In May last year I was in South 
Carmarthenshire and Pembrokeshire, and although the time at my disposal was 
very limited, I managed to add some records to the Census for those counties. 
These records are marked with an asterisk. I first tried a very small stream close 
to Kidwelly Castle, where I found '^Paludestrina jenkinsi abundant, I.immea 
tnmcatida, Pisidium casertantini, P. nitidum, P. pusilhim, and P. milium. Next 
day in a pool near Hoyle's Mouth, Tenby, I got Valvata cristata, * Planorbis 
fontamis, P. crista, and * Pisiditcf?i personatitm . In a stream at Manorbier, close to 
the sea, Litnncea truncatula, '^ Pisiditun sttbtruncatum, P. casertanum, P. nitidum, 
and P. milium. In some moss from close to Hoyle's Mouth, besides some very 
common kinds, I got Zua lubrica, Hyalinia cellaria var. albinos, H. alliaria, 
H. nitidtila, H. crystallina, '' Punctum pygnicettm and Balea perversa. I have to 
thank the Hon. Recorder for having the specimens duly authenticated and the 
new records marked. He submitted the Pisidia to Mr. B. B. Woodward, to whom 
also my thanks are due. — John Williams Vaughan ^Read before the Society, 
March il, 1914). 



I I do not propose at present to deal with the literature of the subject, but it is proper to 
mention that these conclusions are those arrived at by Sterl<i, whose paper in the Proceedings 
of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Pliiladelfihia, 1S93, p. 388, is the locus classicus on 
the matter. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE 
CONCHOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF GREAT BRITAIN & IRELAND. 



430th Meeting, held at the Museum, Manchester, March nth, 1914. 

Mr. E. Collier in the chair. 

Additions to the Library announced and thanks voted : — 
The Librarian reported that the usual periodicals and exchanges had been 
received. 

Donations to the Cabinet and other gifts to the Society announced and 
thanks voted : — 

Two fine specimens of sinistral Lhiinaa peregei; taken May, igo2, by the late 
Mr. William Nelson, from a pond at King Lane, Moor Allerton, Leeds, presented 
by "The Nelson Memorial Committee." 

From the Hon. Recorder, for the Voucher Collection : Pisidmm henslowianum 
from Coquet, near Warksworth, and Acanthinula aculeata from Hermitage Woods, 
Warksworth, Cheviots, both from Mr. A. M. Oliver. 

A beautiful framed portrait of the late Mr. William Nelson, taken a week before 
his death, was presented to the Society by "The Nelson Memorial Committee." 

Mr. R. Standen also presented the photographs from which the blocks of the 
portraits of the late Messrs. R. Cairns and W. Moss, which have appeared in the 
J^onrnal, were prepared. 

New Member Elected. 

Alan Gardiner, B.Sc. (Lond.), Quies, Porchester Road, Newbury. 

Papers Read. 

" Some new records from South Wales," by John Williams Vaughan. 

" Notes on U)-ocoptid(T," G. C. Spence. 

The special exhibit of Urocoptidx contained very extensive series, 240 species 
being shown. Mr. G. C. Spence, who has made a speciality of the group, exhibited 
his fine collection, which included beautiful sections cut to show the varying internal 
structure of the different genera, and the eggs of Urocoptis, Anoma, and Micro- 
ceramics, to illustrate his paper dealing with their geographical distribution, habits, 
and general characteristics. 

Fine series were also shown by Mr. J. Cosmo Melvill, including a specimen of 
the rare Berendtia taylori Pfr. ; by Mr. E. Collier, including several examples of 
Anoma with perfect tips, a very unusual feature in these generally decollate shells ; 
by Mr. R. Standen, including a fine variety of Coelocenirtim gigas Pils., with two 
of its beautiful crystalline eggs, from Guatemala; by Mrs. Gill, and by the Man- 
chester Museum, from the " Layard " and " R. D. Darbishire" collections. 

Special exhibits at future meetings : — 

April 8th - - - The section Leptoconits of Conns. 

May 13th - . - The genus Partula. 

June loth - - - The genus Neritina. 

Members are requested to bring or send specimens for comparison and discussion. 



222 JOURNAL OF CONCHOLOGY, VOL. I4, NO. 7, JULY, I9I4. 

431st Meeting, held at the Museum, Manchester, April 8th, 1914. 

Mr. E. Collier in the chair. 

Additions to the Library announced and thanks voted : — 

"Notes on the Evidence of Age afforded by the Growth Rings of Oyster 
Shells," by Anne L. Massy. " Holocene MoUusca from Clapham, Yorkshire," 
by J. Wilfrid Jackson {fivin the respective authors) ; and the usual periodicals 
received in exchange. 

Paper Read. 

"Cornish Non-Marine Mollusca," by Alan Gardiner, B.Sc. 

Exhibits. 

By Mr. J. Kidson Taylor .• Some beautiful examples of Cyprcea onyx, C. 
gangrenosa, C. hnngerfordi var. kiiensis, and other species from Japan ; C. caurica 
var. rosea ; also Dolichettlota formosensis and D. swinhoei from Formosa. 

By Mrs. Gill : An interesting series of shellsfrom Lake Tanganyika, and a very 
large and perfect specimen of Conns aulica, with epidermis intact. 

By Mr. G. C. Spence : Specimens of Brachypodella insidae-cygni Clapp — a 
recently described and very beautiful species from Swan Island, Caril)bean Sea. 

By Mr. Alan Gardiner : Specimens of Phytia myosotis var. denticulata ; Ovatella 
bidentata ; Planorbis compla7iatns ; Aplecta hypnorum, all from Falmouth, Cornwall. 

In the special exhibit of the section Leptoconus, numerous examples were shown 
by Mrs. Gill, and the species in the Manchester Museum Collection were shown by 
Mr. R. Standen, who pointed out the chief features characterizing the group, and 
made some remarks upon its distribution, with special reference to the many 
interesting species dredged, or obtained from the telegraph cables in the Persian 
Gulf by Mr. F. W. Townsend. 



432nd Meeting-, held at the Museum, Manchester, May 13th, 1914. 

Mr. B. R. Lucas in the chair. 

Additions to the Library announced and thanks voted : — 

" Manual of New Zealand Mollusca " [text only], by Henry Suter (presented 
by the High Commissioner for New Zealand). 

"The International Directory of Malacologists and Conchologists, 1914," by 
Maxwell Smith (presented by the compiler) ; and the usual periodicals received in 
exchange. 

Candidate Proposed for Membership. 

Herbert W. Worsfold, 28, Melody Road, Wandsworth, London, S.W. 

Papers Read. 

"The Colonization of Helix cantiana in Herefordshire," by Prof. A. E. Boy- 
cott, F.R.S. 

" Note on the Radula of Pyraniidula rnpestris Drap.," by E. W. Bowell. 

" Two hitherto Unnoticed Varieties of Helicella heripensis Mab.." by J. E. A. 
JoUiffe. 

" Note on Large Specimen o{ Arion ater var. rufa and on Testacella scntulnm 
Sow.," by B. Bryan. 

''Jaminia cylindracea DaC. with Two Denticles," by J. E. A. JoUiffe. 

Exhibits. 

By Mr. J. D. Dean : An interesting series of land shells, collected recently in 
the vicinity of Cardiff, including fine sets of Hyaliiiia luada and II. cellaria ; 



ROEBUCK : CENSUS AUTHENTICATIONS. 223 

Pupa cylindracea var. albma ; Vertigo antivertigo ; Acanthimila aculeata ; 
Punctimi pygmaum ; Helix hortensis, 00300 ; Acicnla lineata ; and Ccecilioides 
acicula (collected by Herr Christien Abel). 

By Prof. A. E. Boycott : Theba cantiana from Herefordshire — progeny of a 
colony introduced about twenty years ago ; also lantern and micro, slides to illus- 
trate the Rev. E. W. Bowell's paper on the radulte of Pyraviidula rupestris and 
P. rottindata. 

By Mr. C. H. Moore : Sphyradiinii edentubim from St. Asaph, Flintshire, and 
cameo cut from Cassis riifa. 

By Mr. R. Standen : Eggs of Hygrot/iia rufescens. 

The Special Exhibit of the evening was the Genus Partula, of which about 
two-lhirds of the known species were shown by Mrs. Gill, Messrs. B. R. Lucas, 
G. C. Spence, and R. Standen. The fine series from the Layard and Darbishire 
Collections in the Manchester Museum were also shown. Mr. R. Standen gave 
an interesting account of the principal characteristics of the shells in this genus, 
and described their peculiar geographical distribution. He also exhibited the 
calcareous eggs of P. canalis from Samoa, and P. gany?nedes from Marquesas. 



CENSUS AUTHENTICATIONS. 



By W. DENISON ROEBUCK, F.L.S., Hon. Recorder. 



All the records here given are based upon examples sent to the official 
authenticators : myself for slugs only ; Mr. Fred Taylor for Paludestrinids ; and 
Mr. John W. Taylor for all other species. 



Cardiganshire : Mr. Thomas H. Piatt, collecting at Cwm Woods, Aberystwith, 

24th August, 1913, found several species, including one each of Hyalinia 

radiatula, Zo7iiloides nitidiis and Puiiciiim pygmaum. 
Co. Cavan : Mr. J. Kidson Taylor's collection includes several examples of 

Clausilia laininata from Farnham, one of its very few Irish stations. 
Cheviotland : Mr. A. M. Oliver has submitted Punctum pygi?iaicm, of which he 

found a single specimen in moss from the sandhills near Alnmouth, 8th 

February, 1913 ; also an adult example of Milax gigates var. rava, which he 

took 6th July, 1913, in the garden of Church Hill House, Warkworth, on 

the north bank of the Coquet River. 
Cornwall West : Mr. W. Denison Roebuck observed Avion iiitermedins var. 

grisea at Mylor, at Trefusis Point, and at Gweek, on the 29th and 23rd 

September. 
Glamorg-anshire : On the 29th May, 1913, Mr. W. J. R. Firth sent an 

interesting series of mollusca found at Treharris, amongst which was a fine 

example of Hyalinia helvetica. 
Gloucestershire West : Prof. A. E. Boycott has recently submitted U7tio 

margaritifer, taken in the River Wye, near Staunton. 
Herefordshire : Prof. A. E. Boycott has submitted examples of Succinea ekgans 

and Planorbis albus, both taken near Hereford. 
Hunting^donshire : The Rev. C. E. Y. Kendall has sent Vallonia costata from 

Chesterton (several), Pupa cylindracea from Alwalton (numerous). Vertigo 

pygnma from Elton (two), and Bythinia tentacnlata froni Farcet Fen (several). 



224 JOURNAL OF CONCHOLOGY, VOL. I4, NO. 7, JULY, I9I4. 

Kincardineshire : A small consignment of slugs obtained by the Rev. J. R. 
Fraser, at Kinneff, included an adult example of Arion kortensis, very pale- 
coloured and with the orange slime of the foot-sole pale also. 

Lancashire South : Mr. Fred Taylor found several Anon internieditis var. grisea^ 
in company with AgrioHmax lavis, on stones about roots of grasses near 
Agecroft Pool, 25lh October, 1913. There are numerous examples of Vallonia 
excentrica in Mr. J. Kidson Taylor's collection, collected by Mr. J. R. Hardy 
at Chorlton. 

Monmouthshire : In July, 1904, Mr. John Manners, noticing in the daily press 
a statement as to slugs being desired for record, sent some found in the flower- 
borders of his garden, 39, Rose Cottages, Talywain. They included abundance 
of Arion siibfiiscus var. cinereofiisca, a couple of var. rtifofusca, a juvenile 
Arion ater var. nigrescens, a typical AgrioHmax agrestis, and an adult Litnax 
viaxinms var. cellaria, the last-named being a new county record. One 
curious thing about this is the fact of Arion siibfiiscus being the abundant 
species in a garden. 

Northumberland South : To confirm the authentication for this county which 
has hitherto rested on the uncertain record of " near Newcastle," Mr. A. M. 
Oliver has submitted examples of Azeca tridens which he found 26th June, 
1912, near Lipwood House, Haydon Bridge. The two sent were of the var. 
notileliana. 

Oxfordshire: Mr. J. E. A. Jolliffe submitted on the 19th November, 1912, an 
example of Helicella heripensis taken just outside Oxford city. 

Peebles-shire : Mr. J. E. Black has recently sent a couple of juvenile examples 
of Hyalinia radiatula, taken in moss on a hillside (about 800 feet alt.) near 
Peebles, i6th May, 19 13. 

Ross East : Fleet-Surgeon K. H. Jones, R.N. sent a few slugs taken at Cromarty 
on the 7th October, 1913, which included Arion ater. The following day he 
sent — amongst others — a few juvenile typical examples of Limax arborum 
and of L. maxitmis var. fasciata. 

Co. Sligo : Numerous specimens from Sligo, collected by Mr. R. Welch, of 
Planorbis crista, including the three varieties cristata, inibricata and IcEvigata, 
are in the collection of Mr. J. Kidson Taylor. 

Somerset North : Miss Agnes Fry of Failand, sent a number of interesting 
slugs collected there on the 14th of May, 1913, seven species, of which Arion 
subfuscus (several of var. rufofjisca), A. circuniscriptus (several of var. 
neustriaca) and Limax arborum (one adult of the typical form) are new to 
the Census. 

Warvvickshire : Mr. P. T. Deakin of Birmingham has submitted examples of 
Clausilia laminata and Helicigona lapicida collected by him at Wawensmoor, 
near Shelfield, on 24th September, 191 1; and of the latter species collected 
near Spernal, 17th April, 191 1. 

York Mid. -West : Several examples of Vallonia excentrica from Ingleton are 
in Mr. J. Kidson Taylor's collection. 

York North-West : In a box of shells collected at Deepdale, near Barnard 
Castle, in 1882, by Mr. R. Rimmer, now in the Royal Scottish Museum at 
Edinburgh, is an example of Helicella virgata. This is a record which it is 
desirable to have confirmed. 



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Vol.. 141. 



OCTOBER 1st, 1914. 



[No. 8. 



THE 



JOURNAL 

COiNC h/o log Y. 

FOUNDED 1874. 

BEING THE ORGAN OF THE CONCIIOLOGICAL SOCIETY 
OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 

PlIBMSHED QtlARTEliLY. 



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COITTEITTS. 

Molluscan Rubber Pe.sts— G. C. RoBSON 

Note on Bursa (Tutufa) rubeia (Bolten) = Triton lampas (Lam. et 
auct.), with Plate— E. A. Smith .. 

Caicilioides acicula, ^^allonia excentrica, etc., in Denbighshire — 
J. W. Jackson 

The Radulaof Hyalinia, II. ; Variation in the Radulaof II. helvetica 
— A. E. Boycott 

Jaminia cylindracea DaC. with Two Denticles — J. E. A. Jolliffe 

Proceedings : June loth and Sept. gth, 1914 ... 

The Marine Mollusca of Sao Thome, I. (To be continued) — 
J. R. LE B. ToMLiN and L. J. Shackleford ... 

PLATE 4. 



PAGE 



226 



232 
236 

2.57 

239 



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November 11 The Genus Alyeseus. 

December 9 - The Genus Ranella. 



LIST OF" 

BRITISH NON-MARINE MOLLUSCA. 



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225 



JOURNAL OF CONCHOLOGY. 



Vol. 14. OCTOBER, 1914. No. 8. 



MOLLUSCAN RUBBER PESTS. 



By G. C. ROBSON, B.A. 



(Published by permission of the Trustees of the British Museum). 



(Read before the Society, Sept. gth, 1914). 



I AM indebted to Prof. R. Newstead, F.R.S., and Mr. E. Ernest 
Green for information on the following instances of damage occasioned 
by MoUusca in rubber plantations in Jamaica and Ceylon. These 
cases have been more fully recorded elsewhere but through the courtesy 
of Prof. Newstead and ]\Ir. Green I am enabled to draw the attention 
of students of the MoUusca to them, and at the same time to state that 
I shall be very glad to receive information of similar instances of 
ravages caused by MoUusca. 

In the Journal of the Royal Horticultural Society (vol. xxxvi., pt. i, 
19 10) Prof. Newstead described the depredations of a large flat slug 
in Jamaican plantations of Para and Central American rubber, in 
which quite a large percentage of young trees had their foliage 
injured by the slug. Specimens of the latter were forwarded to the 
British Museum this year and identified by the author as Veronicella 
vittata Ckll. 

In the " Circulars and Agricultural Journal of the Royal Botanic 
Gardens, Ceylon" (vol. v., no. 22, 1911) Mr. E. E. Green describes 
the damage to Singhalese rubber plantations caused by a Zonitoid of 
the sub-family IIeHcarioni?iae, Mariaella dussuiiiieri Gray, and other 
short references to the same pest occur in the "Tropical Agri- 
culturalist," xxxiii., 2 and 5, and xxxvi., 1909-1911. 

Mr. Green likewise calls the author's attention to the case of a 
species of Parmarion that is alleged to drink rubber latex in Java 
and Sumatra. 



226 



NOTE ON BURSA (TUTUFA) RUBETA (Bolten) = TRITON 
LAM PAS (Lamarck et auct). 



By EDGAR A. SMITH, I.S.O. 



(Read before the Society, September 9th, 1914). 
Pl.A'lE 4. 

The purpose of the present note is to call attention to the great 
variation in size, form, and sculpture which occurs in the shells 
commonly known as " Triton lampas^'' but described by Linnaeus in 
section y of his genus Murex. Extraordinary differences in size 
frequently occur in many species in various genera, but in the present 
instance considerable difference of form and sculpture accompanies 
that of size. 

It may be of interest to give a few instances of variation in size in 
certain well-known shells, the measurements being taken from examples 
in the National Collection, but even in any one of these cases it is 
quite possible that the limit of difference which may exist is not 
reached. 



Stro7nbus floridus 
Cassis testiculus 


Length or 
iu Milliu 

20 to 

32 „ 


Width 
etres. 

37 
84 


Bticcimwi undatum 


50 




130 


Thais lapillus 
Littorina littorea 


18 
17 




54 
53 


CyprcEa arahica 
,, vi07ieta 
Linuicea stagnalis 


33 
'3 

20 




90 

38 
68 


Planorbis corneus 


17 




43 


Helix aspersa 


20 




47 


Mytilus ediilis 
Carditim edtile 


19 

20 




92 
65 



Linnaeus in the loth edition of the ' Systema Naturas ' founded his 
Murex iajfipa s wpon two figures. The first one quoted is in Ronde- 
letius^ which undoubtedly represents " Triton nodiferiwi " Lamarck 
from the Mediterranean. The second figure in Gualtier^ is very crude 
but may represent a form (immature) of Triton lafnpas of authors — 
the species under consideration. Linnaeus gave Mediterranean for 
the habitat. There can be no question as to what shell is represented 
by Rondeletius' figure (reversed like all the others in his book). 

1 Universas Aquat. Hist., p. 81, 1555. 

2 Index Test. Conch., pi. l, fig. d, 1742. 



SMITH : NOTE ON BURSA (TUTUFA) RUBETA. 227 

He does not state the size of his specimen, so possibly his figure 
may be reduced, and have been taken from a shell of much larger 
dimensions than those indicated by the engraving. However, all the 
characters of " Triton fwdiferum " are depicted. The general form is 
correct, the brown marks or stripes on the labrum (never occurring 
in rubeta) with the white tubercles at their inner ends, the two rows 
of nodules on the penultimate whorl with the spiral ridges below the 
sutures, the white smooth interior of the aperture and the transverse 
columellar ridges are either all shewn in the figure or described, and 
the absence of a posterior canal at once distinguishes it from " Triton 
lampas " auct. 

Linnaeus in the 12th edition of the ' Systema,' in addition to 
Rondeletius and Gualtier, quoted two figures in Rumphius^ which 
represent forms of T. lampas auct. However, he still repeats the 
" Habitat in M. Mediterraneo." Taking into consideration all these 
facts, it seems to me obvious that the Miirex lampas of Linnaeus must 
be confined to the Mediterranean shell; commonly knovyn as ''^Triton 
nodiferum " Lamarck. 

To transpose the name T. lampas, applied to a well-known shell, to 
another species, equally well-known by a commonly received name, 
does not seem advisable, still it must be done if we abide by the 
evidence before us. 

Bolten^ had already (1798), before Lamarck's time, given a name 
to this Mediterranean species, so that in any case the name 
" nodiferum "^ cannot be used. Moreover the Australian " Triton 
australe " Lamarck, said to be the same as " T nodifer^im,^'' has an 
older name, viz., Septa rubicunda Perry, 181 1. 

The question now arises what name should be given to Triton 
lampas, auct. 

The two figures in Rumphius, already referred to, namely pi. xxviii, 
figs. c,D, certainly represent forms of T. lampas, auct. To these 
which he regarded as illustrating forms of his Murex lampas, Linnaeus 
gave the varietal names Biibo and Rubeta respectively. 

Gmelin also adopted these varietal names, and gave further refer- 
ences to figures representing them. Among these are two quotations 
from Chemnitz, Conch. Cab., vol. iv., pi. 129, figs. 1238-9, representing 
Bubo, and figs. 1236-7 illustrating Rubeta. 

These names were adopted in a specific sense by Bolten, excepting 
that he wrote Bufo instead of Bubo, a change suggested by Chemnitz 
as being a typographical error in the Systema. However there is no 

1 Amboinsche Rariteit-Kamer, pi. xxviii., figs, c, D, 1705. 

2 Mus. Bolten p. 125. Tritonhtm opts. 

3 Triton was wrongly considered of the neuter gender by Lamarck, 



228 JOURNAL OF CONCHOLOGY, VOL. I4, NO. 8, OCTOBER, 19X4. 

doubt what shells Bolten intended to call Tritotiiuvi rubefa, founded 
on Chemnitz figs. 1236-7. 

These evidently represent the red-mouthed form of the species 
under discussion, and which I have indicated as typical. 

I propose therefore to use the specific name rubefa instead ot 
latnpas which I have shown must be applied to the Mediterranean 
'' Triton nodifemm " of Lamarck. 

The synonymy will consequently be as follows : — 
Bursa (Tutufa) rubeta (Bolten). 

Murex lavipas Linn, partim, Syst. Nat., ed. x, p, 748 ; ed. xii, partim 
p. 1216; Gmelin, partim, Syst. Nat, ed. xiii, vol. vi, p. 3532. 

Triton'mm rubeta Bolten, Mus. Bolt. p. 128 {1798). 

Tritonmvi tuberosum^ id. op. cit. p. 127. 

Tritoniian bufo^ id. op. cit. p. 128, probably=my var. gigantea. 

Triton iampas Lamarck (and other authors) Anim. sans. Vert., vol. 
vii., p. 180 (1822). 

Lainpas Jiians Schumacher, Nouv. Syst. Test, p. 252 (181 7). 

Tutufa Iampas Jousseaume, Bull. Soc. Zool. France, vol. xvi., p. 
175(1881). 

Tutjifa caledonensis, id. op. cit. p. 177 (under genus Lampas by 
mistake).- See fig. 2 on the accompanying plate. 

It is curious that Bolten founded his Tritonium tuberosum on the 
same figures in the Conchylien-Cabinet which he quoted as represent- 
ing his T. rubeta. Although the latter name appears one page later, 
I prefer to suggest its use, since it was proposed by Linnaeus, altliough 
in a varietal sense. 

Some of the subdivisions of the genus Bursa do not appear to be 
of much value or very clearly defined, and I have been in some doubt 
with regard to the subgeneric name which should be applied to this 
species. 

Bursa of Bolten is practically the equivalent of Rafiella of Cuvier 
and Lamarck, and antedates it by nineteen years, and consequently 
there is no difficulty as to what generic name should be employed. 
Jousseaume^ selected from the species quoted by Bolten'', B. bufonia 
Gmelin (^=jnammatn Bolten) as the type. 

The genus Latnpas was created by Schumacher** in 181 7 to in- 
clude Murex lampas as illustrated by Chemnitz (Conch. Cab., vol. iv., 
figs. 1 236-1 239), but that generic name had already been employed in 
1808 by Montfort*, and therefore is not available. Jousseaume in 1881 
founded a genus Tutufa, designating the same species, Murex latnpas 
as the type. 

1 BulL Soc. ZooL France, voL vi., p. 174 (1881). 

2 Mus. Bolten, p. 128. 

3 Nonv. Syst. Test. p. 252, La-inpas hians. 

4 Conch. Syst. vol. i., p. 242. 



SMITH : NOTE ON BURSA (TUTUFA) RUBETA. 229 

Schumacher (1817) in founding his genus Bufonaria included two 
very different forms, namely spinosa Schumacher and scrobicidator 
(Linn). 

The former (=j://;;^^rt Lamarck, 1822) however was selected by 
Jousseaume as the type, and the latter he placed in his genus Tutufa. 

On the other hand the Miirex scrobicidator Linn, has been selected 
by Dr. Dall^ as the type of Bufonaria^ but since Jousseaume had al- 
ready chosen the type and given the name Tutufa to T. lainpas, auct. 
which certainly belongs to the same group as M. sc7^obtcuIator, I think 
it would have been better if Dr. Dall had used that subgeneric name 
instead of Bufonaria^ already disposed of by Jousseaume. 

There seem to be three or four forms of Bursa rubeta which can be 
distinguished. 

Var. r. Typical (fig. i). 

The first is that indicated in Lamarck's description", and figured in 
the Encyclopedic Methodique^, also by Wood'*, Blainville'^ and Lister". 

This form may be known by the bright red mouth, the much 
wrinkled columella, the widely expanded labrum bearing twelve 
whitish subtubercular lirse, and a second series of liri^ within the 
aperture corresponding to those on the labrum, but separated from 
them by a narrow smooth interval. The largest specimen! have 
seen is only no mm. in length, and I have no reason to suppose that 
Jt ever greatly exceeds this size. 

Hab. — Timor, Goram I., Tonga Is., Port Natal (Brit. Mus.), Islands 
of Ticao and Luzon, Philippines (Cuming), New Caledonia 
(Jousseaume). 

The description of the hitherto unfigured Tutufa cakdonensis (fig. 2.) 
seemed to agree so closely in many respects with the Triton lanipas, 
auct. that I applied to Dr. Jousseaume for the loan of a specimen for 
examination. He very kindly sent me one of the two examples still 
in his possession, and now I have no hesitation in pronouncing it the 
same as the var. i with the thin expansion of the labrum undeveloped. 
At this stage of growth, just after the labral varix has been completed, 
and the thin expansion commenced, the dark brown denticles on the 
edge are apparent. With the growth of the expansion they become 
covered, but their position is still indicated by a slight tubercular 
prominence on the ridges which run from the 12 lirse to the margin of 
the expanded lip. 

1 Smithsonian, Miscel. Coll., vol. xlvii.,p. 119(1905). 

2 Anim. sans Vert. vol. vii., p. 180 (1822). 

3 Ency. Method, pi. 420, figs. 3a — b. 

4 Index Test. pi. xxv. , fig. 28. 

5 Manuel Malacol. pi. xviii., figs, i, la, 

6 Hist. Conch, pi. 1023. 



230 JOURNAL OF CONCMOLOGY, VOL. I4, NO. 8, OCTOBER, I914. 

Var. 2. lissostoma Smith (fig. 3). 

The second variety is that figured by Reeve\ Tryoir, Kiener^ and 
Kobelt'', and may be known from the preceding form by its longer 
aperture, ahnost smooth columella, and the absence of the Urge with- 
in the mouth. It has the twelve tubercular liras on the labrum, but 
not those further within. The edge of the columella, and the aperture 
within the whitish or flesh-coloured labrum are generally of a deep or 
bright red. 

Length of an average specimen about no mm., of a larger specimen 
150 mm. 

Hab.— Indian Ocean, Madagascar, Red Sea (Kiener). 

I regret to say that I cannot state any certain localities for this 
variety. It is quite separable at a glance from the preceding form. 
Can the differences indicated possibly be sexual ? 

Var. 3. gigantea Smith (figs. 4, 5). 

The third variety grows to an enormous size, and is that form (fig. 
4.) figured by Reeve^, and perhaps by Chemnitz^ The aperture with- 
in is either white or fleshy orange, and the columella is transversely 
finely Urate above the middle, and more strongly below. The labrum 
in adult examples is broadly expanded, dentate at the edge, and very 
faintly ridged within, the ridges corresponding to the denticles (gener- 
ally brown) on the margin. Usually there are one or two denticles 
posteriorly, opposite a strong lira at the upper part of the columella. 

In a young example of this variety the faint ridges within the 
labrum take the form of distinct elongate tubercles as in variety i. 

Two enormous specimens from Muscat (fig. 5) on the Arabian 
Coast, Gulf of Oman, may be placed in this variety although they 
appear to have less of the tubercular sculpture shown in Reeve's 
figure. One of these has the aperture, columella callus, and labrum 
entirely white, but in the other these parts are of a flesh tint. 

The larger specimen is 360 mm. in length and weighs 4 lbs. 6 oz., 
whereas an apparently full-grown example of var. i weighs only 4 oz., 
but I should state at the same time that an apparently adult specimen 
of this third variety weighs but 10 oz. 

Chemnitz (Conch. Cab. vol. iv., p. 87) states that he had a 
specimen from Mauritius or Bourbon in his collection, 14 inches long, 
and that Spengler had still larger examples. 

The contrast between var. i and these gigantic specimens is so 
great, that at first sight it seems ridiculous to consider them forms 

1 Conch. Icon. voL ii , pi. x, fig. 30b. 

2 Man. Conch, vol. iii., pi. xi.\, fig. 12, copy of Reeve. 

3 Coq. Viv. pi. V, fig. I. 

4 Illustr. Conchylienbuch, pi. ix., fig. 2. 

5 Conch. Icon. vol. ii., pi. ix, fig. 30a. 

6 Conch. Cab. vol. iv., fig. 123S. 



SMITH : NOTE ON BURSA (tUTUFA) RUBETA. 23 1 

of the same species. However, in the large series I have examined, 
the connecting links appear to be present. 

Var. 4. tenuigranosa Smith (fig. 6). 

The last, or fourth variety, might perhaps be regarded as a finely 
sculptured form of var. 3. The aperture, columellar callus, and 
labrum are entirely white, the columella is finely Urate above and more 
strongly anteriorly. Not one of the three specimens at hand is adult, 
and the character of the labrum is Uke that of the young shell of var. 
3 described above. The peculiarity of this fourth variety is the much 
finer granulation of the surface. The largest specimen is 193 mm. 
in length. 

Hab.— ? 

Explanation of Plate IV. 
Fig. I. Bursa {Tutufa) rubeta (Bolten), Typical. 
Fig. 2. Bursa {Tutufa^ rubeta with undeveloped labrum ^cal- 

edonerisis, Jousseaume. 
Fig. 3. Bursa (^Tutufa) rubeta var. lissostoma Smith. 
Fig. 4. Bursa {Tutufa) rubeta var. gigantea Smith. Specimen in 

the Cuming Collection. 
Fig. 5. Bursa (^Tutufa) rubeta V2a. gigantea Smith. Specimen from 

Muscat. 
Fig. 6. Bursa (^Tutufa) rubeta var. tenuigranosa Smith. 
All figures about one fourth the length of the specimens. 



Caecilioides acicula, Vallonia excentrica, etc., in Denbighshire.— At the 

latter end of September, 1913, I visited the famous Cefn Caves, in the Elwy 
Valley, Denbighshire, along with Mr. R. Standen and others, and in the space of 
half-an-hour we made a rapid survey of the ground round about in search of shells 
and woodlice. Finding our time so limited, we gave up the search for living 
examples, and devoted the last five minutes or so to filling a small calico bag with 
the loose soil and shell-debris hanging on the narrow rock ledges about the caves. 
On working through the material at home we were surprised with the result. The 
following comprises the full list of shells obtained in this way, the majority, of 
course, being dead examples, but quite recent in appearance :- — Agriolitiiax agi-estis 
(two shields) ; Vitrina felliicida ; Vitrea crystallina, V. cellaria (and var. albino), 

V. rogersi, V. nitidula, V. radiaiula ; Arion ater (granules) ; Punctum pygmceum ; 
Pyraviidula riipestris, P. rotiindata ; Helicella caperata ; Hygroniia hispida ; Acan- 
thiiiida aciileata ; Vallonia costata, V. excentrica ; Helix aspersa, H. nenioi alis ; 
Cochlicopa lubrica ; Ccecilioides acicula ; Jaininia cylindracea (and var. ctirta) ; 

Vertigo pygDUTa, V. siibstriata ; and Claiisilia bideniaia. Mr. Charles Oldham 
visited these caves in i8g6, and oljtained quite a number of shells in an hour's col- 
lecting. Some twelve of the shells in his list {J. of Condi., viii., p. 251) are 
additional to ours, while some sixteen of ours are additions to those he found. We 
quite agree with him that this beautiful valley would repay systematic work, but 
one must not be handicapped with having to catch conveyances back home. — 
J. Wilfrid Jackson {Read before the Society, Feb. 11, 1914). 



232 



THE RADULA OF HYALINIA. 

II. 

Variation in the Radula of Hy, helvetica. 



By a. E. boycott. 

(Read before the Society, February nth, 1914). 



The object of the present enquiry is to ascertain the extent to which 
the radula of H. helvetica is subject to "spontaneous" variation. The 
preceding paper {supra p. 214) has shown that the size factor must be 
eliminated by using individuals of approximately the same dimensions: 
it is also plain that the possible influence of race and locality must be 
excluded by taking the material from a single restricted area. Some 
of the snails already dealt with are suitable for our present purpose. 
Strictly speaking, perhaps, all should be of precisely the same size, but 
it is of some importance that the number of observations should be 
numerous, and I propose to deal with the 66 specimens with major 
diameters of from 7*0 to 7*9 mm. as if they formed a truly homogeneous 
size group.^ There are also 23 specimens between 8'o and 8"8 mm. 
in diameter which afford another series. The details for each speci 
men are shewn in Tables I. and II. The method and terms used 
have been already described {supra p. 215). 

The statistical methods of expression which are used can only be 
very briefly explained." Suppose a series of five measurements gives 
the results 8, 9, 10, 11, 12. Then the w^a// is 8.+ LtiP^+i_i + i2_^5^^jQ_ 
Take the differences between each measurement and the mean 
(2, I, o, I, 2); square them (4, i, o, i, 4) ; add the squares together 
(10); divide the sum of the squares by the number of observations 
-y*-=:2 ; take the square root of the result=:i"4i, which is the sta?idard 
deviation. The coefficient of variation is the per centage of the standard 
deviation on the mean, in this case ---* y^i-° = i4"i and is the measure 
of the variability by means of which we can compare the variability of 
one shell or organ with another. The process is simpler than it seems. 

Working out the detailed figures along^ these lines, we obtain the 
following summary results for the 66 snails of the 7*0 — 7 ■9mm. group. 

1 This group is taken simply because it comprised the greatest num ber of larger snails. In 
the particular locality shells over 8 mm. were not common, and those over 7 mm. were anatomi- 
cally sexually mature. It would have b^en more convenient to have taken an S'otoS'gmm. 
group. 

2 For a most lucid and non-mathematical exposition of this important subject see G. U. 
Yule : An introduction to the theory of Statistics (London : Grififia cfc Co ., 1912). 









Standard 


Coefficient 


Maximum 


Minimum 


Mean 


deviation 


of variation 


- 48 


36 


40-98 


2-585 


6-3 


13 


9^ 


1 1 -265 


0-604 


5-4 


33 


26 


29-530 


1-209 


4-1 


1395 


1036 


1213-2 


9376 


7-8 


3-09 


2-03 


2-401 


0-219 


9-1 


0-62 


0-46 


0-528 


0-034 


6-4 


170 


I'OO 


1-268 


0-154 


12-1 


7-9 


7-0 


7-43 


0-244 


3-3] 



BOYCOTT : THE RADULA OF MYALtNlA. 23I 

Number of Rows ... 
Number of Marginals 
Teeth in one row 
Teeth in Radula 
Length of Radula — mm. 
Width of Radula — mm. 
Area of Radula — mm. - 
[Major diameter of shells 

The significance of these figures is this. The range of normal^ 
variation in biological sizes is such that practically all individuals are 
smaller than the mean plus three times the standard deviation and 
larger than the mean minus three times the standard deviation. Nine- 
teen out of twenty normal individuals differ from the mean by less 
than twice the standard deviation, and about two-thirds by less than 
once the same figure. If then the standard deviation were 5% of the 
mean — if, in other words, the coefficient of variation were 5 — we 
should expect to find specimens pretty quickly which varied from the 
mean by 10% and we should regard as probably abnormal or belong- 
ing to another category of classification any individuals which differed 
from the mean by more than 15% or thereabouts. 

The following will serve as examples of the distribution of the values 
under consideration : any of the others may be readily extracted from 
tlie tables. 



Number of 


N umber of 


Number of teeth 


Number of 


Length of 


Number of 




rows 




specimens 


iu one row 


sijecimens 


Radula 


specimens 




36 




2 


26 




I 


2-00 — 2-09 




2 




37 




3 


27 







2-10—2-19 




8 




38 




9 


28 




12 


2 -20 — 2-29 




16 




39 




7 


29 




22 


2-30—2-39 




II 




40 




7 


30 




14 


2 -40 — 2 -49 




9 




41 




II 


31 




16 


2-50—2-59 




9 




42 




8 


32 







2 -60 — 2-69 




6 




43 




4 


33 




I 


2-70 — 2.79 




I 




44 




10 








2-80—2-89 




I 




45 




4 








2-90 — 2-99 




I 




46 













3-00 — 3-09 




2 




47 





















48 




I 














Limits of 
twice St. dev. 


35 


•8- 


—46-1 


27-1- 


-31 


•9 


1-97—2 


-84 




Limits of three 
times St. dev. •'■^ 


■2- 


-487 


25'9- 


'Z'i 


-2 


1-54—3 


•28 





In each instance it will be seen that all of the 66 individuals come 
within the range of the mean 1 3 standard deviations. In the 
case of the number of rows one, in the number of teeth three and 



I i.e., "Spontaneous" variation not due to any ascertainable factor such as locality, etc. 



234 



JOURNAL OF CONCMOLOGY, VOL. I4, NO. 8, OCTOBER, I9I4. 



in the length of radula three, individuals exceed the limits of twice the 
standard deviation. For the number of rows and the number of teeth 
in a row one would therefore expect to find commonly a variation of 
about 10% on either side of the mean, and any single radula with 37 
to 45 rows, or with 26 or 33 teeth in a row, could not be considered 
as necessarily different in that respect from that of a Banstead helvetica 
of about 7 '5 mm. diameter. The case would, of course, be quite 
different if a series of radulae gave such a result as an average. The 
necessity of examining a number of specimens in any case is apparent. 

















Table I. 


















66 snails 7"0 — 7*9 mm. major diameter. 














1 


Eudo. 1 Eclo- 1 


Endo. 








1 


Endo. 


Ecto. 


Eudo. 








1 


3rd 1 3rd I 


1st 












3rd 


3rd 


1st 


Diara 


Rows 


Marg. 


Loug 


Wi e 


ateral. 


ateral. 


Margin 


Diam 


iows 


\Iarg. 


Long 


Wide 


lateral 


lateral 


Margin 


7-0 


42 


"i 


2 '59 


0-58 


t 








7-5 


44 


12 


2-38 


0-57 


t 


.h. :t 


0: tr. 




42 


12 


2-40 


0-56 


t 


sh. 







42 


II 


2-25 


0-55 


t : sm 


3h. :0 







44 


lU 


2-24 


0*50 


t 


sh. 







41 


II 


2-29 


0-55 


t : sm 


sh. :0 







44 


12 


2-25 


0-52 


sm. 


5h:?sh 







41 


loi 


2-35 


0-55 


sm. 


sh. 





7'i 


41 


II 


2-24 


0-58 


t 


sh. 







42 


II 


270 


0-54 


t 


sh. 







41 


12 


2-i6 


0-49 


t 


sh. 







39 


loi 


2-45 


0-51 


+ 


sh. : t 







44 


Hi 


2-57 


0-53 


sm. 










42 


II 


2*64 


o'53 


sm. 










38 


II 


2-14 


o"5o 


t 


sh. 





42 i 


'H 


2-66 


0-55 


sm. 










38 


iih 


2-36 


0-49 


t 


sh. 







43 


II 


2-82 


0-52 


i- 










41 


i4 


2-57 


0*46 


t 










45 


12 


2-63 


0-55 


t 


?sh. 





7-2 


44 


II 


2-50 


0-55 


t 










40 


14 


2-92 


0-53 


t 










44 


II 


2-25 


0-52 


t 


sh. 





7-6 


40 


II 


2-45 


0-52 


t 


sh. 







44 


12 


2-32 


0-51 


t 


sh. 







38 


12 


2-46 


0-55 


t 


+ 


sm. 




44 


12 


2"25 


0*46 


t 


sh. 







38 


"i 


2-44 


0-54 


sm. 










44 


"1 


2 "20 


0-48 


t 


?sh:t 







43 


12 


2-56 


0-55 


t 


sh. 







45 


12 


2 '40 


0-55 


t 


sh. 







38 


lOl 


2-52 


0-48 


sm. 


sh. 





Tl 


38 


II 


2-17 


0-47 


t 


: sh. 







42 


II 


2-49 


0-54 


t : sm 










40 


loi 


2"l6 


0*48 


t 


sh. 







40 


II 


2'25 


0-51 


sm. 


: sh. 







41 


II 


2-66 


0-54 


+ 


t:sh. 


tr. 




40 


II 


2-39 


0-54 


i- 


t 


sm ; tr 




40 


II 


2-30 


0-55 


t 


sh. 







44 


"1 


2 -60 


0-56 


t 


sh. 


: tr. 




39 


Hi 


2 09 


0-50 


t 


sh. : 





7 7 


38 


12 


2-26 


0-58 


i- 


t 


sm. 




39 


lOj 


2'2I 


0-57 


t 


sh. 







36 


"I 


2-26 


0-53 


+ 


sh. 







40 


12 


2-35 


051 


t 


sh. : 







48 


II 


309 


0-54 


t 


sh. 







41 


loi 


203 


0-49 


tr. 


?sh. 







39 


II 


2-51 


0-50 


+ 










43 


II 


2-26 


0-48 


Ir: sm 










39 


10.^ 


2-31 


052 


t 








7 A 


37 


13 


2-19 


0-52 


t 


sh. 





7-8 


42 


iqI 


3-00 


0-57 


t 


sh. 







39 


Hi 


2-56 


0-52 


sill : t 


sh. 







41 


lO^ 


2-39 


0-55 


t 


sh. 







37 


10^ 


2-14 


0-47 


t 


sh. 





7-9 


39 


II 


2-42 


0-54 


t 


sh. 







43 


11 


2-64 


0-53 


t 


sh. 







36 


12 


2-33 


0-62 


i- 


sh. 







41 


Hi 


2 -20 


0-49 


t 


sh. 







38 


II 


2-43 


0-52 


t 


?sh. 







41 


9i 


2-17 


0-48 


tr. 










38 


12 


2-24 


0-56 


t 


t 


sm. 




45 


12 


2-38 


0-55 


t 


sh. 







45 


IQi 


2-59 


0-52 


sm. 


sh. 







37 


14 


2-i8 


0-59 


sm. 


o:sh. 























41 


12 


2 "25 


0-55 


t 


sh. 









I 














o = a 


bsent 


tr. = 


trace ; 


sm. — 


small 


; sh. 


= shu 


aider 


; t = i 


A'ell-d< 


ivelop 


;d. 





The coefBcient of variation of a linear dimension — diameter or 
altitude — of most snail shells is about 5, of their volume 12 or 15. It 
appears, therefore, that the number of rows and number of teeth in a 
row have about the same variability as the diameter of a shell. The 
length and area of the radulse are apparently more variable. The 



BOYCOTT : THE RADULA OF HYALINIA. 



23S 



difficulties of accurate measurement, which have already been noticed, 
render this conclusion uncertain, though it hardly seems likely that 
errors of observation can have led to such a large difference. With 
regard to all the figures it must also be remembered that the shells 
from which the radul^e were derived were not all the same size but 
ranged either way from their mean by 6%, and that every item varies 
with the size of the shell. ^ 

The two teeth which obviously vary in their configuration are the 
third lateral and first marginal. With regard to the third lateral we 
may distinguish five types, shewn in the diagrammatic sketch, which 
occur with the following frequency :— 



Type I. Endocone absent, ectocone absent 

Type II. Endocone small, ectocone absent 

Type III. Endocone small, ectocone a shoulder ... 

Type IV. Endocone present, ectocone absent 

Type V. Endocone present, ectocone a shoulder 

Type VI. Endocone present, ectocone present ... 



0=0% 

10=15% 

6= 9% 

10=15% 

34 = 51% 

6= 9% 




SO ^ 



Type I. did not occur in the series. In the whole series the endo- 
cone was " small " in 24% of the specimens, the ectocone absent in 
30%, represented by a shoulder in 60% and well developed in 9%. 
With regard to the first marginal, the endocone was present in seven 
cases, though always small or rudimentary, and in two on only one- 
half of the radula. It should also be noted that in six of these 
specimens, the third lateral had a definite ectocone; in the other the 
ectocone was represented by a shoulder only. This simultaneous 
progress in differentiation is a regular feature of the Hyalinia radula. 
Thus an ectocone on the third lateral is commonly associated with a 
well-developed endocone, and if the latter is very small the ectocone 
is often completely absent. The difference may sometimes be seen 



I The sort of difference which is introduced by this factor may be judged o: by the a\ 
figures of half millimetre groups : — 

Group Mean diameter Rows Marginals Long Wide 

7'o — 7"4 7'24 4i'2 ii"4 2'30 o^^^ 

7'5 — 7'9 7'64 407 if2 2'50 o'54 

8'o— S'4 815 4i'6 II 9 2'54 o'59 

The correlation between total number of teeth and area of radula is only +o'22 X°'°7- 



Specimens 
34 
32 



236 



JOURNAL OF CONCHOLOGY, VOL. I4, NO. §, OCTOBftR, 1914. 



in the two halves of the same radula. It is apparent, therefore, that 
in specimens of helvetica of approximately the same size the third 
lateral tooth may be of various forms from an almost marginal to a 
complete lateral type ; the drawings were all made from specimens 
between 7*3 and 7*7 mm. diam. in the present series. 

Table II. 







23 snails 8 


•0-8 -8 


mm. major diameter. 
















Endocoue 


Ectocoue 


Endocoue 














3rd 


3rd 


1st 




Diam'ter 


Kows 


M'rgiu'Is 


Long 


Wide 


lateral 


lateral 


marginal 




8-0 


41 


Ili 


2-57 


0-52 


t 












39 


13 


2-35 


0'62 


sm. 


sh. 









41 


II 


2-47 


0-58 


1- 


sh. 









40 


Ilg 


2-43 


0-58 


t 


sh. 









45 


12 


2-37 


o'6i 


t 


sh. 







8-2 


39 


13 


2 '44 


0-59 


i- 


sm. 


tr. 






39 


II 


2-45 


050 


t 


sh. 









45 


13 


2-99 


0-68 


t 


Ir. 









48 


13^ 


2*92 


0-66 


t 


sh. : t 









43 


12 


2-55 


0-58 


t 


sh, 









41 


10 


2-56 


0-6: 


t 


sh. 







8-3 


41 


II* 


2-36 


0-59 


t 


t 


0-. 




8.4 


39 


I4 


2-55 


0-57 


sm. : t 


: sh. 







8-5 


41 


II? 


2-55 


o-6o 


t 


sh. 









42 


12 


2-91 


0-58 


1- 


sh. 









38 


12 


2-40 


o-6o 


i- 


sh. 







8-6 


42 


13 


2-49 


0-53 


t 


sh. 









41 


12 


2 -60 


o-6i 


t 


tr. 


tr. 






42 


Hi 


2-50 


0-52 


t 


sh. 









44 


II 


2 "62 


0-59 


t 


?sh. 









43 


I2i 


2 -60 


0-63 


1- 


sh. 







87 


44 


II 


277 


0-65 


t 


sh. 







8-8 


44 


12 


3-14 


0-67 


+ 


tr. 





Mean 


8-34 


41-83 


ii'9i 


2-6oo 


0647 









The 23 specimens of the 8'o to 8'8 mm. series need not be dealt 
with at such length. The data are given in Table 11. and show about 
the same range of variation as the longer series. 

Conclusions. — The magnitude of spontaueous variation in the 
number of rows and number of teeth in a row in Hy. helvetica is of the 
same order as that of a linear dimension of a snail shell. The length 
and breadth of the radula are apparently more variable. There is 
also much variation in the configuration of the third lateral tooth. It 
is clearly necessary to examine radulae from a series of specimens as 
well as from specimens of known size. 



Jaminia cylindracea DaC. with two denticles. — While collecting this 
species among the heather which covers an outcrop of tertiary strata on Ridgeway 
Hill, Dorset, I took a specimen with a second denticle close beside the normal tooth. 
This does not seem to have been noticed in_/. cylindracea though two and three 
toothed forms oi J. muscomm are known. I should suggest that the name var. 
iJ;^/a«a/'a be adopted. — ^J. E. A. JOLLIFFE {Read before the Society^ May 13th, 1914).' 



237 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE 
CONCHOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF GREAT BRITAIN & IRELAND. 



433rd Meeting, held at the Museum, Manchester, June lOth, 1914. 

Mr. E. Collier in the chair. 

Additions to the Library announced and thanks voted : — 

"Anatomic des Clausilies danoises : i. — Les organes genitaux," by C. M. Stein- 
berg. "Catalog of Mollusca of South Carolina," by W. G. Mazyck. "A Review 
of South African Land Mollusca belonging to the Family Zonitidje — Part iii.," by 
Lt.-Col. H. H. Godwin-Austen. "On the Anatomy of Comis tidipa L., and C. 
textile L.," by H. O. N. Shaw. " Malacologiske notiser : i. — Nudibranchiater 
fra Bergens biologiske stations akvarier. ii. — Nogen mollusker fra Bergenskysten," 
by J. A. Grieg. "On a Collection of Non-Marine Mollusca from the Southern 
Sudan," by Jane Longstaff : " With Descriptions of Three New Species," by H. B. 
Preston; and "Notes on Veronicella nilotica" by G. C. Pobson (fro7Ji the 
respective authors) ; and the usual periodicals received in exchange. 

Donation to Cabinet announced and thanks voted : — 

By Mr. J. Davy Dean : A large number of Voucher specimens, chiefly from the 
Cardiff district. 

New Member Elected, 

Herbert W. Worsfold, 28, Melody Road, Wandsworth, S.W. 

Candidates Proposed for Membership. 

W. G. Mazyck, Hon. Curator Charleston Museum, S. Carolina, U.S.A. 
(introduced by E. Collier and J. W. Jackson). 

Rev. John McMurtrie, M.A., The Manse, Skene, Aberdeenshire (introduced 
by E. Collier and R. Standen). 

Dr. W. G. N. van der Sleen, Eindenoutstraat 63, Haarlem, Holland (introduced 
by R. Standen and L. J. Shackleford). 

Exhibits. 

I5y Mr. J. Wilfrid Jackson : Helicella virgata, H. itala, Hygrojiiia hispida and 
H. rufescens from Avebury Circle, Wilts ; Helicella gigaxii from North Berwick, 
Haddingtonshire (first record for Scotland) ; Claiisilia plicata from Dornoch, E. 
Sutherland (doubtfully indigenous — no record of any introduction) ; CI. plicata 
from Sweden and Budapest, for comparison ; a large series of Holocene shells from 
the Glastonbury Lake Village, including : — Lij/uiaa stagtialis, L. pereger, Z, 
aiiricjilaria, L. pahistris, Planorbis Kuibilicatus, PI. voitex, PI. contortus, PI. 
fontanus, PI. albus, PI. crista, Physa fontinalis, Bithynia teiitaculata, B. leachii, 
Valvata pisciiialis, V. cristata, Acroloxus lacjistris, Spharium cojneiitn, Pisidittm 
pulchellum , and one land shell, viz. : Vallonia excentrica. 

By Rev. L. J. Shackleford : Marginella bifasciata Lam. and M. cleryi Petit, in 
fine live condition from Goree. 

By Mr. G. C. Spence : Holospira goniostoma Pfr. and H. minima v. Marts., 
from Sonora, Mexico ; Helix aspersa, a small form from sandhills, Rye, Sussex — 
the smallest measuring only 27x24 mm.; and a small form of H. virgata from 
Lydd Marsh, Kent, showing considerable variation in markings. 

In the Special Exhibit of the Genus Neritina, fine series of the British and 
foreign species were shown by Messrs. E. Collier, J. W. Jackson, and Mrs. Gill. 
The Manchester Museum collections were also exhibited. 



238 JOURNAL OF CONCHOLOGY, VOL. I4, NO. 8, OCTOBER, I9I4. 

434th Meeting-, held at the Museum, Manchester, Sept. 9th, 1914. 

Mr. E. Collier in the chair. 

Additions to the Library announced and thanks voted : — 
" Land and Freshwater Mollusca of the Valley of the Roe, Benevenagh, and 
jNlagilligan, co. Derry," by A. W. Stelfox. " Manual of Conchology," part 88, 
by ri. A. Pilsbry {fiovi the respective authors) ; and the usual periodicals received 
in exchange. 

Donation to Cabinet announced and thanks voted : — 

By Prof. A. E. Boycott : A dextral specimen of Claitsilia bidentata, taken by 
him at Portmadoc, North Wales, August, 1914. 

New Members Elected. 
Dr. W. G. N. van der Sleen. 
W. G. Mazyck. 
Rev. John McMurtrie. 

Candidates Proposed for Membership. 

John Noble Kennedy, R.N., H.M.S. " Antrim," c/o G.P.O., London (intro- 
duced by J. R. le B. Tomlin and Kenneth H. Jones). 

Alfred John Saban, 318, Ivydale Road, Peckham Rye, S.E. (introduced by 
Capt. W. J. Farrer and J. Ray Hardy). 

Death. 

A. J. Jukes Browne, F.R.S., F.G.S. 

Papers Read. 

" Note on Bursa [T-utjifa) rubda (Bolten) = Triton lampas (Lam. et auct.)," 
by Edgar A. Smith, I.S.O. 

" Notes on Fluviatile Mollusca from Port Patrick, Wigtownshire," by John N. 
Kennedy, R.N. 

" Molluscan Rubber Pests," by G. C. Robson, B.A. 

" The Marine Alollusca of Sao Thome," I., by J. R. le B. Tomlin, M. A., and 
Lewis J. Shackleford. 

Exhibits. 

By Mr. G. C. Spence : Nine species of Formosan and Japanese Pupinella, and 
Pupinella angasi Brazier, Louisiade Islands. 

By Mr. C. H. Moore : Helix hoitejisis, Hygroniia rtifescens, and other species 
from Ilfracombe ; Helicigona lapicida, Hygroniia hispida, Clausilia bidentata, 
Jaminia cylindracea, and Hyalinia alliaria, from Lynmouth ; and varieties of 
Helicella virgata from Croyd Bay, North Devon. 

By Mrs. Gill : A drawer of Placostyhis, showing variation in form, and some 
of the rarer species. 

By Mr. J. Wilfrid Jackson : Elongate specimens oi Azecaixom. Clapham, Yorks. 
(coll. J.W.J.)., and Barnoldswick, Yorks. (coll. H. Beeston), for comparison with 
Azeca elongata described by Mr. J. W. Taylor in the "Naturalist," March, 1897, 

p. 75- 

It was decided to have the following Special Exhibits at future meetings : 
October 14th - Planorbis spirorbis and P. vortex. 
November nth - The Genus Alyccens. 
December 9th - The Genus Ranella. 



239 
THE MARINE MOLLUSCA OF SAO THOME, I. 



By J. R. LE B. TOMLIN, M.A., and L. J. SHACKLEFORD. 

(Read before the Society, Sept. 9th, 1914). 

The material from which the following list has been compiled was 
collected in S. Thome by Mr. J. Chalmers. He was unfortunately 
unable, for various reasons, to do any dredging, and we gather that 
the heavy surf would make dredging a very difficult operation in a 
small boat. The list is, therefore, exclusively a record of shore col- 
lecting. Mr. Chalmers also sent home large quantities of coarse 
coral gravel from which all the small shells were sifted, but a very 
large proportion of specimens from this source was too rolled and 
worn for identification, otherwise our list \vould be considerably 
larger. Even as it is we are able to make a considerable addition to 
the authentic records from this island. 

The only list that has been published, so far as we are aware, is 
Nobre's " Sur la Faune Malacologique de S. Thome," subsequently 
incorporated (M. Nobre informs us) in his " Materiaux pour I'etude 
de la Faune Malacologique des Possessions Portugaises de I'Afrique 
Occidentale " (1909), published in the Bulletin de la Societe Portu- 
gaise des Sciences Naturelles, tome iii., suppl. 2. In this paper 126 
species are recorded for S. Thome, 57 of which have not occurred in 
our material. The ensuing list records 188, making a total of 245 
for the island. 

There are, however, probably a few misidentifications in M. Nobre's 
list, which would slightly reduce this total. We record below 31 
species which are common to the West Indies, as compared with 15 
in Dautzenberg's " Contributions a la Faune Malac. de I'Afrique 
Occidentale" in Actes de la Societe Linn, de Bordeaux, 1910 — a 
paper in which the author ascribes the presence of West Indian 
species on the West African coast to the branch of the Gulf Stream, 
known as the Canaries current, which crosses the Atlantic from the 
Gulf of Mexico to Portugal, and tlien runs southwards along the 
African coast. We do not, however, recollect reading of the occur- 
rence of any West Indian shells on the Portuguese coast. 

The marine mollusca of S. Thome obviously have a very close 
affinity with those of the Cape Verdes, but though so much further 
south — S. Thome lies practically on the equator — the tropical element 
seems much smaller than in the Cape Verdes. Apart from a few 
species of very wide distribution, the Cape element is almost absent. 

Our thanks are due to Mr. T. Iredale, M. Augusto Nobre, M. Ph. 
Dautzenberg, and the Marchese di Monterosato for much kindly help. 



240 JOURNAL OF CONCHOLOGY, VOL. I4, NO. 8, OCTOBER, I914. 

Melampus flavus (Gmel.). 
Vohita fiava Gmelin, Syst. Nat., ed. xiii., p. 3436. 

S. Thome, common ; Principe and Cape Verdes (Nobre) ; West 
Indies. 

Melampus pusillus (Gmel.). 
Voluta fiisilla Gmel., Syst. Nat., ed. xiii., p. 3436. 

S. Thome, fairly common ; Principe and Cape Verdes (Nobre) ; 
West Indies. 

Pedipes afer (Gmel). 

Helix afra Gmel., Syst. Nat, ed. xiii., p. 3651. 

H. and A. Adams, Genera of Recent Moll., II., p. 248, pi. Ixxxiii., f. 4. 
S. Thome, fairly common ; Cape Verdes (Bouvier) ; Azores and 
S. Helena (Smith) ; Madeira, very common (Watson) ; Cansado, 
Plage de Hann, Boulbine and Mossamedes (Dautzenberg) ; Lisbon 
and Salvages (WoUaston, Test. Atl., pp. 50, 265, 293). 

Siphonaria algesirae Quoy et Gaimard. 
Quoy et Gaimard, Voyage de 1' "Astrolabe," II., p. 338, pi. xxv., 

f- 23—25. 

S. Thome, scarce ; Canaries (Watson) ; Cape Verdes, abundant 
(Nobre) ; Atlantic, from Portugal to Mossamedes ; Mediterranean. 

Gadinia garnoti (Payr.). 
Pileopsis gar?ioti Payraudeau, Moll. Corse, p. 94, pi. 5, i. 3, 4. 
S. Thome, scarce ; Mediterranean. 

Gadinia costata (Krauss). 
Mouretia costata Krauss, Sudafr. Moll., p. 57, pi. 4, f. i. 

S. Thome, scarce ; Cape Verdes (Nobre) ; S. Africa ; S. Helena 
(Smith). 

Williamia gussoni (Costa). 
Ancybis gnssojiii Costa, Cat. Test. Sicil., pp. 120, 125. 

S. Thome, common ; Canaries (McAndrew) ; Azores, S. Helena 
and Ascension (Smith). 

We should be disinclined to include '^Patella radiata Pease in the 
synonymy without anatomical confirmation. 

Actaeon maltzani Dautzenberg. 
Dautzenberg, Contrib. Faune Afr. Occ, I., p. 10, pi. i, f i, 2. 
Act(Kon senegaleTisis von Maltzan (non Petit), 

S. Thome, rare ; Goree (von Maltzan) ; Rufisque and Libreville 
(Dautzenberg). 

Retusa striatula (Fbs.). 
Bulla striatula Forbes, Rep. Aegean Invert. (Brit. Assoc, 1843), p. 188. 
S. Thome, scarce ; Mediterranean. 

I Smith in P.Z.S., iSgo, p. 296. 



TOMLIN and SHACKLEFORD : MARINE MOLLUSCA OF S. THOME. 24I 

Tornatina knockeri Smith. 
Smith, P.Z.S., 187 1, p. 738, pi. Ixxv., f. 30. 

S. Thome, common ; Whydah (Smith) ; Cansado, Rufisque, W. of 
Cape Rouge, Conakry, Boulbine, Los Is., Cotonou, Libreville, Ban- 
ana, Shart Point, and Mossamedes (Dautzenberg). 

Weinkauffia diaphana (Aradas). 
Bulla diaphatia Aradas, Cat. Conch. Sicil., p. 40. 
Scaphander gibhihis Jeffr., Ann. and Mag. Nat, Hist., 2nd ser., xvii., 

p. 188, pt. II., f. 20, 21. 
Atys diaphana Arad., Pilsb., Man. of Conch., xv., p. 278, pi. xxxii., 

f. 29, 30. 

S. Thome, Rufisque, W. of Cape Rouge, Conakry, and Los Is. 
(Dautzenberg) ; Madeira (Watson) ; Mediterranean. 

Cylichna cylindracea (Pennant). 
Bulla cylindracea Pennant, Brit. Zool., iv., p. 117, pi. 70, f. 85. 

S. Thome, fairly common ; Norway to Madeira, Canaries, and 
Azores ; Whydah (Smith) ; S. Helena (Smith) ; Port Elizabeth 
(Sovverby) ; Ascension, 42of., and Tristan da Cunha (Challenger); 
Gulf of Oman, Maskat, and Bombay (Melvill). 

Bulla adansoni Philippi. 
Bulla adansoiiii Philippi, Zeitschr. f. Malak., 1847, P- 121. 
Pilsbry, Man. Conch., xv., p. 333, pi. xxxviii., f 61. 

S. Thome, common ; Cape Verdes ; Cape Blanco to Loanda. 

It is curious that B. ampulla L., which Nobre reports as " tres 
commun " at S. Thome, did not occur in our consignments. 

Haminea orbignyana (Ferussac). 
Bulla orbignyana Ferussac, Diet. Classique d'Hist. Nat., II., p. 573. 
Dautzenberg, Contrib. Faune Afr. Occ. I., p. 13, pi. i, f. 3, 4. 

S. Thome, not uncommon ; Senegal (Dautzenberg) ; Brittany and 
Gulf of Gascony ; Mediterranean. 

This is probably Nobre's ^Haminea sp. ? from S. Thome. 

Ringicula suturalis Smith. 
Smith, P.Z.S., 187 1, p. 733, pi. Ixxv., f. 12. 
S. Thome, common ; Whydah (Smitli). 

Terebra corrugata Lam. 
Lamarck, Anim. Sans Vert., x., p. 244. 

S. Thome, a few worn specimens; Cape Verdes, plentiful (Chalmers); 
Loanda. 

I Mat. Faune Mai. Afr. Occ. in Bull. Soc. Port. Sci. Nat., vol. iii., suppl. z, p. 7. 

P 



242 JOURNAL OP CONCHOLOGY, VOL. I4, NO. 8, OCTOBER, 1914. 

Conus papilionaceus Hwass. 
Hwass, in Bruguiere, Encycl. Method., I., 2nd part, p. 665. 
Reeve, Conch. Icon., pi. xxxiv., p. 188. 

S. Thome, fairly common ; Senegal to Gaboon (Dautzenberg) ; 
Canaries (d'Orbigny) ; Cape Verdes and Principe (Nobre) ; Angola 
(VVelwitsch). 

Fossil : Ghenoudert, Marsa, El Biferchi, Timardine, Tafouelli, and 
Nouaremech in Senegal (G. F. Dollfus). 

Conus testudinarius Martini. 
Martini, Conch. Cab., II., p. 250, pi. 55, f. 605. 

S. Thome, common ; Principe (Nobre) ; Cape Verdes ; W. coast 
of Africa; Benguela (Nobre); S. Helena (Smith); West Indies (Tryon). 

Clavatula muricata (Lam.): 
Fleurofoiiia muricata Lam., Anim. Sans Vert., vii., p. 91. 

S. Thome, rare ; Conakry, Los Is., Libreville (Dautzenberg) ; 
Gaboon and Guinea coasts. 

Surcula sinistralis (Petit). 
Pleurotoma sinistralis Petit de la Saussaye in Guerin, Mag. de Zool., 
1839, pi. I. 
S. Thome, not uncommon ; Senegal to the Equator (Dautzenberg). 

Mangilia merlini Dautzenberg. 
Dautzenberg, Contrib. Faune Afr. Occ, I., p. 27, pt. i, f. 8 — 10. 

S. Thome, fairly common ; Cansado, Rufisque, W. of Cape Rouge 
(Dautzenberg). 

Mangilia mediofasciata von Maltzan. 
Mangilia {Raphiioma^ nebula var. mediofasciata von Maltzan, Seneg. 

Pleurot. in Jahrb. d.d. Malak. Ges., X., p. 132, pi. iii., f. 12. 

S. Thome, very common ; Goree (von Maltzan) ; Rufisque, W. of 
Cape Rouge, Libreville, and Congo estuary (Dautzenberg). 

Clathromangelia granum (Phil.). 

Pleurotoma granum Philippi, Enum. Moll. Sic, ii., p. 170. 

? Clathurella clathrata M. de Serres, Geogn. du Midi, p. 113, t. 2, 

f. 7, 8. 

S. Thome, rare ; Mediterranean ; West Africa. 

Monterosato denies its identity with the fossil clathrata M. de Serres. 

Clathurella laviae (Phil). 
Pleurotoma lavice Philippi, Enum. Moll. Sic, ii., p. 170, pi. 26, f. 17. 
S. Thome, not common ; Mediterranean. 



TOMLIN AND SHACKLEFORD : MARINE MOLLUSCA OF S. THOME. 243 

Clathurella linearis (Mont). 
Murex linearis Montagu, Test. Brit., p. 261, pi. ix., f. 4 ; Suppl. (1808), 
p. 115. 

S. Thome, not uncommon ; Goree (von Maltzan) ; Rufisque (Daut- 
zenberg) ; Canaries (McAndrew) ; Madeira, abundant (Watson) ; 
Iceland and Norway to Mediterranean. 

Cancellaria cancellata (L.). 
Voluta cancellata Linne, Syst. Nat., Ed. xii., p. 1191. 

S. Thome \ Rufisque, W. of Cape Rouge, Loanda (Dautzenberg) ; 
Mediterranean. 

var. simiiis Sow. 

Cancellaria simiiis Sowerby, Conch. lUustr., no. 9, f. 38. 

S, Thome ; Senegal to Mossamedes (Dautzenberg); Cape Verdes. 

Both forms occur in the Mediterranean, the type form being com- 
moner there as it is also in Senegal. The variety becomes prepon- 
derant further south. 

Oliva flammulata Lam. 

Lamarck, Ann. du Mus. Paris, xvi., p. 314. 

S. Thome, common; Cape Verdes; Principe (Nobre) ; Cape Blanco 
to Loanda ; Antilles (Romer). 

var. pallida Dautz. also occurs at S. Thome. 

Oliva acuminata Lam. 

Lamarck, Anim. Sans Vert, vii., p. 434. 

S. Thome, common ; Rio de Oro (Font) ; Senegal (Dautzenberg) ; 
Whydah (Smith); Cape Verdes (Rochebrune) ; Principe (Nobre); 
Angola (Welwitsch). 

Fossil : Marsa in Senegal (G. F. Dollfus). 

Nobre describes an entirely white variety from S. Thome and Angola 
as var. ■pallida. 

Olivella pulchella (Duclos). 
Oliva pulchella Duclos, Monogr. G. Oliva, pt. v., f. 11, 12. 
? Oliva leiicozonias Gray, Zool. Voy. Beechey, p. 130, pi. 16, f 16, 17. 
. S. Thome, common; Senegal (Dautzenberg); Cape Verdes (Bouvier). 

Mr. J. M. Williams, who has made a special study of this genus, 
denies tlie identity of O. pulchella and O. leucozonias. He says (in 
litt.) that O. pulchella is uniformly larger and broader, bandless, plain 
yellow within, and has an arched columella, whereas O. leucozonias 
has three white bands, a line of brown spots within the margin of the 
lip, and a fairly straight columella. 



244 JOURNAL OF CONCHOLOGY, VOL. I4, NO. 8, OCTOBER, 1914. 

Harpa rosea Lam. 
Lamarck, Hist. Nat., x., p. 133. 

S. Thome, common ; Principe and Cape Verdes (Nobre) ; Guinea ; 
Senegal. 

Marginella triticea (Lam.). 
Volvaria triticea Lamarck, Anim. Sans Vert., vii., p. 363. 

S. Thome, common; Cansado and Pointe du Repos (Dautzenberg); 
Senegal. 

var. alba nov., of a pure porcellanous white, is also not uncommon. 

Marginella eveleighi Tomlin and Shackleford. 
Tomlin and Shackleford, yi?«r//. of Couch. ^ vol. 14, p. 11, pi. i, f. 5, 6. 
S. Thome, rare. 

Marginella liparozona Tomlin and Shackleford. 
Tomlin and Shackleford, yt'?^r«. of Conch., vol. 14, p. 43. 
M. festiva Reeve {nee Kiener). 

S. Thome, rare. Usually quoted from E. Africa, but this is prob- 
ably an error. 

Marginella festiva Kien. 
Kiener, Coq. Viv., p. 32, pi. 10, f. 4. 
S. Thome, rare; East Africa? 

Marginella dautzenbergi Tomlin and Shackleford. 
Tomlin and Shackleford, yb//r//. of Conch., vol. xiii., p. 319, pi. 4, f. i, 2. 
S. Thome, common. 

Marginella philippii Monts. 
Monterosato, Enum. e Sin., p. 49. 
M. jninuta Phil, {jiec Pfeiffer). 

S. Thome, scarce ; Madeira (Nobre) ; Canaries ; Mediterranean. 

Marginella chudeaui Bavay. 
Bavay in Dautzenberg, Contrib. Faune Afr. Occ, L, p. 41, pi. 2, f. II. 

S. Thome, rare ; Port Etienne, Cansado, P. de Repos, Rufisque, 
W. of Cape Rouge, and Mossamedes (Dautzenberg). 

The S. Thome examples belong to the var. trivittata (I.e.). 

Marginella melvilli Tomlin and Shackleford. 
Tomlin and Shackleford, Joiirn. of Conch., vol. 14, p. 11, pi. i, f. i, 2. 
S. Thome, very rare. 

Marginella chalmersi Tomlin and Shackleford. 

Tomlin and Shackleford, /ourn. of Conch., vol. xiii., p. 320, pi. 4, f. 

3, 4- 

S. Thome, not uncommon, but local. 



TOMLIN AND SHACKLEFORD : MARINE MOLLUSCA OF S. THOME. 245 

Marginella clandestina Biocchi. 
Brocchi, Conch. Foss. Subap., ii., p. 242, pi. xv., f. 11. 

S. Thome, fairly common ; Canaries (Watson) ; Baie de Cansado, 
Arguin Is., El Frey and El Mamghar (Dautzenberg) ; Portugal ; 
Mediterranean. 

Mitra adansoni Phil. 

Philippi, Zeit. f. Mai., 1848, p. 155. 

S. Thome, rare ; Gaboon (Philippi). 

There has been some confusion between the name of this species 
and the oriental adamsoni Gray. Our specimens agree exactly with 
the original description and with a specimen in the British Museum 
labelled adansoni. It is quite distinct from M. fusca Sow. with which 
Tryon is inclined to unite it. 

Mitra (Thala) foveata Sow, 
Mitra foveata Sowerby, Thesaurus, no. 213, f. 408. 
S. Thome, several examples ; West Indies. 

Mitrolumna olivoidea (Cantr). 
Mitra olivoidea Cantraine, Bull. Acad. Brux., 1835, p. 391. 
S. Thome, common ; Canaries ; Mediterranean. 
The var. crenipicta Dautz. is also common at S. Thome. 

Fusus boettgeri von Maltzan. 
von Maltzan, Uiagn. Neuer Seneg. Gastrop. in Nachrichtsblatt d.d. 

Malak. Ges., 1884, p. 67. 

S. Thome ; Goree (von Maltzan) ; Baies de Hann et de Rufisque 
(Dautzenberg). 

Our single specimen is identical with that ^figured by Dautzenberg, 
who justly censures the inadequacy of the original description and the 
absence of a figure. 

Latirus filosus Sch. and Wag. 
Schubert and Wagner, Conch., xii., 349, xiii., 49, t. 15, 16. 

S. Thome, rare; Prince's Island and Senegal (Tryon) ; Cape Verdes, 
fossil (Nobre). 

Semifusus morio (L.). 
Murex morio Linne, Syst. Nat, ed. x., p. 753. 
Tryon, Man. Conch., iii., p. iii, pi. xliii., f. 228, 229. 

S. Thome ; Principe (Rattray) ; Cape Verdes (Nobre) ; Arguin Is. 
to Loanda (Dautzenberg). 

Fossil : Ghenoudert, El Biferchi, Timardine, N'Tibbau, and Tafou 
elli in Senegal (G. F. DoUfus). 

J Coijtrib. Faurie Afr, Occ, I., p. 47, pi. ii., f. 3, 4. 



246 JOURNAL OF CONCHOT.GGY, VOX,. I4, NO. 8, OCTOBER, I914. 

Pollia d'orbignyi (Payr.). 
Buccinuni d^orbignyiVdL-^xzMd.o.dM, Moll. Corse, p. 159, pi. 8, f. 4. 
S. Thome, rare ; Senegal (Reeve) ; Mediterranean. 

Pollia viverrata (Kiener). 
Buccinum viverratum Kiener, Icon. Coq. Viv., p. 35, pi. x., f. 35. 

S. Thome, common ; Spanish Guinea (Hidalgo) ; Gaboon (Le 
Chatelier) ; Bilaouak, Bernard, Baie de Hann, Los Is., Conakry, and 
Libreville (Dautzenberg) ; Principe, Cape Verdes and Mossamedes 
(Nobre). 

For the generic name Pollia, instead of Tritonidea, see Iredale in 
Proc. Malac. Soc, x., p. 221. 

Columbella rustica (L.). 
Valuta rustica Linne, Syst. Nat., ed. x., p. 731. 

var. striata Duclos. 
Columbella striata Duclos, 111. Conch., pi. vi., f. 5 — 8, and pi. xiii., 

f. 19, 20. 

S. Thome, common ; Principe ; Canaries ; Cape Verdes ; Morocco 
to Loanda (Dautzenberg). 

This form is distinguished from the type by its strong spiral furrows. 
Probably var. azorica Drouet is the same. 

var. rosacea Nobre. 
" Shell smaller and of a uniform rose colour." Common. We have 
it also from Annobon Is. 

Columbella parvula (Dunker). 
Buccinwn parimlum Dunker, Zeitschr. f Malac, 1847, p. 64. 
Philippi Abbildungen, p. 65, pi. ii., f. 7. 
Dautzenberg, Contrib. Faune Afr. Occid., I., p. 60. 

S. Thome, rare ; Dakar (Chautard) ; Cansado, W. of Cape Rouge, 
Conakry, Boulbine, Los Is., and Libreville (Dautzenberg) ; West 
Indies (Philippi). 

We are indebted to M. Dautzenberg for the name of this shell. 
He says (I.e.) : " Cette espece a ete reliee a tort au C, cribraria par 
Tryon ; elle est beaucoup plus petite et son dessin est fort different." 

Murex rosarium Chem. 
Chemnitz, Conch. Cab., x., t. 161, f. 1528, 9. 

S. Thome, common ; Fernando Po ; Cape Verdes and Bissau, 
Guinea (Nobre). 

Pseudomurex meyendorffi (Calcara). 
Murex meyendorffi, Calcara, Cenno Moll. Sicil., p. 33, pi. iv., f. 22. 



TOMLIN AND SHACKI.EFORD : MARINE MOLLUSCA OF S. THOME. 247 

S. Thome, not uncommon ; Madeira, abundant (Watson) ; Medit- 
erranean ; Spanish Guinea (Hidalgo) ; Port Elizabeth (Crawford). 

Donovania minima (Mont.). 
Buccinufii minimum Montagu, Test. Brit., p. 247, pi. viii., f. 2; suppl. 

(1808) p. 109. 

S. Thome, scarce ; Madeira, very common, and Canaries (Watson); 
Atlantic from Great Britain to Senegal ; Mediterranean. 

Donovania affinis Monts. 

Monterosato, Coq. Mar. Maroc. m/ourn. de Conch., xxxvii., p. 116. 
Dautzenberg, Contrib. Faune Afr, Occ, I., p. 66, pi. ii., f. 11, 12. 

S.' Thome, plentiful ; Bel Air and W. of Cape Rouge (Dautzenberg) ; 
Casablanca, Taormina, and Pantellaria (Monterosato), 

Purpura haemastoma (L.). 
Buccinutn haemastomum Linne, Syst. Nat., ed. xii., p. 1202. 
Tryon, Man. Conch., ii., p. 167, pi. xlix., f. 80, pi. 1., f. 87. 

S. Thome, common ; Principe (Nobre) ; Madeira, Cape Verdes, 
Canaries, and Azores ; Atlantic, from the Gulf of Gascony to Mossa- 
medes ; Mediterranean. 

Purpura nodosa (L.). 

Ne/ita nodosa Linne, Syst. Nat., ed. x., p. 777. 
Mitrex neritoideus Linne, Syst. Nat., ed. xii., p. 12 19. 

S. Thome, rare, and only small specimens ; Principe (Nobre) ; 
Cape Verdes; Guinea; Benguela (Dunker). 

Sistrum nodulosum (C. B. Adams). 

Purpura nodulosa C. B. Adams, Bost. Proc, 1845, 'i-' 2. 
Tryon, Man. Conch., ii., p. 190, pi. 59, f 275. 

S. Thome, fairly common ; Principe, Cape Verdes, and Fernando 
Po (Nobre) ; Spanish Guinea (Hidalgo) ; West Indies ; Brazil. 

Cyprsea zonata Chem. 
Chemnitz, Conch. Cab., x., p. 107, pi. cxliv., f. 1342. 

S. Thome, rather common ; Senegal, Guinea (Dautzenberg) ; Cape 
Verdes and Angola (Nobre). 

Cypraea stercoraria L. 

Linne, Syst. Nat, ed. x., p. 719. 
Sowerby, Thes., pi. xvi., f 96 — 98. 

S. Thome, not common ; Cape Verdes (Nobre) ; Spanish Guinea 
(Hidalgo) ; Senegal to Mossamedes. 



248 JOURNAL OF CONCHOLOGY, VOL. I4, NO. 8, OCTOBER, I914. 

Cypraea lurida L. 

Linne, Syst, Nat., ed. x., p. 720. 

S. Thome, common ; Ascension, Azores, Canaries, and S. Helena 
(Smith) ; Cape Verdes, common (Bouvier) ; Angola (Welwitsch) ; 
Gaboon (Le Chatelier) ; Annobon (Dunker) ; Mediterranean. 

The S. Thome examples are invariably small and very dark in colour. 

Cypraea spurca L. 

Linne, Syst. Nat., ed. xii., p. 1179. 

S. Thome, fairly common ; Angola (Nobre) ; Annobon (Dunker) ; 
Canaries (d'Orbigny, McAndrew) ; Azores, Ascension, and S. Helena 
(Smith) ; St. Vincent, C. V. ; Mediterranean ; West Indies ; Pernam- 
buco (Ball). 

Trivia candidula Gaskoin. 
Gaskoin, P.Z.S., 1835, P- 200. 
Tryon, Man. Conch., vii., p. 203, pi. xxii., f. 33, 34. 

S. Thome, not common ; Cape Verdes, Canaries, and Madeira ; 
Portugal to Mediterranean and Senegal ; S. Helena (Smith) ; Mexico 
(Roberts in Tryon). 

Erato prayensis Roch. 
Rochebrune, BullSoc. Philom., i88r, vol. vi., p. 30 ; id., Nouv. Archiv. 

Mus., t88i, vol. iv., p. 294, pi. 17, f. i6a, b. 
Smith, Proc. Malac. Soc, vol. ix., p. 14. 

S. Thome, abundant ; Porto Praya, C.V. 

Compared with JE. maugercB Gray, this species seems to be more 
finely and numerously denticled within the outer lip. 

Cymatium costatum (Born). 
Murex costatus Born, Mus. Caes. Vindob., p. 297. 

S. Thome, a few immature specimens ; Madeira ; Cape Verdes ; 
S. Helena ; Mediterranean to the Cape ; West Indies ; Indian and 
Pacific Oceans. 

Yo\ the distribution in greater detail cf. Lischke Jap. Meeres 
Conch., pt. i., p. 48. 

Bursa pustulosa (Rve.). 

Ranella pustulosa Reeve, P.Z.S., 1844, p. 137; id.. Conch. Icon., pi. 3, 

f. iia, b. 

S. Thome, common ; Cape Verdes (Rattray and Bouvier) ; S. 
Helena and Ascension (Smith) ; near Banana (Dautzenberg). Smithi 
unites this species with caelata Brod. from Panama. 

I P.Z.S., 1890, p. 26S. 



TOMLIN AND SHACKLEFORD : MARINE MOLLUSCA OF S. THOME. 249 

Distorsio ridens (Rve.). 

Triton ridens Reeve, P.Z.S., 1844, p. 115. 
Triton ridens id., Conch. Icon., pi. xii., f. 46. 

S. Thome, three specimens, all rather worn ; Banana, Senegal, 
Cape Verdes, Antilles, Costa Rica (Dautzenberg). 

Colubraria testacea (Morch), 
Triton testaceus Morch, Yoldi Cat. 107 ; Malak. Blatt., xxiv., p. 25. 
S. Thome, a single specimen ; West Indies. 

Cassis spinosa Gron. 
Gronovius, Zoophyl., iii., p. 302, pi. 19, f. 9. 

S. Thome, fine examples ; Gaboon estuary (Dautzenberg) ; Principe, 
Loanda, and Lobito (Nobre). 

Cassis testiculus L. 

Linne, Syst. Nat, ed. xii., p. 1199. 

S. Thome ; Cape Verdes, common ; Portuguese Guinea, Principe, 
and Angola (Nobre) ; S Africa (Bairstow coll.) ; W. Indies, 

Amphiperas hordacea (Lam.). 
Ovula hordacea Lamarck, Ann. du Mus. Paris, xvi., p. 112. 
S. Thome, rare. 

Dolium galea (L.), 

Buccinum galea Linne, Syst. Nat., ed. xii., p. 1197. 

S. Thome, plentiful ; S. Vincent, C.V. ; Canaries (McAndrew) ; 
Madeira (Watson) ; Portugal to Mediterranean (Watson); Beaufort, 
N.C., to West Indies (Tryon) ; Santos, Brazil (J. D. Dean). 

Strombus bubonius Lam. 
Lamarck, Anim. Sans Vert., vii., p. 203. 

S Thome, rather common; Principe (Rattray); Spanish Guinea 
(Hidalgo) ; Cape Verdes (Nobre) ; Baie de Hann, Rufisque, W. of 
Cape Rouge, and Gaboon (Dautzenberg). 

Triphora perversa (L.). 
Trochns perversus Linne, Syst. Nat., ed. x., p. 760. 
Bucquoy, Dautzenberg et DoUfus, Moll, du Roussillon i., p. 209, pi. 

xxvi., f. 8 — 17. 

S. Thome, common ; Canaries, Azores, and Cape Verdes ; Atlantic 
from Norway to Morocco ; Mediterranean ; Senegal ; S. Helena 
(Smith) ; South Africa (Sowerby). 

Specimens also occurred, not uncommonly, which are apparently 
referable to var. obesula Monts, and var, lactea Monts, 



250 JOURNAL OF CONCHOLOGY, VOL. I4, NO. 8, OCTOBER, I914. 

Triphora arthuri (Jouss.). 
Jousseaume, Bull. See. Mai. France, 1884, p. 221. 
T. variegatiis A. Ads., P.Z.S., 185 1, p. 277 (name preoccupied). 
S. Thome, rare ; West Indies. 

Cerithium guinaicum Phil. 
Philippi, Abbild., p. 17, pi. i, f. 13. 

S. Thome, common ; Cape Verdes (Nobre) ; Tamara and Libre- 
ville (Dautzenberg). 

Cerithium atratum Born. 
Born, Test. Mus. Caes. Vindob., p. 324, pi. 11, f. 17, 18. 

S. Thome, rare ; Cape Verdes (Nobre) ; Baie du Levrier to 
Loanda (Dautzenberg) ; West Indies. 

Potamides radula (L.). 
Murex radula Linne, Syst. Nat., ed. x., p. 756. 

S. Thome, common ; Spanish Guinea (Hidalgo) \ Senegal to 
Mossamedes. 

Fossil : Tinnamaten, Teniejemara, Nouakchott in Senegal (G. F. 
Dollfus). 

Cerithiopsis tubercularis (Montagu). 

Murex tubercularis Montagu, Test. Brit., p. 270, and suppl., p. 116. 
Bucquoy, Dautzenberg et Dollfus, Moll, du Roussillon, i., p. 204, pi. 

xxvii., f. 1 — 4. 

S. Thome, not common ; Cansado (Dautzenberg) ; Rio de Oro 
(Font); Teneriffe and Cape Verdes (Prince de Monaco); Madeira, 
not uncommon (Watson) ; Norway to Mediterranean ; Port Elizabeth 
(Sowerby). 

Cerithiopsis minima (Brus.). 
Cerithium minimum Brusina, Conch. Dal., p. 17. 

S. Thome, rather common ; Madeira (Watson) ; Mediterranean. 

Cerithiopsis bilineata (Hoernes). 
Ceritlmim hilineatum Hoernes, Tert. Wien, i., p. 416, pt. 42, f. 22. 
S. Thome, rare ; Mediterranean. 

Cerithiopsis concatenata (Conti). 
Ceritlmim concatenatum Conti, Foss. di M. Mario (1864), pp. 32, 51. 
S. Thome, rare; Madeira (Watson); Great Britain to Mediterranean. 

Modulus ambiguus Dautz. 
Dautzenberg, Contrib. Faune Afr. Occ, I., p. 73, pi. ii., f. 13, 14. 
S. Thome, rare ; Bilaouak (Dautzenberg). 



TOMLIN AND SHACKLEFORD : MARINE MOLLUSCA OF S. THOME. 25 1 

Vermetus adansoni Daudin. 
Daudin, Recueil de Memoires et Notes, p. 35. 
Tryon, Man. of Conch., viii., p. 169, pi, xlix., f. 20, 21 ; pi. xlviii., f. 12. 

S. Thome, rare ; Senegal, Gaboon (Dautzenberg). 

Sub-fossil : Nouakchott (Dautzenberg). 

Siliquaria senegalensis Recluz. 

Recluz in Morch, P.Z.S., i860, p. 408. 
Reeve, Conch. Icon., Siliquaria, f. 8. 

S. Thome, rare; Spanish Guinea (Hidalgo); Senegal; Cape Verdes 
(Nobre). 

Mathilda quadricarinata (Brocchi). 
Turbo quadricarinatus Brocchi, Conch. Foss. Subap., p. 375, pi. vii., 

f. 6. 

S. Thome, rare ; S. Helena and Canaries (Smith) ; Madeira (Wat- 
son) ; Rufisque (Dautzenberg) ; Mediterranean. 

Caecum vicinum de Folin. 
de Folin, Les Fonds de la Mer, i., p. 207, pi. xxviii., f. 5, 6. 

S. Thome, rare ; Bale du Levrier (de Folin) ; Conakry and W. of 
Cape Rouge (Dautzenberg). 

Planaxis herrmannseni Dkr. 
Dunker, Index Moll. Guin., p. 16, pi. ii., f. 33, 34, 

S. Thome, common ; Cape Verdes ; Tamara (Dautzenberg) ; Ben 
guela (Dunker). 

Sometimes ranked as a variety of P. lineatus daC. 

Littorina punctata (Gmel.). 
Turbo punctattis Gmelin, Syst. Nat., ed. xiii., p. 3597. 

S. Thome, not common ; Mediterranean to Cape Colony ; Madeira 
and Cape Verdes (Nobre). 

Littorina cingulifera Dkr. 
Dunker, Zeitschr. f. Malak., 1845, p. 166. 

S. Thome, a few specimens ; Conakry, Port Bouet, Libreville, 
Banana, Benguela, and Loanda (Dautzenberg). 

Tectarius granosus (Phil.). 
Littorina granosa Philippi, Abbild., p. 65, pi. vii., f. 14. 

S. Thome, not uncommon ; Conakry (Rattray) ; Boulbine, Los Is., 
Tamara, Ivory Coast, Libreville (Dautzenberg) ; Liberia, Gaboon, and 
Fernando Po are also quoted by Dautzenberg.^ 



I Miss. Gruvel in Ann. de I'lnst. Oc6anogr., Moll. Marin.s, p. 47 (sep. copy). 



252 JOURNAL OF CONCHOLOGY, VOL. I4, NO. 8, OCTOBER, I914. 

Fossarus ambiguus (L.). 
Helix atnbigua Linne, Syst. Nat., ed. xii., p. 1251. 

S. Thome, not uncommon ; Boulbine, Mossamedes, Praya Amelia 
(Dautzenberg) ; S. Helena (Smith); Canaries, Cape Verdes, and 
Azores (SmithJ ; Mediterranean to Mogador (McAndrew). 

Fossarus (Phasianema) sulcosus (Brocchi). 
Nerita sulcosa Brocchi, Conch. Foss. Subap., ii., p. 298, pi. i, f. 3. 

S. Thome, two living specimens embedded in mud on Spondylus 
valves ; Cansado and Pointe du Repos (Dautzenberg). 

Originally described as a Miocene and Pliocene fossil. 

One of our examples measures 15 mm. by 11 mm. 

Architectonica architae (Costa). 
O. G. Costa, Cat. Test. Viv. nel Golfo di Taranto in Atti dell' Ace. 

delle Scienze, vol. iii., p. 40, n. 15 (1830). 

S. Thome, rare ; Taranto, Naples, and Palermo (Monterosato) ; 
Malaga (McAndrew) ; Tripoli and Tunis ; S. Helena (Smith). 

Architectonica nobilis Bolten. 
Bolten, Mus. Bolt., p. 78 (based on Chem., vol. 5, pi. 1695-6). 
S. Thome, scarce ; St. Vincent, C. V. ; West Indies. 
Torinia malani Dautzenberg. 
Dautzenberg, Contrib. Faune Afr. Occ, I., p. 80, pi. ii., f. 15 — 17. 
S. Thome, one specimen ; Rufisque (Dautzenberg). 

Pseudomalaxis macandrewi Iredale. 
Iredale, Proc. Make. Soc, vol. ix., p. 254. 

S. Thome, rare ; Madeira, very common (Watson) ; Los Is. 
(Dautzenberg) ; Mediterranean. 

Iredale (loc. cit.) has satisfactorily worked out the nomenclature of 
this species, and has established its distinctness from Bifrontia zan- 
claea Phil, a point asserted by Monterosato in Conch, d. Prof. 
Palermo, p. 16, 

Alaba culliereti (Dautzenberg). 
Psejidobiliiufji culliereti Dautzenberg, Mem. Soc. Zool. de France, p. 

20, pi. ii., f. 2a — c. 

S. Thome, common on the shore, dead ; Senegal, between Dakar 
and Goree at a depth of fifteen metres (Chevreux). 

In ^Contrib. Faune Malac. Afr. Occ. I., p. 81, Dautzenberg sinks 
his genus Pseiidobittium, established for this species, as a synonym 
of Alaba. 

J Actes Soc. Linn, de Bordeaux, 1910, 



TOMLIN AND SHACKLEFORD : MARINE MOLLtJSCA OF S. THOME. 2^3 

Rissoia similis (Scacchi). 
Rissoa similis Scacchi, Cat. Reg. Nap., p. 14. 

S. Thome, scarce ; Madeira and Selvagens, very abundant (Wat- 
son) ; Mediterranean. 

Alvania cancellata (Da Costa). 
Turbo cancdlatus Da Costa, Brit. Conch., p. 104, pi. 8, f. 6, 9. 

S. Thome, not uncommon; Bay of Praya-Amelia (Dautzenberg) ; 
Canaries, Azores, Madeira ; Atlantic from Great Britain to Morocco ; 
Mediterranean. 

Alvania crispa Watson. 

Watson, P.Z.S., 1873, p. 369, pi. 34, f. 6. 

S. Thome, rare ; Madeira, abundant (Watson). 

Rissoina elegantula Angas. 
Angas, P.Z.S., 1880, p. 417, pi. 40, f. 10. 

S. Thome, not uncommon ; Port Elizabeth and Port Alfred ; South 
Australia. 

Barleeia rubra (Mont.). 
Turbo ruber Montagu, Test. Brit., p. 320. 

S. Thome, abundant; Teneriffe (McAndrew) ; Great Britain to 
Mediterranean. 

The var. unifasciata Mont, also occurs at S. Thome. 

Peringia ulvae (Pennant). 
Turbo ulvae Pennant, Brit. Zool. IV., p. 132, pi. 86, f. 120. 

S. Thome, rare ; Senegal (Dautzenberg) ; Baltic ; Great Britain to 
Gibraltar ; Mediterranean. 

Sub-fossil : Nouakchott (Dautzenberg). 

Dollfus has recently shewn {J. de Cofich., vol. 59, pp. 234-248) 
conclusively that Baster's Turbo stagnalis is a prior name for our 
Paludestrina ventrosa Mont., and that the name ulvae Penn. must be 
adopted for the shell now recorded, 

Truncatella clathrus I.owe. 
Lowe, Zool. Journ., V,, p. 303. 

S. Thome, a few specimens ; W. Indies (Shuttleworth). 

Hipponyx antiquatus (L.). 
Patella antiquata Linne, Syst. Nat., ed. xii., p. 1259. 

S. Thome, not common ; Principe (Nobre) ; Cape Verdes, Bale de 
Hann (Dautzenberg); Loanda (Dunker) ; West Indies; Fernando 
Noronha and Ascension (Smith) ; Australia and Polynesia (Dautzen- 
berg). 



254 JOURNAL OF CONCHOLOGY, VOL. I4, NO. 8, OCTOBER, I914. 

Capulus intortus Lam. 
Lamarck, Anim. Sans Vert., vi., pt. 2, p. 18. 

S. Thome, fairly plentiful ; W. Lidies ; Tryon also gives Mauritius, 
Philippines, and Paumotus. 

Mitrularia equestris (L ). 
Patella equestris Linne, Syst. Nat., ed. x., p. 780. 

S. Thome, not uncommon ; Principe, Cape Verdes and Angola 
(Nobre). According to Tryon, it occurs throughout the China Sea, 
Indian Ocean, W. Indies, on the west coast of Central America, and 
in the Galapagos Is. 

Natica turtoni Smith. 
Smith, Mar. Moll. St. Helena, P.Z.S., i8go, p. 269, pi. xxi., f. 14, 14a. 
S. Thome, rare; St. Helena (Smith); Cape Verdes (Bouvier); 
Bilaouak, Nouakchott, and Rufisque (Dautzenberg). 

Natica dillwyni Payr. 
Payraudeau, Cat. Moll. Corse, p. 120, pi. 5, f. 27, 28. 

S. Thome, not common; Canaries and Madeira, abundant (Watson); 
St. Helena and West Indies (Smith) ; Mediterranean. 

Natica (Mammilla) lactea Guilding. 
Natica lactea Guilding, Trans. Linn. Soc, 183 1, xiii., p. 29. 
Natica lactea Philippi in Conch. Cab., 2nd ed., p. 64, pi. x., f. 7. 

S. Thome, common ; Senegal (Dautzenberg) ; Santa Luzia, C.V. 
(Prince de Monaco); St. Vincent, C.V. (Chalmers); Canaries; 
Rufisque and AV. of Cape Rouge ( Dautzenberg) ; West Indies. 

Sigaretus concavus Lam. 
Lamarck, Anim. Sans Vert., vi., 2nd part, p. 208. 
Weinkaufif, Conch. Cab., 2nd. ed., p. 17, pi. iii., f. i — 3. 

S. Thome, fairly common ; Baies de Hann et de Rufisque (Dautzen- 
berg) ; Dakar and Loanda (Rattray) ; Los Is., Lobito Bay, Mossa- 
medes and Bahia de los Tigres (Dautzenberg). 

lanthina violacea Bolten. 
Bolten, Mus. Bolt., p. 75 (1798). 
lanthina fragilis Lamarck, Anim. Sans Vert., p. 89 (1801). 

S. Thome, common ; St. Vincent, C.V. ; Madeira and Canaries 
(McAndrew) ; Angola (Nobre) ; Great Britain ; Brittany (Cailliaud 
and Tasle) ; common in the Atlantic. 

Epitonium commutatum (Monts.). 
Scalaria conwiiitata Monterosato, Ann. Mus. Civ. Genova, ix., p. 420. 



TOMLIN AND SHACKI.EFORD : MARINE MOLLUSCA OF S. THOME. 255 

S. Thome, not uncommon ; Lemsid, Bilaouak, Banana, and Moss- 
amedes (Dautzenberg) ; Canaries, Cape Verdes, Madeira ; Great 
Britain to Mediterranean; West Indies j Mauritius and Hawaiian 
Islands (Dautzenberg). 

Epitonium crenatum (L.). 
Turbo crenatus Linne, Syst. Nat., ed. x., p. 765. 

S. Thome, rare ; Canaries ; Mediterranean ; Atlantic from the 
Gulf of Gascony to Morocco ; Cansado and Mossamedes (Dautzen- 
berg). 

Epitonium pulchellum (Bivona). 

Scalariii pidchella Bivona, Nuove Gen., p. 21. 

S. Thome, rare ; Mediterranean ; Madeira (Watson). 

Epitonium smithi (Watson). 
Scaiaria smtthiiy^^.ison, Journ. Linn. Soc, Zoology, vol. 26, p. 253, 
pi. 19, f. 20. 
S. Thome, rare ; Madeira (Watson). 

Epitonium hellenicum (Forbes), 
Scalaria hellenica Forbe's, Rep. Aeg. Inv., p. 189. 
S. Thome, rare ; Canaries ; Mediterranean. 

Epitonium grossicostatum (Nyst). 
Scalaria grossicostata Nyst, Tableaux, p. 36. 

S. Thome, rare ; West Indies. 

M, de Boury has kindly confirmed our identification of this 
species. It is probably more often known as E. hotessierianum d'Orb. 

Epitonium candidissimum (Monts.). 
Scalaria candidissijiia Monterosato, yt^/zr;/. de Conch., \'i'i"i^ vol. xxv., 
p. 37, t. 2, f. 5. 
S. Thome, not rare ; Algeria. 
M. de Boury has named this species for us. 

Epitonium atlanticum (de Boury). 
S. Thome. 

Epitonium tenuipunctatum (de Boury). 
S. Thome. 

The names of this and of the preceding species we also owe to M. 
de Boury, and gather from him that they will be described in a paper 
shortly to appear. 

Eulima microstoma Brus. 
Brusina,y! de Condi. , xvii., p. 244 (1869). 

S. Thome, common ; Mediterranean ; Madeira (Watson). 



256 JOURNAL OF CONCHOLOGY, VOL. 14, NO. 8, OCrOBEE, I914. 

Eulima atlantica Smith. 
Smith, P.Z.S., 1890, p. 278, pi. 23, f. 25. 

S. Thome, rare ; St. Helena (Smith) ; Port Elizabeth (Sowerby). 

Obeliscus suturalis von Maltzan. 
Von Maltzan, Nachrichtsbl. d. d. Malak. Ges., 1885, p. 26. 
Dautzenberg, Contrib. Faune Afr. Occ, I., p. 93, pi. iii., f. 4, 5. 

S. Thome, rare ; Rufisque, Los Is., Banana and Congo estuary 
(Dautzenberg) ; Goree (von Maltzan). 

Obeliscus dolabratus (L.). 
Trochus dolabratus Linne, Syst. Nat, ed. x., p. 760. 

S. Thome, not common ; West African coast to Durban and com- 
mon in the Portuguese Colonies (Nobre) \ St. Helena, W. Indies, 
Red Sea, Indian and Pacific Oceans (Smith). 

Turbonilla bulinea (Lowe). 
Menestho bulinea Lowe, P.Z.S., 1840, p. 40. 

S. Thome, rare ; Madeira and Mediterranean (Watson). 

Pyrgulina tricincta (Jeffreys). 
Odostomia tricincta Jeffreys, Moll. Piedmont, p. 44, f. 12, 13. 

S. Thom^, rare ; Piedmont ; Algeria ; Canaries ; N.W. France to 
Mediterranean and Madeira (Watson). 

Pyrgulina spiralis (Mont). 
Turbo spiralis Montagu, Test. Brit., II., p. 323, pi. xii., f. 9. 

S. Thome, rare; Bale de Cansado (Dautzenberg) ; Atlantic from 
Great Britain to Gulf of Gascony ; Mediterranean. 

Pyrgulina excavata (Phil.). 
Rissoa excavata Philippi, Enum. Moll. Sic, II., p. 128. 
S. Thome, scarce ; Great Britain ; Mediterranean. 

Nerita senegalensis Gmel. 
Gmelin, Syst. Nat., ed. xiii., p. 3686. 
Sowerby, Thes., Nerita, pi. 466, f. 76. 

S. Thome, common ; Principe (Nobre) ; Spanish Guinea (Hidalgo); 
Cape Verdes (Bouvier) ; Senegal to Angola. 

Phasianella pullus (L). 
Turbo puUus Linne, Syst. Nat, ed. xii., p. 1233. 

S. Thome, common; Madeira, common (Watson); Canaries; 
Great Britain to Mediterranean and Mogadon 

(To be continued). 



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Vol. 141. 



JANUARY 1st 1915. 



[No. 9. 



THE 



JOURNAL 

CONCHOLOGY. 

FOUNDED 1874. 

BEING THE ORGAN OF THE CONG HOLOGICAL SOCIETY 
OF GREA7 BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 

PUBLISHED QDAllTEKIiY. 



Hon. Editor : 
J.R. leB.TOMLIN,M.A.,F.E.S. 
i^akefoot, 
Hamilton Kd. , Reading. 



Hon. Secketaky: 

Rev. L.J.SHACKLEFORD, 

66, Granville Road, 

Blackpool. 



Hon. Tke.isuker: 

E. D. BOSTOCK, 

OuLTON Cross, 

Stone, Staffs. 



COITTEITTS. 

page 
Constitution of the Conchologieal Society of Great Britain and 

Ireland ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 257 

List of Officers and Council for 19 14-15 ... ... ... ... 258 

List of Members .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 259 

Fluviatile R'lollusca from Tort Patrick — J. N. Kennedy ... ... 266 

The Marine MoUusca of Sao Thome, I. (Concluded) — J. R. le B. 

ToMLiN and L. J. Shackleford ... 267 

Dextral Specimen of Clausilia bidentata — A. E. Boycott... ... 276 

Proceedings: Oct. J[4th ; Nov. nth, 1914 ... ... ... ... 277 

Obituary Notice : A. J. Jukes-Browne — J. C. Melvill 281 

Editorial Notes 285 

Review: Manual of the New Zealand Molhisca — T. Iredale ... 287 

Arion ater var. rufa and Testacella scutulum at Stoke-on-Trent 

— B. Bryan 288 

Helicella virgata m. sinistrorsum near Scarborough — W. Gyngell 288 



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The Lancashire Naturalist, 

A Monthly Journal of Natural History for the County of 
Lancashire, and for the adjacent districts of Cheshire, 
Derbyshire, Westmorland, North Wales & the Isle of Man. 

Conducted by MR. W. H. WESTERN, 
Assisted in Special Departments by Competent Referees. 

Annual Subscription, 5/- post free, should be sent direct to the Editor, 
Mr. \V. H. Western, 139, Bea-i'rice Terrace, Darwen, Lancashire. 



257 



JOURNAL OF CONCHOLOGY. 



Vol. 14. JANUARY, 1915. No. 9. 



CONSTITUTION OF THE 

CONCHOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF GREAT BRITAIN 

AND IRELAND. 



I.— This Society shall be called *' ZbC COUCfDOlOgiCal SOCiCtg Of ©leat 

:fi3dtain aiiD JrelanD." 

2. — Its object shall be the promotion of the science of Conchology, by the hold- 
ing of Meetings for the reading and discussion of original papers, by the 
publication of Proceedings, and by the formation of a Library and Collec- 
tions illustrative of the science. 

3. — It shall consist of Ordinary and Honorary Members. 

4. — Ordinary Members shall be proposed by two Members at one meeting, and 
balloted for at the next. They shall pay, in advance, on the 1st January 
in each year, a subscription of 5/-> or may compound for life by the pay- 
ment of Three Guineas. If on December 31st of any year a member shall 
be three or more years in arrear with his or her subscription, the Council 
shall erase his or her name from the list of members, and shall take what- 
ever steps seem desirable for recovery of the arrears. The Council shall 
further report the erasure of such names to the next meeting of the Society 
with a view to their publication in the Journal. 

5. — Composition Fees shall be invested in Books, Cabinets, or other permanent 
property, or in such other manner as the Council may think most conducive 
to the benefit of the Society. 

6. — The number of Honorary Members shall be limited to ten, and they shall be 
exempt from all payments and have the privileges of Ordinary Members. 

7. — It shall be governed by a Council, consisting of a President, two elected Vice- 
Presidents, a Treasurer, a Secretary, a Curator, a Recorder, a Librarian, 
an Editor, and six other members, who shall be elected annually by ballot ; 
the voting paper issued to be returned to the Secretary, under cover of 
sealed envelope, addressed to the Scrutineers. Any two of the following 
offices may be held by one person, viz. : — Treasurer, Secretary, Curator, 
Recorder, Librarian, and Editor. The President and vSecretary of the 
Leeds and London Branches and such other branches as may afterwards 
be accepted at an annual meeting shall, ex officio, also be members of 
the Council of the Society. 

8. — The Presidency shall not be tenable for more than one year at a time, and 
the President is expected to give an address. On the conclusion of his term 
of office, he shall become an ex officio Vice-President of the Society and an 
ex officio Member of the Council. 

9. — The meetings shall be held monthly, at the time and place fixed by the 
Council, who shall also have power to arrange such additional meetings 
as they may think desirable. 
10. — Three shall be a quorum at all meetings. 

Q 



258 



JOURNAL OF CONCHOI.OGY, VOL. I4, NO. 9, JANUARY, I915. 



II. — The Annual Meeting shall be held at such time and place as may be fixed at 

the previous Annual Meeting, to receive the Reports and Balance Sheet 

of the out-going Council, and to elect a Council and Officers for the 

ensuing year. 
12.— The accounts, before being presented, shall be audited by two members, 

appointed at a previous meeting. 
13. — The Proceedings shall be published periodically, under the direction of the 

Council. 
14. — The Capital and Property shall be vested in two Trustees, elected by the 

Society. 
15. — No alterations in the rules shall be made, unless by a majority of three-fourths 

of the members present at a meeting which has been specially summoned. 



The Annual Subscription is Five Shillings, due on the ist January in 
each year. 

♦•••♦ 

LIST OF OFFICERS AND COUNCIL FOR 19x4-19x5. 

PRESIDENT : 

RICHARD BULLEN NEWTON, F.G.S. 



VICE-PRESIDENTS 



EDWARD COLLIER \ -r,, , , 
B. R. LUCAS / ^'^'^'"^• 

L E. ADAMS, B.A. 
WILLIAM CASH, F.G.S., F.R.M.S. 
W. E. COLLINGE, M.Sc, F L.S., 

F.E.S. 
Lt.-Coi.. H. H. GODWIN-AUSTEN, 

F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. H. M. GWATKIN, M.A. 
Prof. S. J. HICKSON, D.Sc, M.A., 

F.R.S. 



Rev. Canon J. W. HORSLEY, M.A. 

W. E. HOYLE, M.A., D.Sc. 

T. R. B. MASEl'TELD, M.A. 

j. C. MELVILL, M. A., D.Sc, F.L.S. 

Rev. Canon A. M. NORMAN, 

D.C.L., F.R.S., etc. 
W. DENISON ROEBUCK, F.L.S. 
R. F. SCHARFF, Ph.D., M.R.I.A. 
EDGAR A. SMITH, I.S.O., F.Z.S. 
E. R. SYKES, B.A., F.Z.S. 
JOHN W. TAYLOR. 



HON. treasurer : 

E. D. B O S T O C K. 

HON. EDITOR : 

J. R. i.e BROCKTON TOMLIN.M. A., 
F.E.S. 



HON. SECRETARY : 

Rev. LEWIS J. SIIACKLEFORD. 



HON. LIBRARIAN : 

J. WILFRID JACKSON, F.G.S. 



HON. CURATOR : 

ROBERT STANDEN. 

E. C. STUMP. 

R. WELCH, M.R.I.A. 

JOHN RAY HARDY. 



HON. RECORDER : 

W. DENLSON ROEBUCK, F.L.S. 



COUNCIL : 

FREDERICK TAYLOR. 
G. C. SPENCE. 

Prof. A. E. BOYCOTT, M.A,, D.M., 
F.R.S. 



LEEDS BRANCH. 
Phesident - - -A. HARTLEY. 

Hon. Secketaky - - F. BOOTH. 



LONDON BRANCH. 
Pkesident - - W. C. W. VINCENT. 
Hon. Secretary - J. E. COOPER. 



NORTH STAFFORDSHIRE BRANCH. 



President - 
Hon. Secretary 



J. R. B. MASEFIELD, M.A. 
B. BRYAN. 



259 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 

Corrected to Dec. 26th, 1914. 



(With year of election ; O = founder, or original member; L = Life Member ; P = has filled 
the office of President ; *post packets have been returned undelivered). 



HONORARY MEMBERS. 

(Limited to ten in number). 

1889. Cossmann, Maurice, 95, Rue de Maubeuge, Paris. 

1897. Dall, Wm. Healey, A.M., D.Sc, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, 
D.C., U.S.A. 

1913. Dautzenberg, Ph., 213, Rue de I'Universite, Paris. 
1878. Kobelt, Dr. Wilhelm, Schwanheim, Frankfurt-am-Main. 

1905. Pelseneer, Prof. Paul, 56, Boulevard Leopold, Ghent, Belgium. 

1906. Pilsbry, H. A., Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, Pa., U.S.A. 
1889. Sars, Prof. CO., Universitet, Christiania, Norway. 

1889. Simroth, Dr. Heinrich Rudolph, Kregelstrasse 12, Leipzig-Gautsch. 

1905. Strebel, Dr. Hennann, Naturhistorisches ATuseum, Hamburg. 
O /"Taylor, John W., North Grange, Horsforth, Leeds. 

ORDINARY MEMBERS. 

1903. Abbott, G., 83, Russell Street, Kettering. 

1906. Adams, F. E. , St. Milburga's, Kingsland, Shrewsbury. 

1885. /"Adams, Lionel Ernest, B.A., Oak Hill, Chart Road, Reigate, Surrey. 
191 1. Allan, Harry, jr., Glenfield, Edgeley Road, Stockport. 

1914. Arkell, A. J., Hinxhill Rectory, Ashford, Kent. 
1895. Arnold, Bernard, F. L.S., Milton Lodge, Gravesend. 

1908. Bacchus, A. D. R., National Provincial Bank of England, Roath, Cardift. 

1907. Baily, Joshua L., jr., Haverford, Pa., U.S.A. 
1913. Baker, Dr. Fred., Point Loma, California, U.S.A. 

1908. Balch, F. N., 60. State Street (Rooms 504-507), Boston, Mass., U.S.A. 
1911. Barnard, K. H., B.A., South African Museum, Capetown. 

1913. Z Bartlett, H. F. D., F.E.S., i. Myrtle Road, Bournemouth. 

1907. Bartsch, Dr. Paul, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., U.S.A. 

1907. Bavay, A., 82, Rue Lauriston, xvi*^, Paris. 

1905. Becker, Dr. H., F. L.S., F. S.A., Grahamstown, Cape Colony. 

1901. Beeston, Harry, Sunnymead, South Street, Havant, Hants. 

1904. Bellini, Prof. Raffaello, R. Scuola Tecnica, Chivasso, Torino, Italy. 
1904. Benn, C. A., M.A., F.G.S., Rodwell Hall, Trowbridge. 

1901. Bentley, R. H., 60, Rosebery Road, Muswell Ilill, N. 

1897. Blackburn, Rev. Ed. Percy, Highclere, Queen's Road, Broadstairs. 

1899. Bladen, W. Wells, Stone, Staffordshire. 

1897. Blake, Wm. Charles, 2, Acacia Villas, Ross, Herefordshire. 



26o JOURNAL OF CONCHOLOGY, VOL. I4, NO. 0, JANUARY, I915. 

1895. Bles, Edward J., M.A., D.Sc, Elterholm, Mading ey Road, Cambridge. 
1897. Bliss, Joseph, Boar Bank Hall, Grange-over-Sands. 

1907. * Bloomer, H. II., 35, Paradise Street, Birmingham. 
1899. Blundell, Mrs. Jessie M., Argyll House, Cirencester. 

1912. Bonner-Chambers, T., Start Point, Kingsbridge. 

1910. Booker, H. H., 153, Alljert Road, Heeley, Sheffield. 

1904. Booth, Fred, 18, Queen's Road, Shipley, Yorks. 

1884. Bostock, Edwin D., Oulton Cross, Stone, Staffordshire. 

1906. Boult, J. W. , 50, Washington Street, Newland, Hull. 

1897. Z Boycott, Professor A. E., F.R.S., 27, Rathen Rd. ,Withington, Manchester. 

1908. Brainerd, Mrs. H. D., Captiva, Lee Co., Florida, U.S.A. 
1900 Z Broadbent, Dr. G. H., 8, Ardwick Green, Manchester. 
1899. Brooksbank, Hugh, M.B., College Road, Windermere. 

1905. Bromehead, C. N., Beverston Rectory, Tetbury. 

191 1. Brown, Edmund R., 235, Brunswick Street, Manchester. 

1913. Bryan, B., 176, Uttoxeter Road, Longton, Staffs. 

1897. Burnup, Henry Clifden, Box 182 P.O., Maritzburg, Natal. 

1879. Butterell, J. Darker, Manor House, Wansford, Hull. 

1906. Butterfield, W. Ruskin, Corporation Museum, Hastings. 

1902. Button, Fred. L. , Bacon Building, Oakland, California, U.S.A. 

1906. Z Carpenter, Geoffrey D. H., B.A., M.B., c/o P.M.O., Entebbe, Uganda. 
1913. Carr, Professor G. W., University College Museum, Nottingham. 
1878. /'Cash, William, F.G.S., F.R.M.S., 35, Commercial Street, Halifax. 

1903. Cattell, W. Chas. , The Poplars, Montagu Street, Kettering. 
1913. Chalmers, J., c/o The Hon. Secretary. 

1892. Champ, Hy., c/o S. & J. Watts & Co., Portland Street, Manchester. 
1905. Charnley, Jas. Roland, F.Z.S., F.E.S. , The Avenue, Moor Park, Preston. 

1889. Christy, Robert Miller, F.L.S., The Blue House, Chignal St. James, 

Chelmsford, Essex. 

1904. Clapp, Geo. H. , Corner 7lh & Bedford Aves., Pittsburgh, Pa., U.S.A. 
1913. Clapp, W. F., 25, Ware Street, Cambridge, Mass., U.S.A. 

1886. Coates, Henry, F.R.S.E., Corarder, Perth. 

1880. Collier, Edwd., Glen Esk, Whalley Range, Manchester. 

1898. PL Collinge, Walter Ed. , M. Sc. , F. L. S. , F. E. S. , 8, Newhall St. , Birmingham. 
1913. Connolly, Major M., 18, Brompton Square, London, S.W. 

1901. Cooke, Rev. Alfred H., M.A., Aldenham School, Elstree, Herts. 

1892. Cooper, James Eddowes, Cadboro, 53, North Road, Ilighgate, N. 

1890. Crawford, James, c/o J. C. Kemsley and Co., Port Elizabeth, Cape Colony. 
1910. Cribb, C. Theodore, The Vicarage, Shipley, Yorks. 

1899. Crowther, J. E., Portland Street, Elland, Yorks. 



1897 

1913 
1899 

1913 
1909 
1898 
1909 
1909 
1907 
1910, 



Dacie, John Charles, 30, Montserrat Road, Putney, ,S.W. 

Dalton, E. N., 62, The Avenue, Highams Park, Chingford. 

Darnbrough, Frederick, 12, West End Terr., Yarm Rd., Stockton-on-Tees. 

Davey, W. J., 19, Allfarthing Lane, Wandsworth Common, S.W. 

Dawes, L. , Hambledon, Hants. 

Dean, J. Davy, 69, Connaught Road, Cardiff. 

Dickson, Robert Cecil, M.B., Ch.B., 29, Strathmartine Road, Dundee. 

Diver, Cyril, The Birches, Haslemere. 

Dupont, Evenor, Hell-Bourg, Reunion. 

Dyke, F. M., B.Sc. (Lond.), Nelson Croft, Church Rd., Bebiiigton, Cheshire. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 261 

1895. Edwards, Thos., 247, Narborough Road, Leicester. 

1901. Edwards, W. H. , Hastings Museum, Victoria Institute, Worcester. 

1 89 1. Elgar, Hubert, Museum and Public Library, Maidstone. 

I904.Z Eliot, Sir Chas., K.C.M.G., Endcliffe Holt, EndclitTe Crescent, Sheffield. 

1884. Elliot, Edward J., High Street, Stroud, Gloucestershire. 

1910. Elliott, W. T., b.D.S., F.Z.S., Tanworth-in-Arden, Worcs. 

1913. Emmett, H., 156, Moston Street, Hanley, Staffs. 

1894. Evans, Wm., F.R.S.E., 38, Morningside Park, Edinburgh. 



1897.Z Farquhar, John, 3, Rose Terrace, African Str., Grahamstown, Cape Colony_ 

1891. Farrer, Captain Wm. James, Chapel House, Bassenthwaite, Keswick. 
1897. Fielding, Clement, M.P.S., Clover Hill, Halifax, Yorks. 

1884./. Fitzgerald, Rev. H. Purefoy, F.L.S., Lidwells, Goudhurst, Kent. 
1913. Fordred, Mrs. E., Wychmont, St. Bernard's, Olton, Warwickshire. 
1905. Foster, Miss Amy C. S., Hendra, Alum Chine, Bournemouth. 
191 2. Z Frames, P. R. , P.O. Box 148, Johannesburg, S. Africa. 

1905. Freeman, William, Hawkhurst, Milton Road, Oundle. 

1906. * Freyberg, Cuthbert, 27, Hawker Street, Wellington, New Zealand. 

1892. Fulton, Hugh, River Side, Kew, near London. 
1913. Fysher, Greevz, 78, Chapel Allerton Terrace, Leeds. 



1907. Z Gabriel, Charles J., 297, Victoria Street, Abbotsford, Victoria, Australia. 

1914. Gardiner, Alan, B.Sc, Quies, Porchester Road, Newbury. 

1913. Gauntlett, H. L., M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P., A.K.C., 39, Oakhill Road, 

Putney, S.W. 
1911. Geiser, Samuel W., Upper Iowa University, Fayette, Iowa, U.S.A. 
1887. Gerland, Conrad, M.Sc, Ph.D., F.C.S., Meadow Bank, Accrington. 
1908. Gill, Mrs. A. E., Dinant Cottage, i, Claude Road, Chorlton-cum-Hardy. 
1910. Gnosspelius, Miss Hilda T. , Silver Holme, Newby Bridge, Ulverston. 
1886.Z Godlee, Theo., Whips Cross, Walthamstow, Essex. 
1897./' Godwin-Austen, H. H., Lt.-Col., F.R.S.,etc.,Nore, Hascombe,Godalming. 

1906. Gomez, A. da Costa, 201, St. James' Place, Brooklyn, N.Y., U.S.A. 
1904. Gray, Arthur F., 509, Exchange Buildings, Boston, Mass., U.S.A. 
1904. Grierson, P. H., Kilcarberry House, Clondalkin, Dublin. 

1890. Gude, G. K., F.Z.S., 9, Wimbledon Park Road, S.W. 

l886./'Gwatkin, Rev. Prof. H. M., D.D., M.A., 8, Scrope Terrace, Cambridge. 

1907. Gyngell, Walter, 13, Gladstone Road, Scarborough. 



1909. Haas, Dr. Fritz, Senkenbergisches Museum, Victoria Allee, 7, Frankfurt- 

am-Main. 

1910. Hadden, Norman- G., St. Audrey's, Priory Road, Malvern. 
1895. Hann, Rev. Adam, i. Park Terrace, Halifax. 

1895. Hardy, John Ray, The Museum, The University, Manchester. 

1887. Hargreaves, J. A., 40, North Marine Road, Scarborough. 

19 1 3. Harman, A., 5, Harley Street, Scalby Road, Scarborough. 

1909. Harrison, Richard, 28, Allen Street, Hulme, Manchester. 

1889. Hartley, Alfred, 19, Thorpe Garth, Idle, near Bradford, Yorks. 

1887. Harvard, T. Mawson, 4, Queen's Leaze, Forest Hill, S.E. 

1907. Hawkins, II. L. , University College, Reading. 

1903. Hawkins, John, J. P., 35, Avenue Road, Grantham. 



262 JOURNAL OF CONCHOLOGY, VOL. 14, NO. 9, JANUARY, I915. 

1887. Heathcote, Wm. Henry, F.L.S.,The Marsh, Longton, Preston, Lanes. 
1907. Henderson, J. 13., jr., i6th Street and P'lorida Avenue, Washington, D.C., 

U.S.A. 
1913. Heller, Julius, Villa Gisela, Teplitz, Bohemia. 
1887. Hey, Thomas, 8, Bloomfield Street, Derby. 

1895. Hibbert, Charles R. C, Riccard's Down, Abbotsham, Bideford, Devon. 
l895./'Hickson, Prof. Sydney J., D.Sc, M.A., F.R.S., University, Manchester. 
1893. Hill, John, Pike's Villa, Little Eaton, near Derby. 
1886.Z Hillman, Thomas Stanton, Eastgate Street, Lewes, Sussex. 
1907. Hindley, R. T., The Green Way, Macclesfield. 

1906. Hirase, Y., Karasumaru, Kyoto, Japan. 

191 1. Hitchon, Mrs. Susan A., Rhyddington, Oswaldtwistle, Lanes. 
i89i./'HorsIey, Rev. Canon J. W., Detling Vicarage, Maidstone. 

1907. Horwood, A. R. , Leicester Museum and Art Galleries, Leicester. 
1907. Howard, Vernon, Carlton Lodge, Eastgate, Louth. 

1884. Howell, George O. , 210, Eglinton Road, Plumstead, Kent. 

1892. Howorth, Sir Henry Hoyle, K.C.I.E., M.P., F.R.S., etc., 30, CoUingham 

Gardens, London, S.W. 
1886. /"Hoyle, W. E., M.A., D.Sc, The National Museum of Wales, Cardiff. 
1895. Hudson, Rev. Hy. A., 445, Stretford Road, Manchester. 
1909. Huggins, Henry C, 17, Clarence Place, Gravesend. 
191 1. Humphreys, Griffith, I, Belsize Avenue, London, N.W. 
1905. Hutton, W. Harrison, 44, Dial Street, Leeds. 



1913. Ingrams, W. H., The School House, Shrewsbury. 



1901. Jackson, J. Wilfrid, F.G.S., The Museum, Tiie University, Manchester. 

1912. Jenkinson, Charles, i, High.<^treet, Kettering. 

1891. Jenner, James Herbert Augustus, F. E. S., Eastgate House, Lewes. 

1912./^ Jewell, Miss F. , Emsworlh, Hants. 

1906. Johnson, Chas. W., Boston Society of Natural History, Boston, Mass., 

U.S.A. 
1908. Jolliffe, J. E. A., 10, Grange Road, Weymouth. 
1894. Jones, Fleet-Surgeon K. IL, M.B., Ch.B., F.Z.S., R.N., The Manor 

House, St. Stephen's, Canterbury. 



1907. Kendall, Rev. C. E. Y., 190, Lincoln Road, Peterborough. 
l897--^ Kennard, A. S. , Benenden, Mackenzie Road, Beckenham, Kent. 
1914. Kennedy, J. Noble, R.N., H.M.S. Antrim, c/o G.P.O., London. 
1902.Z Kensett, Percy F., Broadmeadow, Coombe Lane, Wimbledon, S.W. 
1897. Kenyon, Mrs. Agnes Fleming, 291, Highett St., Richmond, Melbourne, 

Victoria. 
1889. Knight, Rev. G. A. Frank, M.A., F.R.S.E., 52, Sardinia Terrace, Hillhead, 

Glasgow. 



1 901 . Laidlaw, F. F. , M. A. , Cranston's Ivanhoe Hotel, Bloomsbury St. , London, W.C. 
1899. Lancaster, Ernest Le Cronier, B.A. , M.B., Winchester House, Swansea. 
1879. Laver, Henry, M.R.C.S., F.L.S., Head Street, Colchester, Essex. 
1894./^ Lawson, Peter, Jesmond, Nella Rd.,Fulham Palace Rd., Hammersmith, W. 



1905 

IQOO. 
I9II 
I9IO, 

iS,. 

1909 
1908 
I912 
1898 
I9IO 
189I 



LIST OF MEMBKRS. 263 

Laycock, John, Sidney, Manitoba, Canada. 

Lebour, Miss M. V., Radcliffe House, Corbridge-on-Tyne, Northumberland. 

Leman, George C, Wynyard, 152, West Hill, Putney, S.W. 

Levett, Rev. T. T., F.Z.S., Frenchgate, Richmond, Yorks. 

Lightfoot, Robert M. , South African Museum, Cape Town. 

Linton, Mrs., Ye Okie Mill House, Castle Hill, Northallerton. 

Longstaff, Mrs. G. B., F.L.S., Highlands, Putney Heath, S.W. 

Loyd, L. R. W., 17, Sandringham Court, Maida Vale, W. 

lAicas, B. R., Winnington Park, Northwich, Cheshire. 

Lucas, F. R. Tindall, Tewin Vale, Welwyn. 

Lyons, Lady, Kilvrough, Parkmill, R.S.O., Glamorganshire. 



1889. MacAndrew, James J-, F.L.S., etc., Lukesland, Ivy Bridge, Devonshire. 

1906. Macindoe, Dr. A., D.P. IL, Sidmouth, Devon. 

191 1. MacLeod, D. J., Hof Ter Meere, 13, Reigerstraat, Ghent, Belgium. 

1S84. Madison, James, 10, Highgate Road, Sparkbrook, Birmingham. 

191 1. March, Miss M. C. , M.Sc. , Healey Grove, Barnley, Lanes. 

1885. Marquand, Ernest D., A.L.S., St. Mildred's Hall, Turl Street, Oxford. 

1887. Marsliall, J. T., c/o Editor oi Journal of Conchology. 
i887./'Masefield, John R. B., M.A., Rosehill, Cheadle, Staffordshire. 

1904. Massy, Miss A. L. , Tredagh, Malahide, co. Dublin. 

1905. Maxwell, Mrs. Miller, Bangholm Bower, Goldenacre, Edinburgh. 
1889. Mayfield, Arthur, Mendlesham, Stowmarket, Suffolk. 

1914. Mazyck, W. G., Hon. Curator, Charleston Museum, S. Carolina, U.S.A. 

1903. McClelland, Hugh, Stretton, Balsall Street, Berkswell, Warwickshire. 
1914. McMurtrie, Rev. John, M.A., The Manse, Skene, Aberdeenshire. 

1880. /'Melvill, James Cosmo, M.A., D.Sc, F.L.S., Meole Brace Hall, Shrewsbury. 

1904. Milne, James N., Foylemore, St. Jude's Avenue, Belfast. 

1907. Milner, Miss Lucinda, Clevelands, Ellesmere Park, Eccles, Manchester. 

1906. Monterosato, II Marchese di, 2, Via Gregorio Ugdalena, Palermo, Sicily. 

1910. IMoorcock, J., 91, Broadfield Road, Catford, S.E. 
1902.Z Moore, Chas. IL, 103, Mottram Road, Stalybridge. 

1908. Moore, Albert J., 9, Brook Street, Hull. 

1907. Morey, Frank, F. L.S.,Wolverton, Carisbrooke Rd., Newport, IsleofWight. 

1912. Murdoch, G. H., 49, Parliament Hill, Hampstead, N. W. 

1906. Murdoch, R., Wanganui, New Zealand. 

1907. Musham, J. F., F.E.S., Haylands, Brook Street, Selby, Yorks. 

1905. * Napier, H. C, 15, The Common, Woolwich. 

191 1. Nash, Rev. E. H., M.A., Wetley Rocks Vicarage, Stoke-on-Trent. 
1903. Nash, P. B., Bruce Mines, Algona, Ont. , Canada. 

1891. /"Newton, Richard BuUen, F.G.S., 11, Twyford Crescent, Acton Hill, 

London, W. 
1891./^ Norman, Rev. Canon Alfred Merle, D.C.L., F.R.S., etc.. The Red 

House, Eerkhamsted. 
1901. Norton, Miss E. M., 20, Eastfield Road, Westbury-on-Trym, near Bristol. 

1887. Oldham, Charles, Kelvin, Boxwell Road, Eerkhamsted. 
1910. Oliver, A. M. , West Jesmond Villa, Newcastle-ori-Tyne. 
1896. Overton, Harry, The Newlands, Boswell Road, Sutton Coldfield. 
i905.ZOwston, Alan, Yokohama, Japan. 



264 JOURNAL OF CONCHOLOGY, VOL. I4, NO. 9, JANUARY, I915. 

1904. Parritt, H. W. , 14, Stanhope Gardens, Highgate, N. 

1902. Pattison, Ernest, 52, Saxe Coburg Street, Leicester. 

1886. Pearce, Rev. S. Spencer, M.A., Long Combe Vicarage, near Woodstock, 

Oxfordshire. 

1913. Pellon, N. E. , 60, Sampson Road, Sparkbrook, Birmingham. 

1901. Penrose, G., Royal Institution of Cornwall, Truro. 

1907. Petty, S. L., Dykelands, Ulverston, Lanes. 

1908. Phillips, R. A., Ashburton, Cork. 

191 3. Pickard, Bertram, Tregenna, Mansfield. 

1904. Piatt, Thos. H., Harpurhey Mill, Rochdale Road, Manchester. 
1886. Ponsonby, John H., F.Z.S., 15, Chesham Place, London, vS. W. 

1905. Poole, W. G. , South Lawn, Godalming. 

191 3. Presbrey, E. W., 17, Trinity Place, New Rochelle, N.V., U.S.A. 

1903. Preston, Henry, F.G.S., Hawthornden Villa, Spittlegate, Grantham. 
1897. Preston, Hugh Berfhon, F.Z.S., 53, West Cromwell Road, London, S.W. 
1907. Priske, R. A. R., 9, Melbourne Avenue, West Ealing, Middlesex. 

1906. A Pritchard, G. B., F.G.S., 38, Mantell Street, Moonee Ponds, Victoria. 



l9o6.ZRadley, Percy E., F.R.M.S., 30, Foxgrove Road, Beckenham, Kent. 

1899. Ramanan, Vedaraniam Venkata, M.A., F.Z.S., 12, Sami Pillai Street, 

Triplicane, Madras, S. India. 
1906. * Reynell, Alexander, Caerleon, Whyteleafe Road, Caterham. 

1905. Reynolds, Laurence R. , 233, Aspinwall Avenue, Brookline, Mass., U.S.A. 
1913. Rhodes, F. , 113, Heaton Road, Manningham, Bradford, Yorks. 

1900. Richards, C- P., Mission House, Stenalees, St. Austell, Cornwall. 

1906. * Ritchie, John, jr.. Box 2795, Boston, Mass., U.S.A. 
1898. Roberts, A. William Rymer, The Common, Windermere. 

1913. Roberts, J. W. , 145, Withington Road, Whalley Range, Manchester. 
O P Roebuck, Wm. Denison, F.L.S., 259, Hyde Park Road, Leeds. 

1907. RoUe, Hermann, Speyerstrasse 8, Berlin, W. 

1901. Rooth, J. A., M.R.C.S., 6, Richmond Terrace, Brighton. 
1905. Rope, Geo. T., Blaxhall, Tunstall, Suffolk. 

1893. Roseburgh, John, Market Square, Galashiels, Roxburgh. 

1892. Rosevear, John Burman, 109, New King's Rd., Fulham, S.W. 

1910. ZRowe, A. W., M.S., M.B., M.A.C.S., F.G.S., Shottendane, Margate. 



1914. Saban, Alfred J., 318, Ivydale Road, Peckham Rye, S.E. 

1906. Salisbury, Albert E., 12a, The Park, Ealing, W. 

i877./'Scharff, Robert F., Ph.D., M.R.I.A., Knockranny, Bray, co. Wicklow. 

1906. Schepman, M. M., Bosch en Duin, Huister Heide, Utrecht, Holland. 

1895. Z Schill, C. H., Crosten Towers, Alderley Edge. 

1886. Scott, Thomas, LL.D., F.L.S., 280, Victoria Road, Torry, Aberdeen, 

1893. Shackleford, Rev. Lewis John, 66, Granville Road, Blackpool. 

1910. Z Shaw, H. O. N., B.Sc, F.Z.S., Skreens Park, Roxwell, near Chelmsford. 

1904. Shaw, Rev. W. A., Peper Harow Rectory, Godalming. 
1906. Shopland, Commander E. R., i, Estivals, Oulton Broad. 
1910. Shrubsole, George, Elm Bank, Workington, Cumberland. 
1895. Sich, Alfred, F.E.S., Corney House, Chiswick, W. 
1906. Sikes, F. H., M.A., F.L. S., Sackville House, Sevenoaks. 

1905. Simpson, James, c/o G. Sim, Esq., A.L.S., 52, Castle Street, Aberdeen. 
1902. Smallman, Raleigh S., Eliot Lodge, Albemarle Road, Beckenham. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 265 

l886./'Smith, Edgar A., I.S.O., F.Z.S., 22, Heathfield Road, Acton, W. 

1892. Smith, Mrs. Louisa J., Monmouth House, Monmouth St., Topsham, Exeter 

1899. /^ Smith, Mrs. Lucy A., Cricklade Street, Cirencester. 

1907. Smith, Maxwell, Hartsdale, Westchester Co., New York, U.S.A. 

1894. Smith, VVm. Chas., 92, Dawes Road, Fulham, S.W. 

1900. Solly, E. H., 3, South Street, Deal, Kent. 

1886. Sowerby, Geo. Brettingham, F.L.S., River Side, Kew, near London. 

1907. Spence, G. C. , 10, Pine Grove, Monton, Eccles, Lanes. 

1914. Stainton, Ernest, 70, Jubilee Road, Doncaster. 

1906. Stalley, Henry J., Thorntona, Oxted, Surrey. 

1886. Standen, Robert, The Museum, The University, Manchester. 

191 1. Standish, C. M., Prospect House, Weldbank, Chorley. 

1903. /, Stelfox, A. W., The Bungalow, Ballywilliam, Donaghadee, co. Down. 
1906. Step, Edward, F.L.S., Oakwood House, Ashstead, Surrey. 
1910. Stephenson, H. L., 90, Tempest Road, Beeston Hill, Leeds. 
1908. Z Stobart, H. J. S., Belbroughton, Stourbridge. 

1896. Stonestreet, Rev. W. T., B.D., F.R.S.L., c/o The New Church Book 

Depot, 18, Corporation Street, Manchester. 

1897. Stracey, Bernard, M.B., Priory Lodge, 16, New Walk, Leicester. 
1890. Stubbs, Arthur Goodwin, The Meads Cottage, Hailey Lane, Hertford. 

1893. Stump, Edward Consterdine, 13, Polefield Road, Blackley, Manchester. 

19 1 2. Sturt, E. G. M., Lismore, Cavendish Road, Weybridge. 
1912. Sturt, G. L. , Lismore, Cavendish Road, Weybridge. 

1895. Swanton, E. W., The Educational Museum, Haslemere, Surrey. 
1888. /"Sykes, Ernest Ruthven, B.A. , F.L.S., Longthorns, Blandford. 



1910. Tattersall, W. M., D. Sc, The Museum, The University, Manchester. 
1895. Taylor, Frederick, 32, Landseer Street, Park Road, Oldham, Lanes. 
1907. Taylor, G. H., School House, Higher Blackley, Manchester. 
1904. /^* Taylor, Gerald Medland, Rossall School, Fleetwood. 

1907. Taylor, J. Kidson, 45, South Avenue, Buxton. 

1904. * Taylor, Thos., Wotea, Grafton Road, Auckland, New Zealand. 
1903. Thaanum, D., 5, Church Street, Plilo, Hawaiian Islands. 

1908. Thomas, Rev. R. E., M.A. , St. Martin's Clergy House, Salisbury. 
1907. Z Thornton, H. G., Kingsthorpe Hall, Northampton. 
i886.Z,Tomlin, J. R. le Brockton, M.A., F.E.S., Lakefoot, Reading. 

1906. Turton, Lt.-Col. W. PL, D.S.O., R.E., 80, Caledonia Place, Clifton, Bristol. 

1907. Upton, Charles, Rooksmoor, Tuffley Avenue, Gloucester. 

1914. Van der Sleen, Dr. W. G. N., Eidenoutstraat 6^, Haarlem, Holland. 

1899. Vaughan, J. Williams, J. P., Pen-y-maes, Hay, via Hereford. 

1897. Vignal, Louis, 28, Avenue Duquesne, Paris. 

1902. Vincent, W. C. W., 39, West Bank, Stamford Hill, London, N. 

1898. Wakefield, H. Rowland, 7, Montpelier Terrace, Swansea. 

1891. Walker, Bryant, 1306, Dime Bank Building, Detroit, Michigan, U.S.A. 

1907. Wallis, E. A., Springfield, West Parade, Scarborough. 

1900. Z Watson, Hugh, Bracondale, The Avenue, Cambridge. 

1908. Weaver, G. H., 31, Devonshire Road, Palmer's Green, N. 

1900. Webb, Walter F., 202, Westminster Road, Rochester, N.Y., U.S.A. 



266 JOURNAL OF CONCHOLOGY, VOL. I4, NO. 9, JANUARY, I915. 

1902. Weeks, Wm. H., jr., 508, Willoughby Avenue, Brooklyn, N.Y., U.S.A. 
1895. Welch, Robert John, M.R.I. A., 49, Lonsdale Street, Belfast. 

19 1 3. Western, W. H., 9, Redearth Road, Darwen. 
1907. Wheat, Silas C, 9S7, Sterling Place, Brooklyn, N.Y., U.S.A. 
1S86. Whitwell, Wm., Brookside, Darley Knowle, Warwickshire. 
191 1. * Williams, James M. M., Imperial House, Ponllottyn, Cardiff. 

1889. Williams, John M., 31, Grove Park, Liverpool. 

1913. Winckvirorth, Ronald, 37, Upper Rock Gardens, Brighton. 

1890. Wood, Albert, Midland Lodge, Sutton Coldfield. Warwickshire. 

1910. Woodcock, R., Fauvic, Jersey. 
i90i.ZWoodruffe-Peacock, Rev. E. A., F.L.S., etc., Cadney, Brigg, Lines. 

191 1. Woods, Rev. F. H., B.D., Bainton Rectory, Driffield. 
1898. Woods, Henry, M.A., F.G.S., 39, Barton Road, Cambridge. 
1886. Z Woodward, Bernard B., F.L.S.,' etc., 4, LongfieldRd., Ealing, W. 

1903. Worsdale, R. , 102, Dudley Terrace, Dudley Road, Grantham. 

1914. W'orsfold, Herbert W., 28, Melody Road, Wandsworth, S.W. 
1906. Wragge, Clement L., F. R.G.S., etc., Perth, Western Australia. 
1895. Wright, Charles East, Woodside, Rockingham Road, Kettering. 



Fluviatile Mollusca from Port Patrick. — The following notes refer to speci- 
mens which were collected by the writer during the month of February, 1914, in 
the vicinity of Port Patrick, Wigtownshire, with the exception of Pisidium caser- 
taniim, which was found at Glenhice, some twenty miles from Port Patrick. My 
best thanks are due to Mr. B. 15. Woodward for the help he so kindly gave me in 
working out my collection. LimntTa pereger. — This species was abundant on the 
Killantringan Moor, where it was found in small, shallow ditches in which there 
were but a few inches of water. A few larger specimens were also taken in the 
Port Patrick Reservoir. Liinnaa truncatula. — This species was found in both 
the localities mentioned under L. fereger, being in each case much more numerous. 
In the reservoir the l^•lolluscs were found on small stones, but on the moor they 
were clinging to submerged grasses and weeds. One example of this species wa,s 
also taken in a ditch which drains the marsli in the Sandeel Bay. The specimens 
obtained on the moor were very turreted. Ancylus fluviatilis. — This species 
abounds in a small stream flowing into the Port Patrick Reservoir. Pisidium 
personatuiii. — This species was taken more abundantly than Jiny other of the 
Pisidia, occurring in great numbers in almost every wayside pool and well. It 
was also found in the Dunskey Upper Lake, and in the ditches on the Killan- 
tringan Moor, the examples from the latter locality being very heavy-hinged. 
Pisidium nitidiim. — A few specimens were taken on the Killantringan Moor, but 
it was not found in company with the preceding species. In the Upper Dunskey 
Lake large numbers were found in the shallow water near the bank, while P. per- 
sonatitm seemed to occur only in the ditch at the upper end of the lake where the 
weedy growth was dense. Pisidium casertaniim. — This species was not met with 
near Port Patrick, but a few examples were obtained from a ditch on the Glenluce 
golf course. — ^JoHN N. Kennedy {Read before the Society, Sept. 9th, 1914). 



26; 
THE MARINE MOLLUSCA OF SAO THOME, I. 



By J. R. LE B. TOMLIN, M.A., and L. J. SHACKLEFORD. 

(Read before the Society, Sept. gth, 1914). 
{Concluded from page 256). 

Astrsea (Bolma) rugosa (L.). 

Turbo rngosiis Linne, Syst. Nat., ed. xii., p. 1234 (1767). 

S. Thome, not uncommon ; Mediterranean ; Atlantic shores of 
Spain and S.W. France; Madeira, Canaries and Azores. 

Clanculus kraussi (Phil.). 
Trochus kraussi Philippi, Conch. Cab., 2nd ed., p. 82, pi. 14, f. 14 

(1846). 

S. Thonitj, rare; Bale du Levrier to Senegal (Dautzenberg) ; 
Durban (Sowerby). 

Clanculus guineensis (Gmelin). 
Trochus guineensis Gmelin, Syst. Nat., ed. xiii., p. 3574 (1791). 
Fischer in Kiener, Spec. Gen. Trochus, p. 221, pi. Ixxii., f. 3. 

S. Thomtf, fairly common: Spanish Guinea (Hidalgo); Libreville, 
Liberia and Gaboon (Dautzenberg). 

Omphalius fasciatus (Born). 
Trochus fasciatus Born, Mus. Caes. Vindob., p. 331, t. 12, f. 3, 4 (1780). 
S. Thome, several specimens ; West Indies. 

Rhodinoliotia gen. nov. 
This name is proposed for the shell described as Cyclostrema 
roseotincta Smith from Whydah. This species has little to do with 
Cyclostrema^ and Mr. Smith was evidently doubtful at the time where 
to place it. It is a minute shell, with vague rosy markings, a well- 
marked umbilicus, continuous peristome, and strong spiral ridges. 
In form it somewhat resembles certain Minolias, and is very like 
M. tefiids (Sow.), Ceylon, but it cannot belong to the Trochidce, 7[.s 
the shell is not nacreous, and we should assign it to the Liotiidce. 

Rhodinoliotia roseotincta (Smith). 
Cyclostrema roseotincta Smith, P.Z.S., 1871, p. 737, pi. 75, f. 27. 
S. Thomd, not uncommon ; Whydah (Smith). 

Teinostoma punctatum Jouss. 
Teinostoma punctatum Jousseaume, Rev. & Mag. de Zool., 1872, p. 

337, pi. 18, f. 5. 

S. Thome, common ; dredged off Boulbine, Conakry, Cotonou, 
Los Is., and Grand Bassam (Dautzenberg); Principe (Jousseaume). 



268 JOURNAL OF CONCHOLOGY, VOL. I4, NO. 9, JANUARY, I915. 

Teinostoma liratum (Smith), 

Ethalia lirata Smith, P.Z.S., 187 1, p. 737, pi. 75, f. 23. 

Teinostoma lirata Sm., Pilsbry in Tryon, Man. of Conch., xi., p. 461 

pi. lix., f. 40. 

S. Thom^, rare ; Whydah (Smith) ; W. of Cape Rouge and Libre- 
ville (Dautzenberg). 

Haliotis tuberculata L. 

Linne, Syst. Nat., ed. x., p. 780 (1758). 

S. Thome, common ; Atlantic from the Channel Isles to Benguela ; 
Madeira and Canaries (Watson) ; Cape Verdes and Principe (Nobre). 

Fissurella nubecula (L.). 

Patella nubecula Linnd, Syst. Nat., ed. x., p. 785 (1758). 
Fissurella nubecula L., Moll, du Roussilion I., p. 438, pi. 53, f. 11 — 14. 
S. Thome', common ; Cape Verdes and Principe (Nobre) ; Atlantic 
from the Gulf of Gascony to Benguela ; Mediterranean ; Port 
Elizabeth (Sowerby). 

Fissurella mutabilis Sow. 
Sowerby, Conch. Illust., f. 67 — 70 (1835). 

S. Thome, fairly common ; Table Bay, Natal Coast, Port Elizabeth 
(Sowerby) ; St. Helena (Smith). 

Fissuridea menkeana (Dkr.). 
Fissurella menkeana Dunker, Zeitsch. f. Malak., 1846, p. 26. 
Dunker, Index Moll. Guin., p. 37, pi. v., f. 13 — 15. 

S. Thome, not uncommon ; Cansado, Cape Rouge, and Rufisque 
(Dautzenberg) ; Loanda ; Benguela. 

Fissuridea gibberula (Lam.). 
Fissurella gibberula Lamarck, Anim. Sans Vert,, vi., p. 15 (1819). 
F. philippiana Dkr., Zeitschr. f. Mai,, 1846, p. 26 ; Ind. Moll. Guin., 

p. 37, pl- 5> f- 23—25. 

S. Thome, common ; coasts of France and Spain ; Mediterranean ; 
Canaries (McAndrew); S. Helena ? (Smith). With regard to the last 
record, S, Helena specimens in coll. Tomlin received from Capt, 
Turton and presumably identical with Mr. Smith's examples, are cer- 
tainly not gibberula Lam., and appear to be small parviforata Sow., 
a Cape species. 

Lucapinella limatula (Rve.). 
Fissurella limatula Reeve, Conch. Icon., pl. xv., f. 115 (1850). 

S. Thom(^, rare; Cansado and W. of Cape Rouge (Dautzenberg); 
West Indies ; Florida, 



TOMLIN AND SHACKLEFORD : MARINE MOLLUSCA OF S. THOME. 269 

Chiton lyratus Sow. 
Sowerby, Conch. Illust., f. 126 (1840). 
Reeve, Conch. Icon., pi. xviii., f. no. 
Sowerby, Mar. Shells S. Afr., App. p. 19. 

S. Thome, one perfect specimen and many valves ; Dakar (Dautzen- 
berg) ; Port Elizabeth (Sowerby). 

Dentalium (Laevidentalium) gruveli (Dautzenberg). 
Dautzenberg, Contrib. Faune Afr. Occ, I., p. 109, pi. iii., f. 21 — 23 

(1910). 

S. Thome, not uncommon ; Cansado, Pte. du Repos, B. de 
Rufisque, W. of Cape Rouge (Dautzenberg). 

Dentalium rubescens Desh. 
Deshayes, Mem. Soc. Hist. Nat. (Paris) II., p. 363, pi. 16, f. 23 — 25 
(1825). 

S. Thome, common ; Canaries (McAndrew) ; Mediterranean. 
Weinkauff and Dautzenberg wrongly call this species rufescens. 

Ostrea lacerata Hanley. 
Hanley, P.Z.S., 1845, p. 106. 
O. lacerans Reeve, Conch. Icon., pi. xxii., f. 51. 

S. Thome, common on rocks exposed at low water ; Senegal and 
Morocco (Dautzenberg) ; Cape Verdes (Nobre). 

G. F. Dollfus (Quaternaire marin du Senegal, p. 64) unites to this 
species O. stentina Payr., paticiplicata Desh., } plicahtla Gmel., cristaia 
Hidalgo, and guineensis Dunk. If the identification is confirmed O. 
stentina Payr. has priority (1826). O. stenti7ia is recorded from the 
Mediterranean, Portugal, Morocco, Canaries, and Madeira. 

Fossil, at Timardine and N'Tibrau in Senegal (Dollfus). 

Most authors, probably following Reeve, quote the name of this 
shell as lacerans. Hanley's name, however, was lacerata. 

Spondylus powelli Smith. 
Smith, Joiirn. of Conch., vii., p. 70 (1892). 

S. Thome, rare ; Madeira ; Cape Verdes ; Canaries (Watson) ; 
Liberia and Senegal (Dautzenberg). 

The Rev. R. Boog Watson's collection contains a specimen which 
was brought alive to Lowe in February, 1852. 

Spondylus gaederopus L. 

Linne, Syst. Nat., ed. xii., p. 1136 (1767). 

S. Thome, common ; Cape Verdes ; Mediterranean ; Angola 
(Nobre). 



270 JOURNAL OF CONCHOLOGY, VOL. I4, NO. 9, JANUARY, I915. 

Pecten flabellum (Gmel.). 
Ostrea fiabelbim Gmel., Syst. Nat., ed. xiii., p. 3321 (1791). 
Pecten tissotii Bernard, Descrip. d'especes nouv., Jotirn. de Couch., 

vii., p. 91, pi. i., f. 2. 

S.Thome, valves only; Principe (Dohrn); Gaboon (Chatelier) ; 
Conakry to Congo estuary (Dautzenberg). 

Pecten nodosus (L.). 
Ostrea nodosa Linne, Syst. Nat., ed. x., p. ir45 (1758). 

S. Thome, several fine examples ; Gulf of Mexico (Reeve) ; Brazil 
(Sowerby's Thesaurus). 

Melina vulsella (Lam.). 
Perna vulsella Lamarck, Anim. Sans A^ert, vii., p. 78 (1822). 

S. Thome, fairly common ; Principe (Nobre) ; Loanda and Cape 
Verdes (Clessin and Nobre) ; West Indies. 

Nobre erroneously describes these shells as Perna isognonmm L, 

Pinna pernula Bolten. 
Bolten, Mus. Bolt., p. 160 (1798). 

S. Thome, several fine specimens ; Principe, Cape Verdes, and 
Angola (Nobre) ; St. Helena, Madeira and S. Africa (Smith) ; West 
Lidies (Chemnitz). This name cannot be credited to Chemnitz as 
that author was not binomial. 

Mytilus tenuistriatus Dkr. 
Dunker, Index Moll. Guin., p. 47, pi. 9, f. i — 3 (1853). 

S. Thome, a few specimens ; Loanda (Dunker) ; Conakry, Grand 
Bassam, Libreville (Dautzenberg). 

Mytilus senegalensis Lam. 
Lamarck, Anim. Sans Vert., vi., 1st part, p. 122 (18 19). 
Clessin, Conch. Cab., 2nd ed., p. 38, pi. xi., f. 3 and 4. 

S.Thome, common; Principe, Senegal; Cape Verdes; Baie de 
Hann, Conakry, Boulbine, Tamara, Los Is., Mossamedes, Praya 
Amelia (Dautzenberg) ; Benguela (Dautzenberg) ; Spanish Guinea 
(Hidalgo). Hidalgo^ identifies with this s[)ecies M. variabilis Krauss" 
from Table Bay, Natal, and Port Ehzabeth. 

Area noe L. 
Linne, Syst. Nat, ed. x., p. 593 (1758)- 

S. Thome, valves only ; Cape Verdes ; Senegal to Loanda ; West 
Indies; Panama (v. Ihering) ; Atlantic coast of U.S.A. as far north 
as Cape Hatteras (Stearns), 

1 Moll, de la Guin. Esp., p. 525. 

2 Sudafi- Moll.,p- 25i pl- 2, f. 5. 



TOMI.IN AND SHACKLEFORD : MARINE MOLLUSCA OF S. THOME. 27I 

Area bouvieri P. Fischer. 
Fischer,y(??;!y7;. de Conch., xxii., p. 206 ; xxiv., p. 239, pl.viii., f. 2 (1874). 
h^my, Jourfi. de Conc/i., Iv., p. 24. 

S. Tliome, rare; Annobon ; St. Helena (Dautzenberg) ; Cape 
Verdes, common (Chalmers); Bata, Congo, and Rufisque (Dautzen- 
berg) ; Angola (Nobre). 

Area sanctcR-helena. Smith is a synonym. 

Area (Fossularea) laetea L. 

Area ladea Linne, Syst, Nat., ed. x., p. 694 (1758). 

S. Thome, common ; Cape Verdes, Canaries and Ascension ; 
Great Britain to Mediterranean ; Cansado and Arguin Is. (Dautzen- 
berg) ; Loanda (Dunker) ; Cape Colony and Natal ; Suez (Cooke) ; 
Bombay (Melvill); Singapore (Archer). 

If A. zebuensis Rve. is identical, the Philippines may be added. 

Fossil: Timardine, Senegal (Dollfus). 

We have not detected A. afra^ Gmel. from S. Thome. 

Area (Acar) retieulata Gmel. 

Area reticulata Gmelin, Syst. Nat., ed. xiii., p. 331 1 (1791). 
Area doviingensis Lamarck, Anim. Sans Vert., vi , p. 40 (18 19). 

S. Thome, common ; Cape Verdes, St. Helena, Ascension, S. Africa, 
W. Indies ; for its further world-wide distribution see Watson in 
Journ. Linn. Soc. (Zoology), vol. 26, p. 273, and Lischke, Jap. Meer. 
Conch., ii., p. 142. 

Area (Anadara) geissei (Dunker) Kobelt. 

Kobelt, Conch. Cab., 2nd ed., p. 163, pi. xli., f. 5 and 6 (1891). 
Lamy, y^//r«. de Coneh., Iv., p. 238. 

S.Thome, not uncommon; Senegal: Goree, Dakar (Chautard) ; 
Santa Luzia, Cape Verdes (Prince de Monaco). 

Area (Anadara) stigmosa Dkr. 
Dunker, Index Moll. Guin., p. 46, pi. 9, f. 8 — 11 (1853). 
S. Thome, not common ; Loanda. 
Lamy unites this with A. deeussata Sow. {/onrn. de Conc/i., Iv. , p. 65). 

Glyeymeris coneentrieus (Dkr.). 
Peetunciilus eoneetitrieus Dunker, Index Moll. Guin., p. 47 (1853). 

S. Thome, valves only; Loanda (Dunker); Dakar, Goree, W. of 
Cape Rouge, Ivory Coast, Los Archipelago, Grand Popo, and 
Jackville (Dautzenberg). 

I cf, Dautz. Conlr. Faune Afr, Occ, I., p. 119. 



272 JOURNAL OF CONCHOLOGY, VOL. I4, NO. 9, JANUARY, I915. 

Glycymeris stellatus (Gmel). 
Venus stdlata Gmelin, Syst. Nat,, ed. xiii., p. 3289 (1791). 

S. Thome, valves only ; Mediterranean ; Portugal ; Madeira ; 
Principe; Goree; Senegal. 

We are indebted to the Marchese di Monterosato for this name. 

The correct name for this species is very doubtful ; for a discussion 
thereon see Lamy xwjoiirn. de dutch., vol. 59, p. 144. 

Nuculana bicuspidata (Gould). 
Nucula bicuspidata Gould, Boston Journ. Nat. Hist. V., p. 292, pi, 

xxiv., f. 8 (1845). 

S. Thome, fairly common ; Pointe Rey, Port Etienne, Cansado, 
Arguin, El Mamghar, Pointe du Repos, Rufisque, Cape Rouge 
(Dautzenberg) \ Liberia ; Gaboon ; Cape Verdes (Bouvier). 

Cardita tankervillii (Wood). 
Venericardia tankervi llii \N oo<\, Ind. Test. Supp., p. 57, pi. 2, f 4 (1828). 
S. Thome, a single specimen ; W. Coast of Africa. 
There can be no doubt that the Australian habitat, formerly given 
for this species, is erroneous. Mr. Hedley said, when he was in 
London last, that he had no cognizance of its occurrence in Australian 
waters. 

Cardita senegalensis Rve. 
Reeve, P.Z.S., 1843, p. 192 ; Conch. Icon., pi. iv. f. 16. 

S. Thome, valves only ; Cape Verdes ; W. Africa from Cape 
Blanco to Loanda. 

Cardita trapezia (L ). 
Chama trapezia Linne, Syst. Nat., ed. xii., p. 1138 (1767). 

S. Thome, abundant ; Portugal to Mediterranean ; Conakry, Boul- 
bine, Los Is., Cotonou, Libreville, Banana (Dautzenberg); Angola 
(Welwitsch). 

Cardita ajar Brug. 
Bruguiere, Encycl. Method. I,, p. 406 (1792). 

S. Thome, common ; W. Africa, from Cape Blanco to Dahomey, 

Crassatellites contraria (Gmel.), 
Venus contraria Gmelin, Syst. Nat, ed. xiii., p. 3277 (1791). 
Dunker, Index Moll. Guin., p. 49, pi. 9, f. 4 — 7. 

S. Thome, valves only; Rufisque, Conakry, Boulbine, Crawford 
Bank, Tamara, Roume Is., Los Is,, Libreville (Dautzenberg). 

var, coccinea Dautz. 
Voy. de la Goelette Melita, p. 43 (1891). 
S. Thome ; Rufisque (Dautzenberg). 



TOMLIN AND SHACKLEFORD : MARINE MOLLUSCA OF S. THOME. 273 

Cardium ringens Gmel. 
Gmelin, Syst. Nat., ed. xiii., p. 3254 (1791). 
Reeve, Conch. Icon., pi. i., f. 6. 

S. Thome, valves only ; Cape Verdes (Stearns); Principe (Nobre) ; 
a well-known and widely distributed West African species from Cape 
Blanco to Mossamedes. 

Cardium (Laevicardium) aeolicum Born. 

Cardium aeolicum Born, Mus. Caes. Vindob. Test., pt. i., p. 36 (i 780). 
S. Thome, valves only ; Cape Verdes (Nobre) ; Angola (Welwitsch). 

Papyridea soleniformis (Brug.). 
Cardium soleniforme Bruguiere, Encycl. Method., I., p. 235 (1789). 

S. Thome, not uncommon ; Cape Verdes (Dunker and Nobre) ; 
Azores and St. Helena (Smith); West Indies, Brazil and W. coast of 
Central America (Smith). 

For synonymy see 'Challenger' Lamellibranchiata, p, 161. 

Smith records Linne's Solen Imllatus as indeterminable. This name 
invalidates Solen bullatus Chem., even if the latter were strictly 
binomial. The next available name seems to be that of Bruguiere. 

Chama crenulata Lam. 
Lamarck, Anim. Sans Vert., vi., ist pt., p. 94 (1819). 
C. senegalettsis Rve., Conch. Icon., pi. ii., f. 5. 

S. Thome, rare ; Cape Verdes ; Principe ; Goree, Port Etienne, 
Cansado, C, Timiris, Manata, between Lemsid and Bilaouak, between 
Rufisque and Hann, B. of Rufisque, and W. of Cape Rouge (Dautzen- 
berg) ; Whydah (Smith) ; Conakry (Rattray). 

Basterotia oblonga Smith. 
Smith, P.Z.S., 1890, p. 303, pi. 22, f. 5. 
S. Thome, valves only ; S. Helena (Smith). 

Meretrix (Pitaria) roemeri (Tomlin & Shackleford). 

Pitaria roemeri 'YowXxw & Shackleford, yj-'/zr//. of Couch., vol. 14, p. 96 
(1913)- 
S. Thome, rare ; Principe (Romer). 

Venus casina L. 

Linne, Syst. Nat., ed. xii., p. 1130 (1767). 

S. Thome, valves only; Whydah (Smith); Senegal (Sowerby) ; 
Madeira, very abundant (McAndrew) ; Cape Verdes (Nobre) ; 
Canaries, frequent (McAndrew); Norway to Mediterranean. 



274 JOURNAL OF CONCHOLOGY, VOL. I4, NO. 9, JANUARY, I915. 

Venus lyra Hanley. 
Hanley, P.Z.S., 1844, p. 161. 

S. Thome, valves only; Principe and Angola (Nobre); Gulf of 
Guinea (Mus. Cuming). 

Antigona venetiana (Lam.). 

Venus rudis Poli, Test. Sicil., 11., p. 94, f. 15, 16(1795). 
Cytherea venetiana Lamarck, Anim. Sans Vert, v., p. 569 (18 18). 

S. Thome, valves only ; Cape Verdes (Talisman) ; Canaries 
(McAndrew) ; St. Helena (Smith) ; Madeira, very abundant (Watson); 
Bay of Biscay to Mediterranean and Black Sea (Watson). 

We cannot accept Poll's name as binomial. 

Venerupis irus (L.). 
Donax irus Linne, Syst. Nat., ed. x., p. 683 (1758). 

S. Thome, rare ; Cansado (Dautzenberg); Canaries (McAndrew) ; 
Madeira, abundant (Watson) ; Mogador (Watson) ; Britain to Medi- 
terranean ; Black Sea (Dautzenberg). 

Ungulina alba Dunker (ex Rang ms.). 
Rang in Dunker, Index Moll. Guin., p. 56, pi. viii., f. 17 — 19 (1853). 
S. Thome, rare ; widely distributed on the W. African coast from 
Senegal to Loanda. 

Gari castrensis (Spengler). 
Solen castrensis Spengler, Skriv. Naturhist. Selsk., iii., pi. -2, p. no 

(1794)- 

S. Thome, rare; Guinea (Spengler) ; Lagos (Brit. Mus.). 

Spengler's original locality was Guinea ; Reeve gave it from Sor- 
sogon, Isle of Luzon instead, but his fig. 32 does not appear to 
represent the true castrensis at all, and is probably a young G. oriens 
Desh., of which the adult is figured on pi. i. The latter is the 
eastern analogue of G. castrensis Sp., and Reeve's Philippine locality 
mentioned above should be transferred to it. It was originally 
described from Japan. 

Sanguinolaria vitrea Desh. 
Deshayes, P.Z.S., 1854, p. 326. 

S. Thome, rare ; S. Thomas (Brit. Mus.). 

This species was described without locality. The British Museum 
has examples labelled " S. Thomas " — presumably the West Indian 
island. 



TOMLIN AND SHACKLEFORD : MARINE MOLLUSCA OF S. THOME. 275 

Tagalus angulatus (Sowerby). 
Solecurtus angnlatus Sowerby in Reeve, Conch. Icon., pi. viii., f. 37 
(1874). 
S. Thome, rare; Senegal to I.obito (Dautzenberg). 

Mactra glabrata L. 

Linne, Syst. Nat., ed. xii., p. 1125 (1767). 

Weinkauff, Conch. Cab., 2nd ed., p. 66, pi. xxiii., f. 3 and 3a. 

S. Thome, common ; Cape Verdes ; dredged at many places from 
Dakar to Mossamedes (Dautzenberg). 

Standella ambigua (VVeink.). 
Mactra amhiqua (sic) Weinkauff, Conch. Cab. Mactra, p. 74, pi. 26, 

f. I, la (1884). 

S. Thome, rare ; Cape Verdes (Nobre) ; R. Gambia. 

Reeve, under Mactra silicula Desh., mixed up two species, giving 
the description of Deshayes' shell, but as locality " mouth of the 
Gambia " instead of " Bay of Manila " (Mus. Cuming). We have 
emended an obvious typographical error in Weinkauff's specific name. 

Codakia (Jagonia) pecten (Lam.). 

Lucina pecten Lamarck, Anim. Sans Vert., v., p. 543 (1818). 
Delessert, Recueil Coq. de Lamarck, pi. vi., f 8a — 8c. 

S. Thome ; W. of Cape Rouge (Dautzenberg) ; St. Vincent, C.V. 
(Chalmers) ; Angola (Nobre) ; Spanish Guinea (Hidalgo) ; Mediter- 
ranean. 

Abundant and' very variable in sculpture. 

Divaricella divaricata (L.). 
Tellina divaricata Linne, Syst. Nat., ed. x., p. 1120 (1758). 

S. Thome, valves only; Madeira, very common (Watson); Canaries; 
S. of England to Mediterranean ; West Indies. 

Lucina lamothei Dautz. 
Dautzenberg, Mission Gruvel in Ann. de ITnst. Oceanogr., p. 100, pi. 

3, f. 50—54 (1913). 

S. Thome, not uncommon ; Conakry, Boulbine, Los Is., Grand 
Bassam, Libreville, Banana, Congo estuary (Dautzenberg). 

Semele modesta A. Adams. 
A. Adams, P.Z.S., 1853, p. 95. 
Amphidesma modesta A. Ad., Reeve, pi. vi., f. 35. 

S. Thome, not uncommon ; Accra (Rattray) ; Principe, S. Thome, 
and Fernando Po (Nobre) ; St. Helena (Smith). Mr. Smith^ unites 

J P.Z.S., 1890, p. 301, 



276 JOURNAL OF CONCHOLOGY, VOL, I4, NO. 9, JANUARY, I915. 

this and seven other species with S. cordiforniis Ch., but we are not 
prepared to acquiesce as far as ^. modesta is concerned. 

Tellina rubicincta Gld. 
T. rubicincta Gould, Proc. Boston Soc. N.H., II., p. 37 (1845). 
T. rubicutida Gould (emend.), Otia Conch., p. 196 (1862), not 

T. rubicutida Gmel. 

S. Thome, valves only ; Cansado, Los Is., and Mossamedes 
(Dautzenberg) ; Liberia. 

Gould's original name for this species must stand. 

Tellina hyalina Gmel. 
Gmelin, Syst. Nat., ed. xiii., p. 3235 {1791). * 

S. Thome, rare ; Loanda (Nobre) ; Guinea (Chemnitz). 

Strigilla ^polyaulax nom. nov. 
Tellina Senegal en sis Hanley, P.Z.S., 1844, p. 68: not Tellina senegal- 

ensis Gmel., Syst. Nat., ed. xiii., p. 3244 (1791). 

S. Thome, common ; Senegal ; Principe ; Cotonou (Dautzenberg) ; 
Mossamedes. 

We are obliged to rename this well-known species. 

Macoma cumana (Costa). 
Psammobia cumana O. G. Costa, Cat. Sist., p. 20, pi. ii., f. 7 (1830?). 

S. Thome, rare ; Mediterranean ; Morocco ; Senegal ; W. Africa, 
many localities from Conakry to Mossamedes (Dautzenberg) ; Port 
Elizabeth (Sowerby). 

The title-page of Costa's work is dated 1829, but the introduction 
has 24/N0V./30. 

Gastrana abilgaardiana (Spengler). 

Tellina abilgaardiana Spengler in Nat. Selsk. Skriv., iv. (1798), pt. 2, 

p. 90. 

S. Thome, valves only ; Cape Blanco to Senegal ; Port Elizabeth 
(Sowerby). 



Dextral Specimen of Clausilia bidentata. — During the examination of 
about 3,000 specimens of this species from Portmadoc, Carnarvonshire, I have 
come across a single example with a dextral shell. The specimen is of normal size 
and shape (ii'9 x 2'6mm.) and is not otherwise malformed. Jeffreys {Brit. 
Conch., i., p. 279) describes his var. dextrorsa as " resembling a Pupa in shape." 
Another specimen has lieen put on record by J. W. Taylor {Joiirti. of Conch., iv., 
p. 265), and one by C. T. Cribb (ibid, xiii., p. 274), but the abnormality seems to 
be uncommon. — A. E. Boycott {Read before the Society, Sept. 9th, 1914). 

I TToAvavAa^ " with many furrows." 



277 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE 
CONCHOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF GREAT BRITAIN & IRELAND. 



435th Meeting, held at the Museum, Manchester, Oct. 14th, 1914. 

Mr. E. Collier in the chair. 

The Hon. Librarian reported that the usual exchanges had been received. 
A letter was read from the President approving of the abandonment of the 
Annual Meeting, and consenting to hold office for a second year. 

New Members Elected. 
John Noble Kennedy, R.N. 
Alfred John Saban. 

Papers Read. 

"The Radula of Hyalinia — III., The Radujar Characteristics of Hyalinia 
helvetica from Different Localities," by A. E. Boycott. 

" Helicella virgata m. sinisirorsum near Scarborough," by W. Gyngell. 

Exhibits. 

By Prof. A. E. Boycott : Hyalinia helvetica from several localities, to illustrate 
his paper. 

By Mrs. Gill : A fine specimen of Pleiodon ovattis Sw^. ; and series of British 
and foreign PhasiantUa. 

By Mr. G. C. Spence : Otocoptis plamilata Pfr. , from Haiti ; and Eutrochatella 
Candida Pfr., from Turk's Island, Bahamas. 

In the Special Exhibit of Planorbis spirorbis and PL vortex, series were shown 
by Messrs. E. Collier, E. C. Stump, C. H. Moore, J. W. Jackson, R. Standen and 
Mrs. Gill. Mr. Jackson briefly explained the object of the exhibition, which was to 
try to ascertain if the true Planorbis spiroj-bis L. inhabited the British Isles. A com- 
parison of British specimens with others from various parts of the continent and with 
the figures in reliable text-books seems to indicate that the great majority of 
British PI. " spirorbis^^ ligttG better with PL leucostonia Michaud [ = /Y. rottindatus 
Poir.] ; a few others are not unlike PL septemgyratus Ziegler ; while none can be 
said to quite agree with the typical North European PL spirorbis L. 



436th Meeting-, held at the Museum, Manchester, Nov. nth, 1914. 

Mr. E. Collier in the chair. 

Additions to the Library announced and thanks voted : 

" Manual of Conchology," part 8g, by H. A. Pilsbry ; "Notes upon some Lower 
Californian Helices,^ by H. A. Pilsbry ; "The Method of Progression in Trunca- 
lella : List of Land and Freshwater Mollusks of Antigua," by H. A. Pilsbry and 
A. P. Brown ; " A Note on the Apparent Absence of Sexual Characters in the Shell 
oi Nerititta flnviatilis,'" by A. E. Boycott and J. W. Jackson {from the respective 
authors) ; and the usual periodicals received in exchange. 

Donation to Autograph Letter Collection. 

Letter from Captain Knocker, H.M.S. "Fly," May 25th, 1863, by J. R. le B. 
Tomlin. 

The Hon. Secretary's Annual Report and the Reports of the London, the Leeds 
and the North Staffordshire Branches were read and adopted. 



278 JOURNAL OF CONCHOLOGY, VOL. I4, NO. 9, JANUARY, I915. 

Paper Read. 

Obituary Notice : A. J. Jukes-Biowne, F.R.S., F.G.S., by J. Cosmo Melvill, 
M.A.,D.Sc., F.L.S. 

Exhibits. 

By Mr. G. C. Spence: Cyclophorus nilagti-ictis'Bcnso'n, from Khasia Hills, India. 

By Mr. C. H. Moore : Helicella virgata, type, and var. lutescens, and H. bar- 
bara, from Llandudno, Oct. 27th, where it was extremely abundant, but small. 

By Prof. A. E. Boycott : A series of Pseudaiiodonta rothoiuagensis Locard, 
from Bransford Bridge, River Teme, Worcestershire, collected by Mr. J. R. le B. 
Tomlin, August, 1914. 

In the Special Exhibit of the genus Alycc^us rather more than two-thirds of the 
known species were shown by Messrs. E. Collier, G. C. Spence, and R. Standen. 
Mr. Collier gave an interesting description of the principal characteristics of this 
curious genus and its distribution. Included in his series was a large number 
acquired at the sale of the Buelow Collection. One example of A. physis Benson 
from Darjeeling, India, shown by Mr. Standen, contained the operculum, which 
was unknown when the shell was first described. 



ANNUAL REPORT. 



The present is the thirty-seventh Annual Report of the Society. 

At the last Annual Meeting the membership stood at 350, but the year now 
closed has been one of very regrettable loss, only partly compensated by the 
enrolment of new members. 

During the year the Society has heard with much sorrow of the decease of four 
members, viz.. Dr. Fitzsimons, Dr. Plant, Rev. Dr. McMurtrie, and Mr. A. J. 
Jukes-Browne, F.R.S., F.G.S. Dr. McMurtrie was elected in 1886, and his re- 
searches in Haddingtonshire and other Scottish counties have resulted in many 
new records. Mr. Jukes-Browne was known by many as a most courteous and 
obliging correspondent and a painstaking writer on the vexed nomenclature of the 
mollusca. A biographical sketch by Dr. James Cosmo Melvill will shortly appear 
in the Journal of Conchohgy. Letters expressive of the respectful sympathy of the 
members of the Society have been forwarded to the friends of these gentlemen. 

The resignations of six members on the ground of want of time to pursue 
conchological research have been regretfully accepted. The names of some thirty- 
two other members have with much reluctance been struck off the roll in accord- 
ance with Rule 4. In some of these cases, perhaps in the majority, the cause of 
the lapse has been through getting out of touch with the Society, and a consequent 
loss of interest, through neglect to notify change of address. This is the occasion 
of quite unnecessary trouble and serious financial loss, and members are again 
urged to forward any new address to the Secretary, and also, in the event of not 
receiving the Journal, to notify him at once. 

Against these losses through death, resignation, and lapse of membership, 
amounting to forty-five, seventeen new members have been elected during the 
year, so that the membership at the present time is 322. 

The usual meetings have been held at the Museum, Manchester. Twenty-eight 
papers and notes have been read, and the exhibits have been interesting and 
numerous. As in former years, at most of the monthly meetings there has been a 
special exhibit of some group— a method which is very useful in the determination 



PROCEEDINGS : ANNUAL REPORT. 279 

of critical species. The following have been the special exhibits for the year : — 
The Candidula section of Helix, the genus Helicigona, Urocoptida, the section 
Leptoconus of Conns, Pariula, and Neritina. 

Owing to the outbreak of the war, and the possible inconvenience to our 
President, Mr. Bullen Newton, who was attending the meetings of the British 
Association in Australia, the Council felt it necessary to abandon the Annual 
Meeting, which had been fixed for the 24th October. An ordinary meeting was, 
however, held in October. The Council has satisfaction in knowing that this 
arrangement was agreeable to the President, and he has consented to retain office 
for the ensuing year. The other Officers and members of Council will also retain 
their offices. 

The Council desires to place on record its high appreciation of the important 
services rendered to their country by members of the Society in both the Army and 
the Navy, and to wish for them a speedy and safe return to their homes. 

The Journal of Conchology has been issued each quarter. 

During the year members of the Society have collected specimens and contri- 
buted information for the Faunal Survey of Lancashire and Cheshire. The Council 
would commend the work to the notice of all members who have the opportunity 
of making observations in these two counties. Dr. W. M. Tattersall, The Museum, 
The University, Manchester, is the Hon. Secretary to the Committee. 

About eighteen months ago it was decided to form a collection of autograph 
letters of eminent conchologists, and members having such letters that they could 
spare were urged to place them in the keeping of the Hon. Librarian. There has 
been a fair response to this request, but it is felt that many more interesting auto- 
graph letters could be gathered if members would give the matter their attention. 
Gifts of this nature will in future be acknowledged in \ht Journal. It is not merely 
the sentimental value attaching to such a collection, but its practical utility in deter- 
mining the authenticity of labels attached to specimens in both public and private 
collections. 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE LEEDS BRANCH 

For the Year ended 30TH Sept., 1914. 



There have only been nine meetings held during the year. Two of the summer 
rambles were cancelled owing to railway excursions being stopped, one of these 
being the annual joint ramble with the Manchester members, which was to have 
been held at Silverdale in September. As these joint rambles in the past have 
been most successful functions, it is disappointing that adverse circumstances caused 
this one to be cancelled. 

Of the three meetings held in the field, the first was at Selby, in April ; the 
second at Agbrigg, near Wakefield, in May ; and the third at Harewood, in July. 
All were well attended. 

Of the six meetings held during the winter session, three were held in the 
Cartwright Hall, Bradford, and three in the University, Leeds. The February 
meeting at Leeds was of special importance, as, in addition to a visit from our 
Manchester friends, it was made the occasion for presenting the Nelson Collection 
of mollusca, liooks, etc., acquired by subscriptions raised through the efforts of this 
Branch and a Memorial Committee, to the University. 



28o JOURNAL OF CONCHOI.OGY, VOL. I4, NO. 9, JANUARY, 1915. 

Special exhibits of British species have been continued at our winter meetings, 
and we are deepl)^ indebted to Mr. J. W. Taylor for his contributions on the life- 
history, morphology, and distribution of each species. The good attendances show 
in no uncertain manner the members' high appreciaton of Mr. Taylor's addresses. 

Many other exhibits of a varied character have been displayed and commented 
upon by the members. 

The meetings of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union are attended, and records of 
species kept in our record-book. 

The membership at the present time is twenty-two and two corresponding 
members. Mr. A. Hartley is our President. 

F. Booth, Hon. Sec. 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE LONDON BRANCH. 

During the past year the London Branch has held eleven meetings. Of these, 
seven were ordinary meetings, which on the whole were well attended, and at 
which there were many interesting exhibits. A particularly good series of the 
genus Harpa was shown at the April meeting. 

The field meetings were at Headley, Amersham, Wendover, and Coulsdon ; 
they were not so successful as in previous seasons. Two of the later field meetings 
were abandoned on account of the war. 

We are again indebted to Mr. J. C. Dacie for kindly providing a room for the 
evening meetings. j_ ^ ^^^^^^^ ^^^^_ ^^^_ 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE NORTH STAFFORDSHIRE 
BRANCH. 

This Branch has held two winter meetings, and monthly field meetings during the 
past year, but owing to the war the work has been considerably interrupted since 
August last. 

The winter meetings were held in the Free Library, Hanley, and at the first 
meeting most interesting series of Helix pomatia and H. aspersa were exhibited 
and the varieties discussed, the Staffordshire specimens of the last-named species 
being carefully compared with the type and variations noted. At the second 
winter meeting, large series of Helix jiemoralis and H. hortensis were exhibited by 
members, and a similar discussion followed. 

The monthly field meetings were held at various places in the county, and good 
series of local species and varieties were collected, including pure white specimens 
of Arion aier, which is not a common variety in the county. The most interesting 
specimen which turned up was an enormous specimen of A r ion atervzx. rufa, and 
a description of this slug has been submitted for publication in the Journal. 

B. Bryan, Hon. Sec. 



28 1 



OBITUARY NOTICE. 



ALFRED JOHN JUKES-BROWNE, F.R.S., F.G.S. 



By J. COSMO MELVILL, M.A., D.Sc, F.L.S. 

(Read before the Society, November nth, 1914). 

It was with unfeigned regret that I read in " The Times " in the 
middle of August last the obituary notice of one with whom I had 
maintained a voluminous and interesting correspondence for several 
years. Mr. Jukes-Browne passed away, after a very brief iUness, on 
14th August, aged 63, at his residence, " Westleigh," Ash-Hill Road, 
Torquay. 

Born near Wolverhampton on i6th April, 185 1, son of the late 
Mr. A. H. Browne, who married Miss C. A. Jukes, known as the 
authoress of the life of her eminent brother, the geologist, Professor 
J. Beete Jukes, F.R.S., he inherited a marked leaning first for the 
science of geology, in which he attained much well-merited fame, 
and in his later years for the study of a kindred subject, the recent 
mollusca, notably of the class Pelecypoda. 

Educated at the famous Cholmeley School at Highgate, Middlesex, 
and subsequently at St. John's College, Cambridge, he passed the 
Natural Science Tripos in 1873, and took the degree of B.A. 

In the same year he was appointed an assistant, at first temporarily, 
on the Geological Survey of Great Britain, under Sir Andrew Ramsay, 
and continued to act till 1901, when, owing to ill-health, he was 
compelled to retire. Indeed, he was never from early youth very 
robust, though the strength of his mental powers aided him in appar- 
ently overcoming his physical delicacy. And for the last twenty 
years of his life he was very lame and almost unable to walk. 

In 1 90 1 he was awarded the Murchison Medal by the Council of 
the Geological Society in consideration of his masterly writings on the 
Upper Cretaceous Rocks, and other services to the cause of the 
science in this country, and eight years later (1909) he was elected a 
Fellow of the Royal Society. 

His geological papers were voluminous, over one hundred in 
number, while his separate publications include several standard 
works, recognised as text-books of proven authority on the subjects 
with which they deal. Such are : — 



282 JOURNAL OF CONCHOLOGY, VOL. I4, NO. 9, JANUARY, 1915. 

I. — The Student's Handbook of Practical Geology. 
II. — Handbook of Historical Geology. 
III. — Handbook of Stratigraphical Geology. 
IV.— The Building of the British Isles. 
V. — The Cretaceous Rocks of Britain. 
As already mentioned, it was comparatively late in life that Jukes- 
Browne began the study of the recent moUusca in detail, and the list 
of the following papers shews where the drift of his observations lay, 
being mainly the study, mostly based on the hinge-formations, of cer- 
tain families of Pelecypoda, notably Mytilidce and Veneridcs. 

I. — A Review of the Genera of the Family Mytilidce. Proc. Malac. 

Soc, Lond., vi., p. 211 (1905). 
II. — The Application of Poli's Generic Names. lb., viii., p. 99 

(1908). 
III. — ^On the Genera of Veneridce represented in the Cretaceous 

and Tertiary Deposits. lb., viii., p. 148 (1908). 
IV. — On the Application of the Names Gotnphina^ Mania, Hemi- 

tapes, and Katelysia. lb., viii., p. 233 (1909). 
V. — On Petricola, Lucinopsis, and the Family PetricolidcE. lb., ix., 

p. 214 (1910). 
VI. — On the Names used by Bolten and DaCosta for Genera of 

Venerida. lb., ix., p. 241 (191 1). 
VII. — The Nomenclature of the Veneridce: A Reply to Dr. W. H. 

Dall. lb., X., p. 36 (1912). 
VIII. — The Genus Dosinia and Its Subdivisions. lb., x., p. 95 

(1912). 
IX. — On Dosinia liicinalis (Lamk.) and Its Synonyms. lb., x., 

p. 214 (1912). 
X. — On Tivela and Grateloupia. lb., x., p. 266 (191 2). 
XI. — On Callista, Amiantis, and Pitaria. lb., p. 335 (1913). 
XII. — A New Species of dementia} Ann. and Mag. N.H., ser. 

viii., vol. xi., July 1913. 
XIII. — Note on dementia subdiaphafia Cpr. Ann. and Mag. 

N.H., ser. viii., vol. xiii. (March, 1914), p. 338. 
XIV. — On the Shells known as Gemma, Parastarte, and Psephi- 
dion. lb., vol. xii., p. 473 (Nov., 1913). 
I may add that the nomenclature of moUusca was another import- 
ant subject to which he had devoted considerable time and thought, 
and he was, for instance, very averse to the resurrection of Bolten's 
Catalogue names, as he called them. 

I C. obliqua J.Br. , afterwards considered bj' Dr. Dall a variety only of C. suhdiaphana Cpr. 
from California. 



MEL\'ILL : OBITUARY NOTICE— A. J. JUKES-BROWNE. 283 

He had the misfortune to lose both his wife and son in his lifetime, 
but is survived by his only daughter. 

It is, I think, worth while transcribing in extenso three letters almost 
taken at random from his correspondence, written at the time when 
he was most closely studying the intricacies of the family Veneridce, 
both to shew his clear, lucid, and attractive style of writing, and the 
thoroughness with which he encountered and mastered the knotty 
difficulties and details of any subject he undertook to study. 



• Westleigh, Torquay, 

January 8, 1913. 
Dear Mr. Melvill : 

I have recently been studying the Callista-Pitaria group of shells, 
recent and fossil, with the hope of discriminating more satisfactorily between 
the proposed genera. 

You have shown such kindly interest in my previous studies that I hope 
I may enlist your interest in this one also. I think I can divide the group 
into three genera by means of two chief criteria, which are associated with 
minor points of distinction. 

These two points are the position of the left posterior cardinal, which I 
will write of as L.p.c, and the channel occurring in front of the right anterior 
cardinal in Pitaria, abbreviated as R.a.c. 

I. — ^If you will take a Callista chiotie you will see that the L.p.c. is a 
short tooth, highest in the middle and confluent with the nymph, while there 
is no channel leading to the anterior lateral pit in front of the R.a.c. 

2. — If you take Cytherea dione you will see that it has a long L.p.c, 
confluent along its whole length with the nymph, and that there is a channel 
in front of R.a.c. 

3. — If you take any Pitaria except P. tinnens, you will see that the 
L.p.c. is entirely distinct from the nymph and extends to the inner margin of 
the hinge-plate; while the plate of the R. valve is channeled, as in C. dione. 

Now Group I includes almost all the shells which have generally been 
called Callista. The second is the Dione group as restricted by Romer, 
together with the Ainiantis of Carpenter, which name it must bear, since 
Dione was preoccupied by Hubner. 

The third group comprises most of the Pitaria shells, but unfortunately 
P. tutnens (the type) is an exception, both in regard to the L.p.c. and the 
depth of the pallial sinus, a correlative but subsidiary point. 

My collection of Pitaria is by no means complete, and there are many 
species which I cannot get from Sowerby ; so I should be greatly obliged if 
you would assist me by looking through your shells to see if you can easily 
arrange them by my criteria, and whether there are any other species of 
Pitaria (projier) which agree with P. ttunens, and differ from such species 
as P. lata and var. obliquata, P. citrina, P. sjcbpellitcida, P. varians, etc. 

All the typical Pitaria seem to be either smooth or striated with fine 
concentric lines. Those which are concentrically ribbed like P. tnanillcs, 
P. injlata, and the little P. winuta, which you sent me from the Gulf of 
Oman, have the L.p.c, which is characteristic oi Auiiantis [ — Dione). 



284 JOURNAL OF CONCHOLOGY, VOL. I4, NO. 9, JANUARY, I915. 

Of course the name Pitaria must go with the type form {P. tninens) — 
there is no getting out of that, because it was the original '■'■ Pilar'''' of 
Adanson ; but I could propose a new name, say Pitarina, for those which 
compose my Group 3. The genus could then remain as Pitaria, with a sub- 
genus Pitarina, though in this case the type-form would have to be excluded 
from the definition. 

I do not quite see at present the best way of getting over this diffi- 
culty. P. tutnens is really a link between Amiantis and Pitaria. 

Believe me, Yours very truly, 

A. J. Jukes-Browne. 



Westleigh, Torquay, 

January 18, 1913. 
Dear Mr. Melvill : 

I appreciate your kindness in sending me so many of your Pitarias, 
which duly reached me this morning, having I see been posted yesterday. 

I have unpacked thein, and find they have travelled without harm. I 
will go through them carefully, and name as many as I can. At present I 
will only say that the shells in a glass- topped box, labelled at back Cyiherea 
exilis Desh. ?, are not that species, but the Cytherea nitidiila of Lamarck, 
which is a Tivela. I have long been wanting to see this species, which 
appears to be rare, and comes from the west coast of North America (see 
Carpenter's List). 

Your specimens are odd valves, evidently picked up on the shore, and 
not found alive. 

The three shells labelled '■^nitida, Tasmania," are the Venus nitida of 
Quoy and Gaim. ( = liEvigata Sow., 1835). It is not a Pitaria, nor any kind 
of Cytherea, lacking an anterior lateral tooth, but appears to be a Marcia, 
allied to M. kochii of South Africa. 

Of the others I will write when I have had time to examine them. 
Believe me. Yours sincerely, 

A. J. Jukes-Browne. 



Westleigh, Torquay, 

February 19, 191 3. 
Dear Mr. Melvill : 

I am now able to return the second set of shells which you kindly lent 
me for examination. Some of them were correctly named, but others I 
have been able to rectify, as you will see from the labels. 

I think \Pitnrid\ lata and obliquata are really varieties of one and the 
same species, and I don't see much difference between prora (Conrad) and 
obliquata (Hanley). 

Your Hong-Kong shell is a rather rare form, the alabastruin of Sow- 
erby, and I am glad to have seen it. 

The shell I have named pellucida (Lam.) is certainly the li/natula('S)0'w.), 
but I believe them to be identical ; I wrote to Sowerby for both, but he 
could only send me liiiiatula, saying that they could not be sure oi pellucida. 
Lamarck's description applies to liinatula, but is too short, and his shell has 
never been figured. Romer tries to distinguish between them, but I doubt 
his accuracy, as it does not appear that he saw the type of either. 



MELVILL : OBITUARY NOTICE— A. J. JUKES-BROWNE. 285 

There are two pairs of/*, iumida, but the locality (" Meditn.") of one 
must be an error. 

The two which you query as P. nana are identical with two which 
Sowerby sent me as manilLe (Sow.), and he ought to be right. If he is, 
then Romer is wrong again, for his manilli^ is just like the specimen of 
yours which I have put in a pill-box. This species — the vianilhe of Romer 
— will have to be renamed. 

I have had some correspondence with Smith about Callocardia, the 
result of which is to upset my previous ideas. He will not now admit birtsi 
and pudicissivia to belong to Callocardia, and if they do not I have never 
seen a Callocardia, and his figure of the hinge is quite too poor to depend 
upon. 

Your two shells belong to the birtsi group, and seem to be of the same 
species, but they do not agree with birtsi or fudicissinia, so I cannot name 
them. 

Curiously enough, Mr. McAndrew recently sent me a large shell of the 
same group to examine, and I sent it on to Smith ; but he could not name 
it, and said it differed from all in the B. M. The group wants investigating. 

One of your species is a Callista, and three others are Gomphina, one 
of the latter being apparently a new species. You should take it to the 
B.M. when you next go to London. 

The shells have been interesting to work at, and with many thanks, 
I remain. Yours very truly, 

A. J. Jukes-Browne. 



EDITORIAL NOTES. 



The Annual Meeting, due to be held last October, was postponed, and the follow^- 
ing resolution, passed unanimously at a Special Council Meeting held on Sept. 30th, 
was affixed to the cover of our October number : — 

"That owing to the present circumstances caused by the war the Council 
deem it fitting to postpone the Annual Meeting, fixed for October, until such 
time as the President — who is in Australia, and likely to be detained beyond 
the time fixed for his return — can be communicated with, when, it is suggested, 
he be requested to retain office for another year." 



M. Dautzenberg has recently published a new ^ list of the species of moUusca 
(recent and fossil) of which a sinistral or dextral monstrosity is on record, the total 
being 178 sinistral and 17 dextral. To this catalogue we can add two species of 
which sinistral examples exist in our own collection, viz., Tritonoftistis gracilis 
daCosta, and Ma7-ginella diaphana Kiener, and \\\q Journal of Conchology has in 
past numbers recorded ^,»/?V<?./i7«^a ti^z^isZ/z/fl Mtiller, Limuiza glabra M tiller, Vivi- 
para contecta Millet, Liiinuea aurictilaria L. , and Vertigo siibstriata Jeffreys, which 
are not on M. Dautzenberg's list. 

I Bull. Soc. Zool. de France, vol. 39, p. 50 (1914). 



286 JOURNAL OF CONCHOLOGY, VOL. I4, NO. 9, JANUARY, I915. 

The full catalogue serves to emphasise the extreme rarity of this occurrence 
amongst marine shells ; out of the 170 recent species listed, only 33 are marine, 
and it is very curious that 15 of the 33 belong to the genus Margiiiella. 

Only ten fossil mollusca are known to present this phenomenon, one being a 
Helix ; of the 9 marine species 3 are Mafginella. 

The comparative frequency of sinistral Helix aspersa, H. pomatia and Biucinum 
undattDii in collections is no doubt due in great part to the fact that these species 
are so largely gathered for food, but on the other hand, a sinistral Littoiina 
littorea is extraordinarily rare, though we believe that two or three others exist in 
English collections, as well as the example which M. Dautzenberg believes to be 
unique. 

Reference is made incidentally to a paper on the sinistral form of Turbinella 
pynuii L. , the chank shell of the Hindus, by Mr. J. Hornell, Madras Superin- 
tendent of Pearl Fisheries. He estimates that some 120 reversed specimens exist 
in temples in India and Ceylon, where they are considered sacred objects. 



One of our members — Mrs. Longstaff — has lately written a very interesting 
ipaper on a visit to the Southern Sudan, with a list of the non-marine mollusca 
collected there, three species being new to science. Mrs. Longstaff ascended the 
White Nile to Rejaf, which is 1,128 miles from Khartum, and had numerous 
opportunities of collecting on or near the river banks. She points out that the 
geographical position of the Nile, draining as it does the region of the Great Lakes 
into the Mediterranean, causes a commingling of Ethiopian and Palaearctic forms. 
Another interesting point is the extraordinary range of certain species on the 
African continent, especially freshwater species. Thus Spatha wahlbergi Krs. 
occurs from Khartum to the Transvaal, as well as westward into Nigeria, while the 
terrestrial Btirtoa nilotica Pfr. ranges from the Bahr-el-Gebel to Matabeleland, as 
well as eastward to the River Juba and westward to Lake Tchad. 

Altogether 34 species of Gastropods and 19 Pelecypods were obtained. 



In the September number (vol. xi. , part iii.), of the Proceedings of the Malaco- 
logical Society, the Rev. E. W. Bowell completes a series of papers on the 
" Radulse of British Helicids," with figures, the only species which he has not 
figured being Helicella gigaxiiVit. and ValloJiia pulchella M\\\\. The omission of 
the latter was due to the writer's inability " to obtain specimens from shells which 
belonged without doubt to this species." 



An excellent ^ paper has just appeared on the genital organs of the Danish 
species of Clausilia, by C. M. Steenberg, with good photographic text-figures and 
plate. The Danish species are C. plicatula Drap., C. lineolala Held, C. bidentata 
Strom, C. dubia Drap., C. pumila Zgl., C. biplicata Mont., C. plicata Drap., 
C. ventricosa Drap., C. latninata Mont., and possibly C. parvula Stud. Balea 
perversa is also included. AL Steenberg remarks that the grouping of these Clau- 
silias on conchological grounds has been entirely confirmed by anatomical research. 
He recognises Clausiliastra, Pirostoina, and Alinda as distinct genera. 



1 Journ. Linn. Soc. (Zoology) vol. 32, p. 233 (May, 1914). 

2 Anatoraie des Clausilies Danoises — L, Les Organes Gdnilaux (Bianco Lunos Bogtrykkeri, 
Copenhagen), 



EDITORIAL NOTES. 287 

A paper entitled " Les Mollusques de la Bale de Saint-Malo," by MM. Uaut- 
zenberp; and Durouchoux, published in the Fenille des Jeunes Natiiralistes, 1913, 
is of special interest to British marine conchologists, partly because of the close 
relationship between the shells of S. Malo and those of the Channel Isles, and 
partly because of certain points raised in nomenclature. The total number of 
species from the bay is 238, and the author gives a very large number of named 
varieties, many of them being merely colour forms. Donax vittatus var. lactea 
Martel is antedated by var. albida Marshall. 

The following are some of the changes in nomenclature proposed : The authors 
state (l), that Basterot's Bulla lajonkaheana is a miocene fossil very different from 
the long-spired form of Tomatitia obtitsa Mont, to which Jeffreys applied the name 
var. lajonkaii-eana Bast., and jhat the latter must be called var. caiididula Loc. 
(2), That Nassa pygniaa must be called N. varicosa Turton, Lamarck's name 
being preoccupied by Schlotheim. (3), That Kissoia violacea Desm. is exclusively 
Mediterranean, and that our shell which goes by this name must be called R. 
lilacina Recluz. (4), That, as the generic name Pherusa is i^reoccupied, they 
propose Marteliella as a generic name for Pherusa gulsonce Clark. They appear, 
however, to have overlooked Norman's name Pherusina proposed in lieu oi Pherusa 
for this same shell. Pherusina seems to occur first in the Museum Normanianum, 
part iv., p. 18 (1888), but as this catalogue was " printed for private distribution " 
and presumably never on sale, it would not constitute publication. The name, 
however, was properly published in the Conchological Society's " List of British 
Marine Mollusca and Brachiopoda," y<j«r«. of Conch., vol. 10, p. 20 (1901), and 
renders Marteliella superfluous. (5), That the shell which we usually call Gibbula 
umbilicata Mont, is daCosta's Trochus umbilicalis, the latter being prior both to 
Montagu's name and to Gmelin's obliqiiatus. 

This paper is accompanied by four photographic plates, the species figured 
being mostly Rissoids and Pyramidellids with which we are familiar on our own 
coasts. 



The following notice has been communicated : — 

Manual of the New Zealand Mollusca, with an atlas of quarto plates, by 
Henry Suter ; published by the authority of the Government of New Zealand, 
Wellington, N.Z. John Mackay, Government Printer, 1913 ; pp. i.— xxiii., 
I — 1120. 

The appearance of this work marks the extraordinary advance made in concho- 
logical science at the Antipodes in recent years. \Yhen Jeffreys' British Conchology 
was published no list of New Zealand mollusca was in existence ; the first appeared 
in 1873, the second in 1880, and the present magnificent volume in 1913. Suter 
notes that in the 1880 Manual 595 species were admitted, but of these 148 have 
been proved to be exotic, leaving 447 Neozelanic species at that time valid. The 
present Manual covers 1187 distinct forms, an advance almost beyond the appre- 
ciation of a student of Palsearctic forms. 

The 1 1 87 forms are all described in detail, and as the synopsis given on pp. 
xvii.— xxiii. shows these to be divided into 164 families and 324 genera, the work 
of compilation must be regarded as of a monumental nature, for all these higher 
groupings are diagnosed, in most cases full details of the molluscs being given. 
When the disabilities of working under Antipodean conditions are considered, 
nothing but praise can be accorded Mr. Suter upon the completion of such a 
splendid guide to the Mollusca of New Zealand. It would be easy for one sur- 
rounded by the wealth of British Museums, both as regards specimens and litera- 



288 JOURNAL OF CONCHOLOGY, VOL. I4, NO. 9, JANUARY, I915. 

ture, to criticise the details of this work ; but such petty criticism as could be 
offered would savor of hypercriticism and is therefore withheld. 

Fairly gauged, this work must be considered one of the most valuable contri- 
butions to malacological literature of recent years, and it should be on the book- 
shelf of every malacologist with more than parochial pretensions. The classification 
followed is that presented by Pelseneer in his Treatise of MoUusca, and the present 
writer, having made continual use of that system, would suggest that under the 
present knowledge of molluscs, it seems the most suitable for general usage. Suter 
has given keys to genera and species, and consequently the work is very easy to 
use, and anyone can now name with a full degree of certainty their New Zealand 
shells. An Atlas of Quarto Plates is promised and when that appears the certainty 
should be made absolute. 

It must be observed that the treatment is rigidly scientific, and the nomencla- 
ture quite up-to-date. The only blemish in the work is Suter's rejection of names 
unaccompanied by a figure ; otherwise the nomenclature laws now in force have 
been faithfully accepted, the Boltenian genera being utilised, though Suter has 
expressed a personal disapproval of their use. T. Iredale. 



Large Arion ater var. rufa and Testacella scutulum at Stoke-on-Trent. — 

On 25lh February I was asked to examine a very large and brightly coloured slug 
which had been found in a green-house at Stoke-on-Trent. It proved to be a very 
fine example of Arion ater L. var. rtifa or rtibra; and when fully extended 
measured ']\ inches. The colour of the body was a bright reddish-biown, tentacles 
bluish-black, fringe a very bright red with narrow transverse black lines, foot-sole 
yellowish-white. On making enquiries of the gardener I was pleased to learn that 
a species of Testacella had frequented the garden for some years past. To assure me 
of the fact he produced four living Testacella which he had obtained a day or two 
before while digging up celery. I identified them as Testacella scutiihini Sowby. 
In the kitchen garden we dug up four or five sticks of celery which still remained, 
and I picked out from the upturned soil no fewer than eight specimens, all of which 
proved to be Testacella scutulum. I kept these slugs in captivity for some time, 
and had several opportunities of observing their method of seizing and devouring 
earth-worms. They took on an average about seven minutes for each worm. — 
B. Bryan {Read before the Society, May 13th, 1914). 



Helicella virgata m. sinistrorsum near Scarborough. — On Sept, 5th of 
this year I found an example of this rarity on the Seamer roadside, three miles from 
Scarborough, and another specimen was also taken by myself (;n Sept. 12th, 1914, 
two miles out of town on the Filey road. Both specimens were of the var. albicans, 
mature, well grown, and otherwise perfect. Four specimens have now been 
recorded from the immediate neighbourhood of Scarborough, three of them taken 
by myself, and all being found in the North Riding. —Walter Gyngell {Read 
before the Society, Oct. 14th, 1914). 



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MANUAL OF CONGHOLOGY: 

A Systematic, Illustrated Monog^raphy of the 
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Vol.. 141 



APRIL 1st, 1915. 



[No, 10. 



THE 



JOURNAL 

CONCHO LOGY. 

FOUNDED 1874. 

BEING THE ORGAN OF THE CONCHOLOGICAL SOCIETY 
OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 

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CONTENTS. 

Note on Marginella perla Marrat and Pusionella recurvirostris 

Marrat.— J. R. i.e B. Tomt.in 

Note on the Radula of Pyramidula rupestiis Drap. (with figure). — 

E. W. Bo WELL 

Obituary Notice : James Madison. — Editor 

A Cross between typical Helix aspersa and var. exalbida; its results 

and lessons.— A. W. Stelfox 

Editorial Notes ... 

The Radula of Hyalinia, III. ; the Radular Characteristics of H 

helvetica frona different localities (with figures). — A. E. BOYCOxr 
A further Note on Pigmentation in Helicella gigaxii. — A. E 

Boycott and J. W. Jackson 

Littorina littorea L. : a Doubtful Record. — Rev. Dr. A. H. CoOKE 
Note on H. hortensis var. fascialba Taylor. — ^J. E. A. JoLLiFFE 
White Varieties of Helicella gigaxii. — C. Oldham... 
Reversed Helix aspersa in Carnarvonshire. — C. Oldham ... 
The Marine MoUusca of Sao Thome, II. : Descriptions of a New 

Genus and Five New Species (Plate 5). — J. R. LE B. ToMLiN 

and L. J. Shackleford 

Note on Turl)onilla phrikalea Watson (with figure). — ^J. R. le B, 

TOMLIN .. 

Census Authentications. — The Hon. Recorder .. 
Proceedings: Dec. 9th, 1914 ; Jan. 13th, 1915 ; Feb. 6th, 1915 

(with figures) ; March loth, 1915 

PLATE 5. 



289 

290 
291 

293 
295 

297 

304 
305 
305 
306 
306 



307 

309 
310 

313 



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spscxii.!^ E:x:H:xBirrs 



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^89 



JOURNAL OF CONCHOLOGY. 



Vol. 14. APRIL, 1915. No. 10. 



NOTE ON MARGINELLA PERLA Marrat 
and PUSIONELLA RECURVIROSTRIS Marrat. 



By J. R. LE B. TOM LIN, M.A. 



(Read before the Society, Feb. 6th, 1915). 



Marginella perla Marrat. 
On p. 44 of the present volume I gave notes on several species 
of Marginella described by Marrat. At that time the Curator of 
the Liverpool Museum was unable to find the type of M. perla^ 
a species described in \h& Journ. of Couch., i, p. 136. He has, 
however, recently come across it and very kindly forwarded it 
for my inspection. 

It proves to be identical with Af. hiplicata Krauss, described 
from the Cape in Archiv fiir Nahirgeschichte, 1852, p. 37. 
Watson also described this species as M. chrysea, in the " Challenger" 
Gasteropoda Rep. (1886), from Sea Point, Cape Town, but both his 
name and Marrat's are long subsequent to that of Krauss. Marrat 
was unaware of the locality of his specimen. 

^Pusionella recurvirostris Marrat. 

I have also had an opportunity of comparing the unfigured type 
of this species with the series of Pusionella in the British Museum, 
and have no doubt that -Tryon was correct in his surmise as to 
its identity with P. aaileiformis Lam. This species seems subject 
to very coiisiderable variation in the extent and character of the 
longitudinal ribbing on the upper whorls^ and forms exist with the 
lower whorls more or less acutely shouldered i^Fiisits cateliyii Petit). 
The dimensions of Marrat's type are — length 32 mm., diam. max. 
12 mm. 

1 Journ. of Conch., i, p. i8o. 

2 Man. Conch., vi, p. 236. 

3 Journ. de Conch., ii, p. 75, pi. i, f. 2. 



290 



NOTE ON THE RADULA OF PYRAMIDULA RUPESTRIS 

(Drap.). 



By E. W. BOWELL. 

(Read before the Societj-, May T3th, 1914). 



A SPECIMEN of this radula is herewith submitted to the Society. 

The radula shown was taken from an animal found by the writer 
on the Great Doward, in the south of Herefordshire, where the 
species is abundant. Similar specimens have been examined from 
several localities in the county of Kent. It seems, however, to be a 
very different form from the one figured in Mr. Taylor's Monograph 
(vol. iii., pp. 171, 474). The present specimen bears not the slightest 
resemblance to P. rotundata ; it is, indeed, very different in appear- 
ance from any other of our small Helicids. The only Helicid radula 
which it recalls is that of Helix lapicida, and the resemblance to 
lapicida is less complete than it first appeared to be. The compari- 
son,^ however, was made with a young specimen of lapicida, which 
naturally possesses fewer admedians, the lateral ones being provided 
with a distinct ectocone, as are these of rupestris, and the externals 
having subpectinate cones. The specimen shown under the micro- 
scope has 204 rows, 8 admedians, and ii externals. The one 
photographed has 173 rows, 7 admedians, and 11 externals. Both 
were adult and contained young ; five in the former case, two in the 
latter. In both cases there was little left of the parental tissues 
except the radula. The embryonic radulse are similar in plan to the 
adult organ, but the admedians, which number two or three only, 
have more markedly blunt mesocones, not yet produced into pointed 
cusps. On their external unci, however,' the pectinations are relar 



c 



J L _i_ ™L 



tively longer and finer. The adult specimen shows a broad central 
mesocone, occupying the whole width of the uncus. The main conic 

1 Proc. Malac. Soc, vol. viii. (1908), p. 126. 



BOWELL : NOTE ON RADULA OF PYRAMIDULA RUPESTRIS. 29I 

portion of this is a rounded and prominent mass, similar to that of 
lapicida ; it is produced apically into a rather long cusp, the relative 
size of this being decidedly greater than in lapicida. The admedians 
follow the same design, but in these an ectocone gradually appears, 
reaching its maximum development in the last admedian. In the 
transitional or first external uncus, mesocone and ectocone are equal 
in size. The admedian and central unci have subquadrate basal 
plates, closely apposed and interlocked. The terminal cusps of the 
mesocones overlap the next row to a considerable extent, but this is 
only seen in adult specimens. The externals begin somewhat 
abruptly, the mesocone plus endocone base giving place to an elong- 
ated parallel-sided basal plate without apical or alar expansions. 
From this arise the pectinated cones, in type similar to those found 
in Vertigo and Pupa. Their character is established at the third 
external. The pectinations are usually six on each uncus, but as 
many as eight may sometimes be seen. They are frequently dissimilar 
in successive rows. 

Postscript. — Since the above was written I have, through the 
kindness of Mr. J. W. Jackson and Mr. E. Collier, been able to 
examine the radulse of specimens of P. rupestris from Tenby (Pem- 
brokeshire), Holker (Lancashire), Silverdale (Lancashire), Ravens- 
dale (Derbyshire), Newmarket (Flint), Miller's Dale (Derbyshire), 
Castleton (Derbyshire), Arnside (Westmorland), Hungary, Amalfi 
(Italy), and from another unspecified Italian locality. In every case 
the radula showed the characteristics of the Herefordshire specimen 
described above. The specimen from Paignton (Devon) in the 
Gwatkin Collection in the Manchester Museum is also of the same 
type. 



OBITUARY NOTICE. 
JAMES MADISON. 

[The following notice is compiled from information very kindly supplied by Mr. 
P. T. Deakin, of Birmingham]. 

James Madison, whose membership of our Society dates back to 
1884, was born in Birmingham in 1847. Being a delicate boy, he 
had comparatively little schooling — a thing which was always a 
matter of great regret to him — but subsequently he made up for 
much of the loss by attending both elementary and advanced classes 
at the Biimingham and Midkrd Institute, and won seveial piizes. 



292 JOUKNAL OF CONCHOLOGY, VOL. I4, NO. ID, APRIL, I915. 

He also attended classes in his favourite subjects of Botany and 
Geology. 

For many years he followed his father's trade as a shoemaker ; 
later on he worked in an iron warehouse, where the hours were shorter 
and enabled him to spend more time in the open air. 

For the ten years previous to his death he worked on a small 
estate at Northfield, where his natural taste for gardening enabled 
him to transform a few small fields into a charming landscape garden. 

He was reluctantly compelled by illness to relinquish this work 
some fourteen months before his death and to move back into the 
town, and in attempting to do some of the heavy work of the move 
he overstrained an already weak heart. His strength faded away 
very gradually, and at the last he only took to his bed for a single 
day, passing away in his sleep early on January 4th, at the age of 67. 
He had one brother and two sisters, of whom one sister (who always 
lived with him) survives. He was unmarried. 

A keen observer and an indefatigable field worker, he knew the 
Midlands pretty thoroughly as well as many out-of-the-way localities 
much further afield, as he preferred to collect his specimens himself 
whenever possible. 

Botany, Geology, Microscopy, and Photography all came in for a 
share of his leisure, but Conchology always remained his most 
favoured study, and notes thereon are scattered through the Midland 
Naturalist, the Journal of Conchology, Science Gossip, and other 
periodicals, though his natural unobtrusiveness prevented him from 
being a voluminous writer. 

He will perhaps be best remembered in connection with the dis- 
covery of '^Physa heterostropha Say living in Britain. 

He was an active member of the Birmingham Microscopists' and. 
Naturalists' Union up to quite recently, and also belonged for some 
years to the Birmingham Natural History and Philosophical Society. 

His collections comprised land and freshwater mollusca, British 
and foreign, and fossil mollusca — chiefly from the Silurian, Liassic, 
Oolite, Eocene, and Oligocene— the last two groups being gathered 
during holiday visits to Hants, and the Isle of Wight. The pick of 
the Eocene and the Oligocene fossils he presented about eighteen 
months ago to the Birmingham New Museum, and it is hoped that 
arrangements will now be made to transfer most of his collections — 
or at least the local part of them — to the Museum. — Editor. 



I /ourn. oj Conch., ix., p. 152. 



293 



A CROSS BETWEEN TYPICAL HELIX ASPERSA AND 
VAR. EXALBIDA: ITS RESULTS AND LESSONS. 



By a. W. STELFOX, M.R.I. A. 



(Read before the Society, Jan. 13th, 1915). 



Before conchologists became acquainted with the results of 
Mendel's experiments, several attempts were made to procure 
specimens of sinistral shells and other extreme variations by crossing 
one of these with a typical example of the same species. Un- 
fortunately through lack of knowledge these experiments were 
only carried to the F i generation, in which the aberrant form — 
being recessive — could not appear. Hence many naturalists came 
to believe that such forms were " freaks " incapable of transmitting 
their characteristics to their descendants. I remember well being 
told by a former president of our Society that the colony of white 
Clausilia bidetitata at Kinbane, co. Antrim, could not be due in any 
way to heredity. I had been reproving him for collecting all the 
white shells, by suggesting that this might exterminate the colony ; 
but at the time I was quite satisfied with his answer. I know now 
that he was entirely in the wrong. 

Upon finding a specimen of Helix aspersa var. exalbida near 
Dorking, Surrey, in September 191 1, I determined to keep it for 
experimental purposes. During the following month it was placed 
in a box with a more or less typical example taken at Carrickfergus, 
CO. Antrim, in August 19 10. Throughout the following experiment 
the snails were fed on lettuce leaves and slices of carrot or turnip. 

In February, 19 12, both specimens came out of hibernation and 
were observed to pair on the following day. No eggs were laid ; 
but they again paired several times and eggs were laid in a burrow 
in the sand at the bottom of the box during May. By which 
specimen the eggs were laid I do not know. On the 25th June 
and following days the young were hatched. They grew quickly 
and by Xmas 19 12 some had reached a diameter of 15mm. • the 
smallest being about 9mm. in diameter. All hibernated during the 
winter, most by fastening themselves against the side of the box ; 
some buried themselves in the sand with the mouth of the shell 
upwards. I was interested to discover the means by which these 
burrows are excavated ; it is, I believe, by using the foot-sole as a 
"conveyor." First a sort of round depression is made with the 
head ; and then the snail proceeds to walk into the sand. The 
shell coming in contact with the sand hinders movement, and con- 
sequently it is the sand under the snail that travels, being thrown 



^94 JOURNAL OF CONCHOLOGY, VOL. I4, NO. ID, AtRlL, 19I5. 

backwards by the movement of the muscles of the foot. How the 
animals roll over on their backs before hibernating I have not 
yet discovered. 

The first shell to come from its winter quarters appeared on 
2nd February, 1913 ; but all had not re-awakened till 3rd March. 
Two of the largest specimens were isolated and attained their full 
growth during June and July, 1913. They were seen pairing on 
14th August; but no eggs were laid during this year. One speci- 
men went into hibernation on loth October and the other later 
in the same month. 

By this time almost all the F i generation were full-grown, al- 
though a few did not reach full growth until 19 14, and all resembled, 
more or less, the typical parent from Carrickfergus. 

On ist February, 1914, one specimen came out of hibernation; 
but not until 30th March did its companion make its reappear- 
ance. On 31st March, the following day, they paired and remained 
thus all day. Again at 7 p.m. on 8th of May they were seen 
pairing and were still thus at 1-30 p.m. on the following day. 
Eggs were laid on 3rd June under a fiat stone which I had placed 
on the sand. One parent died on the 12th June: presumably 
that which had deposited the eggs. About seventy-five young 
hatched out on 27th June, and many more on the following days. 
On 15th July another "family" appeared, the outcome of a batch 
of eggs laid by the remaining parent during June. As soon as 
growth commenced, it was observable that some of the young shells 
were of a greenish colour and not of the pale amber hue of the 
typical form. As the amber coloured specimens grew they developed 
the normal brown banding and were killed at once to prevent 
over-crowding. On T4th August the exalbida examples were easily 
distinguished from their pinkish-brown brothers and on that date 
all specimens were killed but twenty (eleven white and nine 
brownish) with which I intend to carry on further experiments. 

In all 311 examples were reared and assuming that the originals 
from Dorking and Carrickfergus were each homozygous in regard 
to their colouring, white and brown respectively, the F 2 generation, 
theoretically, should have consisted of 77"7S exalbida and 233"25 
type. The actual figures, therefore, are most interesting, namely 72 
white and 239 brown. Several at least died before their colour 
could be ascertained with certainty and are not included in the figures 
given. These figures came as a great surprise to me, as I did not 
expect to get more than a few white examples in the F 2 generation. 
It is not easy to see how a stray white specimen could be of a 
pure strain, unless the var. exalbida is a homozygous recessive form. 



STELFOX : CROSS BETWEEN H. ASPEKSA AND VAR. EXALBIDA. 295 

Dr. A. E. Boycott in a recent letter suggests that self and not 
cross fertilization may be common in the case of Helix neinorahs ; 
but up to the present I have seen no evidence that such is the 
case, although I am carrying out numerous experiments with differ- 
ent coloured forms of that species. The above experiment at any 
rate is a clear proof of cross fertilization. 

In their " List of British Non-Marine Mollusca," published in 
London, 1914, Messrs. Kennard and Woodward distinguished be- 
tween " varieties " and "forms." Unfortunately they give no reason 
for this distinction, nor do they state in what way a "form" is 
inferior to a "variety.'" I note, however, that in the case of 
Helix asf>ersa, vars. major and inifwr, auct., are given as "forms," 
while in the cases of Helix nenioralis and H. horteusis they rank 
as "varieties." In the latter species all colour variations, even in- 
cluding citrinozonata — which in the West of Ireland frequently 
occurs in colonies — are regarded as " forms." 

Now my experiments have shown me that while the latter varia- 
tions are hereditary, the size and texture of a shell can be 
influenced by its food supply, and its general environment during 
growth. I think, therefore, that such variations as libelltila^ rubeila^ 
&:c., and especially citrinozonata are well worthy of the name 
" variety." Some colour variations of Helix tienioralis, in Ireland, 
have distinct geographical ranges: thus some are "western," some 
" central," but many, of course, are generally distributed, though 
few occur throughout the whole range of the species. 



EDITORIAL NOTES. 



Our Proceedings for February contain an account of the presentation of an 
illuminated Address to Mr. John W. Taylor at Manchester, as some slight 
recognition of his services to Conchology, to the Society and to this /oiirnal of 
which he was the founder. These services are more fully and adequately dealt 
with in the terms of the Address which we print elsewhere, but it seems only fitting 
to call attention in this column to the honour so deservedly accorded to our first 
editor. The meeting was very enthusiastic and congratulatory — alike on the 
seventieth birthday which Mr. Taylor was celebrating and on the completion of the 
third volume of his Monograph. For the benefit of those members who could not 
get to Manchester on February 6th, we are able, through Mr. Taylor's kindness, 
to offer reproductions of the cover and front page of the Address. We should add 
that the President of the Society, Mr. R. Bullen Newton, F.G.S., came down from 
London specially to preside at the meeting. 



296 JOURNAL OF CONCHOLOGY, VOL. I4, NO. ID, APRIL, I915. 

In the January number the name of the President of the London Branch should 
be A. E. Salisbury. 



Mr. W. Denison Roebuck communicates the following: — "The recent death 
of Mr. Robert Kenton, of Greenlaw, Berwickshire, at the age of 75 years, removes 
one who contributed materially to the Census of the Mollusca for that county — 
for which thirty years ago he sent numerous species. He was not a professed 
conchologist, but according to a brief note in the "Gardeners' Chronicle" for 
i6th Jan., 1915, p. 36, he was a bryologist of wide reputation, and an entomologist, 
antiquary, and numismatist of repute." 



In the Irish Naturalist for last October, vol. xxiii. , pp. 205—21 1 , are two .short 
papers with reference to the anatomy of Vitrina hibernica Taylor, one by A. E. 
Boycott, the other by E. W. Bowell. The reproductive organs of this species were 
first described and figured by Bowell in the Irish Naturalist (1908), vol. xvii., p. 
94, pi. 4 (under the name of V. pyrenaica Fer.), and subsequently by Taylor in his 
Monograph from Simroth's dissections. These two accounts differed materially in 
their interpretation of the organs opening into the atriicm, and Bowell in his recent 
paper unhesitatingly admits that in the 1908 paper he interpreted wrongly. Boycott, 
in the paper mentioned above, from the examination of a complete series of micro- 
scopical sections confirms the views of Simroth and Taylor as to the organs in 
question, but he finds that though the opening of the vas deferens into the penis- 
sheath is lateral, as figured and described, yet the vas deferens is continued within 
\h& penis-sheath to its distal end, where it opens into 'Cno. penis, thus approximating 
to the arrangement in Vitrina pellncida. 



Our congratulations are due to Mr. J. W. Taylor, alike on his seventieth birthday 
and the recognition thereof by the Society, and on the completion of the third 
volume of his Monograph with the appearance of part 21 on December 21st. This 
part contains pp. 481 — 522 and plates 19 and 28 with index. The text consists of 
supplementary notes on H. potnatia, H. aspersa, H. nemoi-alis, H. hortensis, H. 
pisana, H. lapicida and H. arbustorum, a new variety of H. hortensis being 
described under the name of var. fascialba Taylor. Text figures are given of 
additional continental varieties, there is a full list of subscribers, and an additional 
bibliography. It is satisfactory to note the Public Libraries of 23 towns, and 54 
Societies, Museums, or other Institutions amongst the subscribers. Plate xix. 
contains the British species of Punctum, Pyramidula and Helicigona, while plate 
xxviii. gives beautiful colour reproductions of 19 ioxms oi Helix hortensis. These 
are up to the very best standard of Mr. Taylor's work. 



We understand that all the collection of recent shells formed by the late A. J. 
Jukes-Browne is bequeathed to the Oxford University Museum. Most of his fossils 
had been given away many years ago, but the local collection of polished corals 
from the limestone has gone to the Torquay Natural History Society's Museum, 



297 



THE RADULA OF HYALINIA. 
III. 



The Radular Characteristics of Hyalinia helvetica from different localities. 



By a. E. boycott. 



(Read before the Society, October 14th, 1914). 



In this paper I propose to describe shortly the results of the examina- 
tion of the radula of Hyalinia helvetica from four different English 
localities. The specimens were all collected by myself in 1911-1913 
at (i) Banstead in Surrey, (2) English Bicknor in West Gloucestershire, 
(3) Tremadoc in Carnarvonshire, and (4) Marple in Cheshire. All 
the radulis were prepared and examined in the same way — a point 
which may turn out to be of some importance. The mean results of 
enumeration and measurement are given in the following tables, the 
specimens being classified into size groups in accordance with the 
conclusions previously reached {th\5 Journal, vol. xiv. (19 14), p. 214). 

Table I. 



Locality. 


Size 
Group 
mm. 


Num- 
ber 
exam. 


Diain. 

of shell 

mm. 


Number 

of 

rows 


Number 

of 
m'rgin'ls 


Size of radula. 


Ratio 
I'ugth 
width 


Total 
number 
of teeth 


Area of 

one tooth 

IJ.2 


I.oapt 


Wide 


Area 


Banstead 


7-7-9 

8-8-9 


66 
23 


7-43 
8-34 


40-98 
41-83 


11-30 
1 1 -91 


2-401 
2-590 


0-528 
0-595 


1-268 
1-546 


4-5 

4-4 


I213 
1287 


1045 
I20I 


Bicknor 


7-7-9 
8-8*9 
9-9-9 


9 
II 

5 


7-54 
8-46 
9-46 


38-00 
40-82 
43-60 


10-39 
10-91 
11-50 


2-283 

2-523 
2-732 


0-509 
0-540 
0-571 


I -163 
1-370 
1-560 


4-5 
4-7 
4-8 


1055 
II78 
1308 


1098 
II57 
II93 


Tremadoc 


7-7-9 
8-8-9 
9-9-9 


6 

10 

5 


7-50 

8-49 
9-42 


37-17 
38-60 
38-60 


11-42 
11-90 
11-80 


2-320 
2-569 

2-782 


0-594 
0-631 
0-651 


1-380 
1-622 

1-8x0 


3-9 
4-1 
4-3 


II08 
I 189 
I181 


1244 
1365 
1533 


Marple 


7-7-9 
8-8-9 
9-9-9 


10 
10 

5 


7-56 
8-40 
9-26 


38-50 
37-90 
40-40 


10-25 
11-25 
11-30 


2-342 

2-451 
2-718 


0-578 
0-625 
0-662 


1-364 
1-569 
1-799 


4-0 
3-9 
4-1 


1057 
III3 
II96 


1278 
1370 
1504 



Table II. gives the averages of these mean figures for the 7 and 8 
mm. groups, there being no representatives of the 9 mm. group in the 
Banstead series. 

Table II. 



Locality. 


Diara. 

of 

shell 


Number 

of 

rows 


Number 

of 
m'rgiu'ls 


s 

Long 


ze of radt 
Wide 


la 
Area 


Ratio 
length 
Width 


Total 
number 
of teeth 


Area of 
one tooth 


Banstead 


7-89 


41-41 


11.589 


2-495 


561 


1-407 


4 "4 


1250 


II26 


Bicknor 


8-00 


39-41 


10-65 


2-403 


0-525 


1-267 


4-6 


II16 


II32 


Tremadoc 


7-99 


37-88 


11-66 


2-445 


0-612 


1-501 


4-0 


II49 


1296 


Marple 


7-98 


38-20 


10-75 


2-397 


0-601 


1-466 


4-0 


1085 


1332 



298 



JOURNAL OF CONCHOLOGY, VOL. I4, NO. ID, APRIL, I915. 



I have not set out at length the range of variation within each 
group for each of these particulars, but in general it is similar to the 
variation in Banstead helvetica which has been already described 
ijupra p. 232). The number of rows, for example, in the Marple 
series varies from 36 to 44, from Tremadoc from 36 to 42, from 
Bicknor from 37 to 43. The number of marginals is 9J to 12 from 
Marple, 9 to 13 from Bicknor, 10 to 13 from Tremadoc. The 
existence of this variability makes it necessary to enquire what degree 
of difference in the average figures is significaiit of a real difference 
between the various groups. The twenty specimens from Bicknor, 
for example, differ in several particulars from the twenty specimens 
from Marple, and it is conceivable that if other twenty examples from 
Bicknor had been examined the results would have agreed with those of 
the Marple group. Statistical enquiry has, however, discovered certain 
principles which prevail in the varial)ility of live things, and knowing 
the variability of these radular properties and taking into considera- 
tion the number of specimens examined, we can state approximately 
the difference which must be present between two averages before we 
can regard it as indicative of a respectable distinction. The necessary 
differences in the present case are roughly as follows : number of 
rows 2"o, number of marginals o'8, length of radula o"2 mm., width 
0*05 mm., area 0*2 sq. mm.j total teeth 90. Borderline cases, of 
course, occur in which the presence of any real difference is doubtful. 
The Marple helvetica accordingly have fewer rows than the Banstead 
specimens, but not necessarily more than those from Tremadoc or 
less than those from Bicknor ; the Tremadoc helvetica correspondingly 
have fewer rows than those from Banstead and probably less than 
those from Bicknor, but the average does not differ from the Marple 
average by an amount large enough to be regarded as significant. 

Table III. 



Locality. 

Banstead compared with Bicknor 
,, ,, Tremadoc 

,, ,, Marple 

Bicknor compared with Tremadoc 
,, ,, Marple 

,, ,, Banstead 

Tremadoc compared with Marple 
,, ,, Banstead 

,, ,, Bicknor 

Marple compared with Banstead 
,, ,, Bicknor 

,, ,, Tremadoc 



Number 

of 

rows 


Number 

of 
m'rgiu'is 


Total 
number 
of teeth 


Size of radula | 


Long 


Wide 


Area 


more 
more 


more 


more 
more 




more 
less(?) 


more (?) 


more 


more 


more 




less (?) 




more (?) 
less 


less 
less 
more 


less 
more (?) 




less 
less 
less 


less 
less (?) 
less (?) 


less 




less 




more 




less (?) 


more 






more 


more 


less 


less 


less 




more (?) 






less 


less(?) 




more 


more (?) 



BOYCOTT : THE RADULA OF HYALINIA. 299 

Interpreting the results along these lines we arrive at the following 
characteristics by which each local series may be differentiated from 
each of the others. Cases which are queried are probably rather than 
certainly distinct. Cases which are left blank show no significant 
difference, but it should be remembered that the degree of difference 
necessary for significance varies with the number of specimens 
examined and it by no means follows that the measurement of longer 
series would not reveal distinctions where, on the present evidence, 
they cannot be said to exist. ^ 

It is evident that there are one or more particulars in which each 
series differs from the others. On the whole Banstead is most and 
Marple least divergent from the general run. Tremadoc and Marple 
are nearest one another. Banstead and especially Bicknor have 
narrow radulse, and Bicknor a generally small organ. Banstead has 
the greatest number of rows with many marginals and hence a large 
number of teeth, which, as the radula is not conspicuously large, are 
rather small. 

The configuration of the variable teeth {i.e., the third lateral and 
first marginal) also shows some local variation. The cutting points 
may in a general way be regarded as falling into three categories of 
development and to each may be assigned a numerical value. They 
may be absent (=o), small or imperfect (=0-5) or fully developed 
(^i). For example, in the eleven specimens in the 8 mm. group 
from Bicknor the endocone of the third lateral tooth is absent in one, 
small in 7, and well-developed in 3, giving a total of o + 3'5 + 3=^6'5 
marks out of a possible total of 11, or 60 per cent. This figure of 60 
may be taken as representing approximately the degree of development 
of that cutting point in that particular series of specimens. The 
calculation is obviously based partly on fact and partly on one's per- 
sonal interpretation of the significance of " small." The " figures of 
merit " for the present series are : 

Table IV. 

Eudocone Ectocone Eudocone 

3rd lateral 3rd lateral 1st marginal 

Tremadoc 7-S '9 mm 52 31 o 

9-9 '9 mm 70 60 o 

Bicknor 7-8-9 mm 57 47 o 

9-9'9 mm 75 65 o 

Marple 7-S'9 mm 55 ...... 27 i 

9-9-9 mm. 75 45 ..... o 



Banstead 7-8-9 mm. 



I In the present state of our knowledge one has to restrict each series to those collected at 
one time over quite a small area of ground in order to exclude time and locality factors which 
have not yet been examined. Hence it is njt always easy to secure adequate series of the 
appropriate sizes. 



300 JOURNAL OF CONCHOLOGY, VOL. I4, NO. ID, APRIL, IQIS. 

The outstanding features here are the high development of the 
endocone, and to some extent of the ectocone, of the third lateral in the 
Banstead specimens with which is associated the occasional presence 
of a small endocone on the first marginal. This last occurred, and 
then only as a trace on one side of the radula, in only one of the 
71 specimens from elsewhere. This is the more significant as these 
included much larger individuals than the Banstead series and, as 
was pointed out in my more detailed study of these specimens {supra 
p. 218), this differentiation of the first marginal tooth increases as the 
shell grows larger. This growth change is well shown in the figures 





4^6 
z 3 

for the third lateral tooth from Tremadoc, Bicknor and Marple, but it 
is less advanced than in the smaller Banstead specimens and prac- 
tically never extends to the first marginal tooth. There also seems to 
be a relative failure in development of the ectocone of the third 
lateral tooth in the Marple specimens. 

With the alternative notation which was previously used {supra 
p. 235), we get the following figures for the percentage occurrence of 
each type of tooth in the 7 and 8 mm. series for the third lateral 
tooth : 

Table V. 





Type I. 


Type II 


. Type III. 


Type 


IV. 


Type V. 


Type VI. 


Banstead 





12 


9 




13 


54 


12 


Bicknor 





ID 


62 







23 


5 


Tremadoc 





38 


56 




3 


3 





Marple 


6 


35 


39 







20 






These figures bring out equally well the greater differentiation of 
the Banstead specimens. 

Two other features of the cutting points require notice, (i) The 
Tremadoc specimens alone showed, in five individuals, the curious 
condition known as " truncation of the mesocone " of the central 
tooth, which seems to be actually a failure of development of the 
highly refractile cutting point. In four this involved the mesocone 
only (figure 5), the lateral cusps being fairly normal (figure 4) ; in a 
fifth example (figure 6) the lateral cutting points were also absent. 
(2) Five of the Bicknor specimens had a form of elementary ectocone 
to the third lateral tooth which I have not seen elsewhere. The 



BOYCOTT : THE RADULA OF HYAI.INIA. 3OI 

ectocone is represented by a well marked fold and notch but the tip 
of the cusp thus formed has no refractile cutting point. The con- 
dition is represented in figure 2 and is evidently different from the 
more usual shoulder (figure i) or small ectocone with a cutting point 
(figure 3). The common abnormalities of Hyalinia radula — bifid 
cones — occurred in five of the whole 160 specimens. 

Some mention is required of the characters of the snails and their 
shells from which these radulse came. In no case from an examina- 
tion of the living animal have I had the slightest doubt that I was 
dealing with the species commonly known as helvetica. The external 
appearance of this species when alive and active seems to me to be 
highly characteristic and exceptionally uniform, compared with e.g.^ 
ceUaria, and to a less degree alliaria. Careful observation of live 
specimens crawling about is, I think, of special importance in Hyalmia. 
Generally speaking the four series present no differences which seem 
of much importance. In the shell the Tremadoc and Bicknor speci- 
mens are thinner than those from Banstead and Marple, especially 
the former which were difficult to collect and deal with without 
breaking a good number. They came from a slaty rock, the Bicknor 
specimens from limestone. The Tremadoc group is further dis- 
tinguished by a narrower umbilicus^; the mouth is also relatively 
higher and the columellar margin more vertical than in Marple and 
Bicknor specimens in which the mouth is narrower and set more 
obliquely. The Banstead series agrees more with those from Tremadoc. 
The white about the umbilicus is best developed in the Banstead 
series and is practically absent in those from Tremadoc. The spire 
in the Tremadoc group is flatter than in the others. Such are the 
differences which by our present methods of examination are qualitative 
only in character. Definite measurements give the impression of 
greater uniformity. The average dimensions which are susceptible to 
fairly easy and tolerably accurate evaluation are given in Table VI. in 
terms of the major diameter. The shells are those in the 7 and 8 mm. 
groups in each series. - 

Locality 
Banstead 
Marple 
Bicknor 
Tremadoc 

The differences of conoidity, closeness of whorls, relative size of 
last whorl, etc., are evidently not very great, though the method of 

1 Large specimens everywhere seem to have a relatively wider umbilicus. 

2 There is no obvious growth change in these figures. The 6 mm. group of Banstead 
helvetica gives loo, 90, 53, 35 ; the 5 mm. group igo, 8g, 51, 34 : the 4 mm. group 100, 89, 52, 35. 





Table 


VI, 








Major 
diameter 


Minor 
diameter 




Major 
altitude 


Minor 
altitude 


Number 
of whorls 


100 


... 88 




53 ■• 


• 35 •• 


. 4'8 


100 


... 87 




55 •• 


. 36 .. 


• 47 


100 


... 89 




55 


. 36 .. 


• 4'9 


100 


... 88 




54 •• 


• 35 ■• 


• 47 



302 



JOURNAL OF CONCHOLOGY, VOL. I4, NO. lO, APRIL, I915. 



comparison is one of considerable delicacy.^ Relatively speaking the 
Banstead shells are flatter, the Bicknor most closely coiled (the 






difference being in the arrangement of the apex), while the Marple 
specimens have the most rapidly expanding last whorl (/>., the 
difference between major and minor diameter is greater). 

I In illustration of the results a series oi eel/aria from Banstead 7-8'9 mm. in diameter give 
100, 88, 48, 32, with 4'7 whorls: the figures bring out the relative flatness oi cdlaria clearly 
enough. 



BOYCOTT : THE RADULA OF HYAI.INIA. 303 

Anatomically I could find no very important differences. To say 
that they would have been demonstrated if the whole of the organs 
had been examined quantitatively as has the radula, is to express a 
mere opinion. The only point to which attention should be drawn 
is the exceptional length of the penis in the Bicknor specimens. 
This is shown in the figure which gives camera lucida outlines of the 
lower parts of the genitalia of two specimens from each locality, 
all prepared in the same way from shells between 8 and 9 mm. in 
diameter and magnified to the same degree. To the other differences 
shown in the figures I should attach no importance. 

We have then here specimens of Hyalinia helvetica from four 
widely separated localities. Each series has some rather ill-marked 
shell characters and some well-marked radular characters, and it 
would be consonant with one attitude towards such problems to 
elevate some or all of them to nominal rank. Such a course has the 
clear and definite advantage that it would focus attention, controversial 
or acquisitive, upon the group and thus lead pretty quickly to a 
desirable amplification of our knowledge. But before taking such a 
step further information is wanted along three lines — (i) As to 
whether helvetica from any two localities are identical when judged 
by the criteria here adopted. (2) Whether the variation here 
described is local or familial. As it happens each series was collected 
from a very circumscribed locality, a good deal less than fifty yards 
square in every case. The results, therefore, do not throw any light 
on the question whether, e.g.^ the Marple individuals are fairly repre- 
sentative of the helvetica living in the Marple valley or whether their 
characteristics are confined to the particular colony from which they 
came.^ It is a common habit of helvetica to live in rather definite 
colonies, like lucida, and not with the general dispersion of cellaria or 
nitidula, and this mode of occurrence (which, by the way, does not 
hold at all in the Banstead district of Surrey) is, perhaps, provocative 
of the development of local characters. (3) Whether the character- 
istics found are permanent in the sense that they continue unaltered 
in any one colony over a period of years. Whatever the answer to 
these questions may be, it is obvious that radular characters may prove 
of considerable value in the differentiation of local races and that 
local variation in the radula must be taken into account in the 
consideration of " specific differences." 

Summary. 
The radul^e of Hy. helvetica from four localities (Surrey, Gloucester- 
shire, -Cheshire and Carnarvonshire) are described and found to have 
characteristic features in each case. 

I The specimens dealt with here came from the well-known spot by the acqueduct to which 
Mr- St£nden directed my attention. 



304 



A FURTHER NOTE ON PIGMENTATION IN 
HELICELLA GIGAXII. 



By a. E. boycott and J. WILFRID JACKSON. 



(Read before the Society, Jan. 13th, 1915). 



In answer to our request for live specimens of H. gigaxii (antea 
p, 167), we have received the following lots : — 

No. I. — Hudnall Common, near Berkhamsted, Herts. From 
Mr. C. Oldham. A small form, of drab colour ; some distinctly 
banded, especially below the periphery ; others with broken bands, 
small blotches or flames ; a few entirely bandless (=var. lutescens^ 
Kendall). From this locality Mr. Oldham has also recently de- 
scribed some specimens as var. hyalozonata. Average diameter=7mm. 

No. 2.— Little Tring, Herts. From Mr. C. Oldham. A slightly 
larger form, showing the same variation in colour and marking as 
No, I, and including vars. hyalozonata and alba of Oldham. 
Average diameter=8mm. 

No. 3. — Wendover, Bucks. From Mr. C. Oldham. A larger 
form, banded and blotched as No. i ; also vars. hitescens, Kendall, 
and hyalozonata, Oldham. Average diameter=io mm. (Largest 
specimen=i2mm.). 

No. 4. — Ayton Road, near Scarborough. From Mr. Hargreaves. 
A medium-sized form, banded, blotched, and unicolorous (var. 
Intescens). Average diameter=8"5 to gmm. 

No. 5. — Portsdown Hill, Hants. From Mr. H. Beeston. A very 
small form, comprising white shells (like var. alba, Oldham) ; 
whitish shells with dark apex (like var. albicans, Kendall) ; whit- 
ish shells minutely and sparsely speckled or blotched, some- 
times banded below the periphery. This is a remarkably small 
form and quite full-grown. The average diameter=6'5 to 7 ; largest 
=8"9mm.. Mr. Beeston writes, "they never grow any larger. The 
habitat is among the very short grass on the highest and driest 
parts of the downs, and in dry weather they are almost indistinguish- 
able from the tiny pieces of white chalk." 

In the above five lots the pigmentation of the genitalia pre- 
viously found to be characteristic of the H. gigaxii from Prestatyn 
was present, i.e. the neck of the dart-sac and the lower part of the 
duct of the spermatheca were darkly pigmented, the latter being 
often black. Lot 5 were examined pretty thoroughly, but no clear 
difference from the others could be made out ; the mucous glands 
were more voluminous and bulbous, but their precise shape and 
arrangement is variable. 



BOYCOTT AND JACKSON : Pir,MK>NTATION IN HELICELI.A GIGAXII. 305 

Lots 1-4, agree exactly in shell-sculpture, etc., with the typical 
H. gigaxii; lot 5, however, is quite unlike that species in its shell 
characters, and one cannot feel satisfied as to its specific identity. 
The characteristic eccentricity of the umbilicus of H. gigaxii is 
wanting, and the shells have more the characters of very Jifiely 
striuted H. candidula. 

The following specimens of H. caperata were also examined : — 
Portsdown Hill, Hants, same source as lot 5 ; Horn Head, 
Donegal, from Mr. Stelfox — his "large western " form. 

Both these series were quite free from pigmentation of the parts 
mentioned, as in the original Prestatyn specimens. 



Littorina littorea (L.) : a doubtful record. — In an article by Mr. C. G. 
Hewitt, which appeared in Ann. Scott. Nat. Hist. Edinb. , 1907, No. 64, p. 
219, it was stated that at St. Kilda Littoritm littorea occurred living in the 
crevices of the rocks at the top of Ruadval, almost 450 feet above sea level. 
Its presence there was explained by the "almost constant presence of spray 
from the Dun passage." As L. litto7-ea is a shell whose usual habitat is at and 
below half-tide mark, such an occurrence appeared very remarkable. I, there- 
fore, wrote to Mr. Hewitt, who is now in Canada, pointing out this fact, and 
asking him whether he was sure that his shells were not L. rtuh's Mat. He 
replied that he had no interest in the taxonomic side of the MoUusca, and that, 
if he desired the name of any particular shell, he was in the habit of applying 
to Mr. Standen or to one of the other assistants at the Manchester Museum. 
Neither Mr. Standen nor any of his assistants have any recollection of having 
seen or named any such specimens, and I am a^^sured that no reference appears 
on their register to any Littorina from .St. Kilda. Under these circumstances it 
is evident that the record cannot stand. The matter may seem of trivial 
importance, but when the economics of the shore Mollusca come to be better 
studied, as they will be some day, it is important that we should have none but 
well authenticated facts to work upon. The present record, if it were left 
uncorrected, might give rise to mistaken views with regard to the possibilities 
of life of the species in question. Even as relating to L. riiJis, it would be 
remarkable. But that is quite another matter. — A. H. CoOKE {Read before the 
Society, Jan. 13th, 1915). 



Note on Helix hortensis var. fascialba Taylor.— In 1912 I was collecting 
H. hortensis from plentiful colonies in the hedges round Barnham, Sussex (West). 
The majority of the specimens were normal five-banded or bandless yellow ; but 
I took three specimens oi Jascialba Taylor. All three were 00300 in Ijandino-, 
the white zone extending slightly beyond the dark banding both aljove and below. 
In every case the form was of the iiicamata colouring, and it is perhaps note- 
worthy that while the other specimens were uniformly bandless yellow or type, 
these isolated specimens from a widely extended area all showed a combination 

of imarnata colouring, 00300 banding and the atavic white peripheral zone. 

J. E. A. JOLLIFFE [Read before the Society, Feb. 6th, 19 15). 

T 



3o6 

WHITE VARIETIES OF HELICELLA GIGAXII. 



By CHARLES OLDHAM. 



(Read before the Society, December 9th, 1914). 



In speaking of Helicella gigaxii I assume that the shell which Mr. 
A. W. Stelfox (Proc. Mai. Soc, vol. x., p. 39) identifies with Helicella 
heripensis (Mabille) is really referable to the Helix gigaxii of 
Charpentier. This species, whatever view systematists may ultimately 
take of its identity, is abundant on the Chilterns on the borders of 
Hertfordshire and Buckinghamshire, and during the autumn of 1914 
I collected several albine specimens in that district. Most of them 
had translucent bands or streaks, but at Little Tring I took half-a- 
dozen which lacked shell-markings. These albine shells indeed 
corresponded respectively with the typical form and with forms 
devoid of markings such as the vars. hiiescens a.r\6. albicans of Kendall, 
but were entirely without pigment. The pigmented forms are 
separated according to the presence or absence of bands or other 
markings, and the albine forms may with propriety be distinguished 
on the same grounds. I propose the name alba for the immaculate, 
and hyalozonata for the banded or streaked form, and append a brief 
description of each. 

var. alba — Shell pure white, apex translucent, markings absent or 
only represented by a few minute and irregularly scattered translucent 
spots representing the minute coloured specks which are often 
present in pigmented shells. Locality, Little Tring, Herts. 

var. hyalozonata — Shell pure white, apex and shell markings, 
whether bands, mottlings or transverse streaks, translucent. Locali- 
ties, Wendover, Bucks.; Little Tring, canal-bank near Tring station, 
and Hudnall Common, Herts. 



Reversed Helix aspersa in Carnarvonshire. —I found a living adult ex- 
ample of the monst. sinisirum of Helix aspersa on the cliffs at Forth Oer near 
Aberdaron on October 2nd, 1914. Although the occurrence of such abnormalities 
may have no distributional significance, it is perhaps well that they should be 
recorded. — Chas. Oldham {Read before the Society, Dec. 9th, 1914). 



307 



THE MARINE MOLLUSCA OF SAO THOME, II. 
Descriptions of a New Genus and Five New Species. 



By J. R. i.E B. TOMLIN, M.A., ano L. J- SHACKLEFORD. 

(Plate V.). 

(Re;id before the Society, Feb. 6th, 1915). 



^Tropidorissoia gen. nov. 
This name is proposed for a group of Rissoids which seems 
confined to the islands off tlie West Coast of Africa, the type 
species selected being T. taphrodes, Tomlin & Shackleford, de- 
scribed below. 

They are small conical shells of four to five whorls, with a varying 
number of more or less prominent spiral keels which continue 
almost or quite to the apex {cf. "Smith on Riss. platia), the inter- 
spaces being smooth, and with much rounded apertures. 

We should assign to Tropidorissoia the following S. Helena 
species described by Mr. E. A. Smith, viz. Rissoa aegua, R. platia, 
R. wallichi, R. perfeda, R. varicifera, and probably R. vaga and 
R. siniulam. 

Tropidorissoia ^taphrodes sp. nov. (pi. 5, f. 5). 

Shell minute, conical, strongly carinate, slightly rimate or per- 
forate, smooth, solid, light brown in colour, somewhat shining ; 
whorls 5, protoconch smooth and of the same colour as the rest of the 
shell ; the last whorl has three keels, one in the middle of the whorl, 
and, of the other two, one above and one below at about equal 
distances from the central keel, which is rather more prominent 
than the upper and lower ones ; the keels are very well marked, 
massive and completely rounded ; the other whorls each have two 
keels ; the last whorl occupies about half the shell ; suture indistinct ; 
aperture almost round : peristome acute ; columella slightly arched, 
reflexed. 

Long. : I '5 mm. ; diam. max, i mm. 

Hab. : S. Thome, not very common. 

The type specimen is the only one that we received in a live 
state. 

This curious little species, which we make the type of a new 
genus, is only comparable with certain S. Helena species already 
mentioned. 



1 Tp07rtS=.^ keel. 

2 P.Z.S., 1890, p. 309. 

3 ibid. pp. 288-290. 

4 Tac^OwS^JS^^treneh-like, 



3o8 JOURNAI. OF CONCHOI.OGY, VOL. I4, NO. lO, APRIL, I915. 

It is most nearly related to T. aequa (Smith), and T.perfecta (Smith), 
but is at once known by its three keels on the body-whorl, whereas 
T. aequa has seven, and T. perfecta five. 

Leiostraca 'diauges sp. nov. (pi. 5, f. 6). 

Shell subulate, straight, smooth, poUshed, imperforate, trans- 
parent, the axis being plainly visible through the shell ; colour white 
with somewhat irregular and interrupted l^rownish yellow banding, 
which starts immediately below the apex ; whorls nine to ten, flat 
with inconspicuous suture ; protoconch smooth and yellowish ; on 
the last three, sometimes the last four whorls there are two irregular, 
much interrupted, often slightly oblique bands of a brownish yellow 
colour, with some irregular marks of the same colour towards the 
base of the body whorl ; on the upper whorls there is a single, 
more continuous band, which on the first three or four whorls is 
practically sutural ; aperture narrow, short, pyriform, extremely acute 
above ; columella slightly arcuate. 

Long. : 4 mm. ; diam. max. i"4 mm. 

Hab. : S. Thome, rare. 

Syrnola thomensis sp. nov. (pi. 5, f 2). 

Shell elongate, fusiform, smooth, polished, shining, imperforate, 
white, somewhat opaque ; whorls eleven to twelve, with smooth, 
heterostrophe apex, the diameter of the last whorl being rather 
less than that of the penultimate \ suture strongly incised, showing 
this feature very clearly in the outline of the shell ; aperture 
elongate oval, rather small, one-tenth of the total length of the shell ; 
columella with a strong plait. 

Long. : 1 1 mm. ; diam max. i 5 mm. 

Hab. : S. Thome, scarce, in coral gravel. 

This species is very similar in general appearance and proportions 
to Syrnola aciculina (Souv.) from New Caledonia and Lifu (as S.jaculum 
Melv. and St.), but it increases rather more abruptly in breadth and 
has its greatest diameter at the penultimate, instead of at the last 
whorl. The aperture is much smaller than in aciculina. 

From Syrnola gracillima Smith (Whydah) it differs in its more 
swollen appearance with tapering apical whorls ; the \^^hydah species 
is almost straight-sided. 

Odostomia ^pithus sp. nov. (pi. 5, f. 4). 
Shell ovate, pupiform, smooth, semitransparent, white, rather 
dull, imperforate ; whorls seven to eight, very slightly convex, taper- 

1 OtavyrJS = t''a-'isparent. 

2 TTtvOS^^:^ wine-jar. 



TOMLIN AND SHACKLEFORD : MARINE MOI.l.USCA OF S. THOME. 309 

ing very little and increasing very slowly in size, with heterostrophe, 
yellowish apex, the last whorl being about twice the size of the 
preceding and less than half that of the whole shell ; suture some- 
what impressed ; aperture ovate, moderately acuminate above, about 
two-fifths the length of the shell ; peristome acute ; columella 
reflexed, almost straight with a strong plait on the lower part. 

Long.: 3'5 mm.; diam. max. i'5 mm. 

Hab. : S. Thome, not common, in coral gravel. 

This Odostomia, though very ordinary in appearance, we cannot 
identify with any described species. 

It is akin to O. rissoides Hanley in size and generjil appearance, 
but differs in being imperforate, less conical, less impressed at the 
suture, and it has the plait or tooth lower down the columella. 
Turbonilla ^pyrgidium sp. nov. (pi. 5, f 3). 

Shell small, narrow, very strongly turreted, longitudinally ribbed, 
without spiral sculpture, white, shining, transparent, imperforate ; 
whorls eight to nine, strongly keeled on the upper part near the 
suture and flattened above the keel ; with smooth, heterostrophe 
apex ; the longitudinal ribs, of which there appear to be about 
twenty-four on the body whorl, are strongly marked on the upper 
part of each whorl and form a series of beads where they cross 
the keel, but on the lower part are evanescent ; columella arcuate, 
without a visible plait ; aperture small, roundly oval. 

Long. : 3 mm. ; diam. max. '85 mm. 

Hab. : S. Thome, moderately common. 

This beautiful little shell, which is well represented by the 
figure, is quite unlike any other species with which we are 
acquainted. Owing to the filmy texture of the shell, it is extremely 
difficult to count the number of ribs. 

All the type specimens are in the British Museum, 



Note on Turbonilla phrikalea Watson. — On plate 5, fig. i, of this number 
I give a figure of a Turbonilla which is not uncommon in the S. Thome coral 
gravel, and which I have no hesitation in identifying with the above species. 
Watson described it (" Challenger'' Gasteropoda, p. 493) from a single worn broken 
example, dredged at station 24, off Culebra Island. The colour, which he does not 
mention, varies from dark to light fulvous brown. Watson spells the specific name 
differently on the plate, but phrikalea is correct according to the derivation he gives. 
— J. R. l.E B. ToMLiN {Read before the Society, March loth, 1915). 



TrrpytbtOl'^ liltle tower. 



3'0 



CENSUS AUTHENTICATIONS. 



By W. DENISON ROEBUCK, F.L.S., Hon. Recorder. 



All the records here given are based upon examples submitted to the official 
authenticators : myself for slugs only ; ^^Ix. Fred Taylor for Faludes^rtmdcs ; and 
Mr. John W. Taylor for all other species. 



Berkshire : Planorhis fotttanus found sparingly in pond in oak wood on Bucklebury 
Common. 23rd June, 1914, by ]\Ir. Anthony J. Arkell. 

Bucks. : Mr. Charles Oldham has submitted numerous examples of Hdicella 
heripensis from The Hale, Wendover, and from Aston Clinton, all taken 25th 
October, 1914. 

Carmarthenshire : Mr. J. Williams Vaughan has submitted a few examples of 
Paliidesirina jenkinsi taken 22nd May, 1913, in a small stream behind Kidwelly 
Castle, in company with Limmea truncattila, Pisidiuiii obtusale and abundance 
of/", cinereiim {casertanuni of Woodward). 

Carnarvonshire : Mr. Charles Oldham has sent two Vallonia exceiitrica, taken at 
Rhiw, 3rd October, 1914. 

Channel Isles : Hygroinia granulala, Guernsey, R. Rimmer, numerous. Small 
specimens are in the Royal Scottish Museum at Edinburgh. 

Cheviotland : Mr. A. M. Oliver sent examples of Planorhis albus, Anodonia 
anatina and Pisidium ainnicuDi taken in June and July, 1910, all of which are 
plentiful in the River Coquet near Warkworth— particularly on the south side. 

Cornwall East : Vflllonia costafa, one specimen from Fowey, collected by R. 
Rimmer, is in the Royal Scottish Museum at Edinburgh. 

Denbighshire; Helicigona lapicida, one from IJandulas (J. R. le B. Tomlin), and 
a few from Great Orme's Head (Alfred J. Nixon). Claiisilia laviinala, one 
from Llangollen (A. O. W[alker]). A'ieca tiidens, several var. Jtoiiletiaiia hoiw 
the Great Orme, Llandudno, 1887 (J. R. le B. Tomlin), and numerous 
examples, mostly var. a/5fW(7«5/j- from Llandudno, 1887 (Id.). All these are in 
the Grosvenor Museum at Chester. 

Devon South : Of Luiinita stagnalis var. fragilii and LiiniicEa glabra a few not 
quite full-grown, both labelled "South Devon, R. Rimmer"; a.nA.oi Acanthi nu la 
aciilcata from Dartmouth, two, 1877, R. Rimmer ; specimens are in the Royal 
Scottish Museum at Edinburgh. 

Donegal West : Mr. R. Slanden has submitted Pupa cylindracea, which was 
abundant at Portsalon in May, 1S93. The collection of Mr. Standen and Mr. 
Jackson contains three examples of Planorhis glaber taken by Mr. Standen in 
Ballymagahy Lough in May, 1893; ^11*^ ^ ievf Spkarium corneuin taken by 
him in the same month in water-holes on the golf-links at Portsalon. 

Dumbartonshire: A few examples of Efia ohscnra, collected in 1888 near Dum- 
barton by Mr. A. Shaw, are in the collection of Mr. Slanden and "Six. Jackson. 



JROEBUCK : CENSUS AUTHENTICATIONS. 3II 

Dumfries-shire : In the Royal Scottish Museum at Edinburgh are numerous 
ex3.mples of S/>A/radi/i//i edentidiini collected in 1880 at Lodge Wood, Dala- 
woodie ; two of Vertigo substriata Moffat, 1882 : one juvenile specimen of 
Hyalinia helvetica from the banks of the Cluden, near saw-mills in September, 
1880; and a few juvenile Valvata piscina lis from the River Cluden just below 
Dalawoodie in 1880, all collected by the late Mr. Richard Rimmer, whose 
whole collections were given to the Museum by his daughter. 

Ebudes Mid: Mr. William Evans, F. R.S.E. , has sent a couple of examples of 
Valvata piscinalis var. acuminata, Planorbis glaber anA a young Snccinea putris, 
along with other species, gathered November, 1913, on the margin of a loch in 
Tiree. 

Essex N. : Numerous specimens of Paltidestrina ventrosa and one Phytia wyosotis 
from ditches above Dovercourt (Harwich) railway station, collected by R. 
Rimmer, are in the Royal Scottish Museum at Edinburgh. 

Glamorganshire : Mr. J. Davy Dean sends the following — Puttctum pygi/itcnm, 
two from Castell Coch, Cardiff, taken April, 1914 ; Acicula lineata, two from 
the same locality ; Cacilioides acicula, one from the East Moors, Cardiff, taken 
in May, 1914 ; Pupa musconim, several from Sully, including one var. elongata, 
July, 1 91 4. 

Haddingtonshire: Mr. W. Evans has submitted Pisidiuni amniciini taken in the 
Tyne near East Linton, 13th May, 1911. 

Herefordshire : In 1910 Mr. N. G. Hadden submitted from the parish of Earls 
Croome Punctuni pygmcetwt, Acanthinnla aculeata, Carychiutn ininintum, all 
of which are abundant, Vallonia costata, not uncommon. Vertigo pusilla, rare 
(only five examples), Ccecilioides acicula, very rare (only one), and Valvata 
C7-istata, abundant in one ditch only. He also sent an example oi Agriolimax 
Icevis from Severn Stoke. 

Herts. : Mr. Charles Oldham has sent Helicella heripensis from Little Tring 
(numerous, ist November, 1914), canal-bank near Tring Station (numerous, 
8th November, 1914), and Hudnall Common (numerous, 17th October, 1914). 

Kent East : Capt. W. J. Farrer sent examples of Planorbis glaber from Heme 
Bay, where in February, 191 1, he found it common on caddis-cases. 

Kerry South : In the collection of Mr. Standen and Mr. Jackson are numerous 
examples of Carychiutn minimum taken in July, 1898, in Mucksna Wood, 
Kenmare. 

Kirkcudbrightshire : In the Royal Scottish Museum, Edinburgh, are single 
examples of Helicigona arbustoriuii type, from Mabie ; Hyalinia radiatiila from 
Mabie Marthronn, 8th May, 1889 ; and Vertigo pygmcea from Glen Burn, 
August, 1893 ; all collected by the late Richard Rimmer. In the Kelvingrove 
Museum at Glasgow are examples of Planorbis carinatus (juvenile), Helicella 
virgata and H. acuta, all labelled taken at New Galloway by the late David 
Robertson. The last-named needs confirmation, as New Galloway is far inland. 

Leicester-with-Rutland : Mr. Thos. W. Saunders sent a batch of various slugs 
collected in the vicinity of Melton Mowbray, on the i8th of March, 1914, 
which included two new records, viz. : Milax gagates var. rava, a few nearly 
grown, and one almost black, and Agriolimax IcEvis. 

Limerick: Mr. Harry Fogerty has submitted several examples olEna obscura, 
taken at Adair, 21st July, 1912. He has also sent Ballinacurra examples of 



312 JOURNAL OF CONCHOLOGY, VOL. I4, NO. 10, APRIL, igi^. 

Punctnm pygJiKrii/ii, Acicula lineata, Vallonia pulchella, Anodotita cygiiea 
var. arenaria from Coolen Lough, Dromoie, Acanthinula lamellata from Dro- 
more Wood, Helicella virqata in its transparently banded white form from 
Askeaton, and Phytia myosotis from Foynes. 

Co. Meath : Mr. A. VV. Stelfox has submitted a small example of Vitrina 
hibernica, taken 14th July, 1914, on the Meath bank of the Mattock river, near 
Mellifont Abbey, thus completing the Census for the species. 

Monmouthshire : Mr. George Shrubsole has sent a large number of Hyalinia 
lucida from Newport. 

Northumberland South : Mr. A. M. Oliver has sent a few Caiychium mitiimuDi 
from above Corbridge, taken 3rd September, 19 10, to establish a more precise 
record than " Newcastle," on which the Census previously rested. 

Nottinghamshire : Specimens from Mattersey of Segnuntina lincala were taken 
in May, 1910, by Mr. W. E. Brady. Prof J. W. Carr has submitted Palu- 
deslrina jeiikinsi, foimd in a ditch which receives the overflow from the canal at 
Wollatoii. 

Pembrokeshire : Mr. J. Williams Vaughan has submitted a few Pisidium 
nitidum and two small Planorbis fontamis taken 23rd May, 1913, in a pool 
near Hoyle's Mouth, Tenby ; several Pisidium subtruncattim from Manorbier 
stream, near the sea, 24th May, 1913 ; and one example of Puitctuvi pygmcciDii 
found in moss from near Tenby, same date. 

Mr. George Shrubsole has sent a number of mollusca collected at Tenby 
in 1909, which includes an example of Hyalinia radiatula, a desired confirma- 
tion of its occurrence. 

Ross West: A few each of Pisidium oblusah and P. nitidum, collected at Gair- 
loch by the late Ur. McMurtrie are in the Royal Scottish Museum at Edinburgh. 

Shropshire : Mr. N. G. Hadden has submitted Clausilia rolphii ^nd CI. laminata 
taken in I/inley Woods. They were exhibited at the Conchological Society's 
meeting on nth December, 1912. 

Somerset North : Miss Agnes Fry sent a nearly adult Limax maximiis var. fasciala 
from Failand, near Bristol, on the 13th September, 1913. 

Wight, Isle of: Mr. Frank Morey sent Limax maximtis, type, two a third-grown, 
and one L. flavns, type, half-grown, from a timber-yard at Newport, 21st 
November, 1913, on an unbarked oak-log. On the 1st of March, 1914, he 
found a few Avion circtimsoiptus, juvenile, and one immature var. neiistriaca, 
in a wood at Shanklin. 

Wilts. South : The collection of Mr. Standen and Mr. Jackson contains several 
examples of Pupa secalc from Devizes. Mr. C. P. Hurst, of Great Bedwyn, 
sent a number of young examples of Sitccinea eltigans taken in the first week 
of May, 1912, amongst herbage on the soiji^th side of the Kennel and Avon 
Canal near tliat place. 

Yorkshire North-East: Mr. J. Kidson Taylor has submitted several examples of 
Planorbis glaber from Scarborough. Mr. J. A. Hargreaves has submitted 
Pisidium amniciim from the River Dervvent at Forge Valley, Scarborough. 



31- 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE 
CONCHOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF GREAT BRITAIN & IRELAND. 

437th Meeting', held at the Museum, Manchester, Dec. 9th, 1914. 

Mr. E. Collier in the chair. 

Additions to Library announced and Ihanks voted :— 

" Littoral Marine MoUusks of Chincoteague Island, Virginia," by J. B. Hender- 
son and P. Bartsch. 

" A New Pearly Freshwater Mussel of the Genus Hyria from Brazil," by L. S. 
Frierson. 

" Report on Land and Freshwater Mollusca observed in Hertfordshire in 1908 
and 1909"; "id., 1910"; "id., 1911"; "id., 1912," by Charles Oldham— (//-^w 
the respective authors) ; and the usual periodicals received in exchange. 

Donations to Cabinet announced and thanks voted : — 

By Mr. A. J. Arkell (per the Hon. Recorder) : — Plauorbis fontanus, from 
Bucklebury Common, Bradfield, Berks., June 23rd, 1914. 

By Mr. Charles Oldham :— A fine sinistral Helix aspersa, and a beautifully 
mounted series of the Carnarvonshire shells illustrating his papers. 

Papers Read. 

" White Varieties ol Helicella gigaxii" by Charles Oldham. 

" Reversed Helix aspersa in Carnarvonshire," by Charles Oldham. 

" Conchological Notes from Chili and Brazil," by Lionel E. Adams, B.A. 

" List of Mollusca collected by Lionel E. Adams, B.A. , during a Recent 
Journey in Chili and Brazil, with Descriptions of Six New Species," by H. B. 
Preston, F.Z.S. 

Exhibits. 

By Mr. Lionel E. Adams : — A series of marine shells from Peru, etc., to illus- 
trate his papei ; also some beautiful photographs of the scenery, taken by himself, 
showing the wild character of the country where the specimens had been collected. 

By Mr. A. W. Stelfox (per Prof. Boycott) : — Helix itemoiulis x hortensis 
parents and their assumed hybrid progeny ; the latter are decidedly nemoralis in 
darts, mucous glands, etc. 

By the Rev. Lewis J. Shackleford : — A collection of Australian and Tasmanian 
species of Alarginella, including amongst others many of the more recently 
described — M. agapeta Wats. var. ; M. allporii Ten.-Wds. ; M. altilabra May ; 
AI. angasi Braz. ; M. beddoniei Pett. ; J\I. cratericula Tate and May ; M. cypne- 
aides Ten. - Wds. ; I\f. connectans May ; AT. dentiens May ; M. diplostrepta May ; 
M. Jlindersi Prit. and Cat. ; J\L gabrieli May; M. gatliffi. May; M. geviiuata 
Hedley ; J/, hedhyi May ; M. iuieqiiidens May ; M. indiscreta May ; M. incoii- 
spicua Rve. , and var. ; RI. keniblensis Hedley ; M. mayi Tate ; 31. ovtilum Sow. ; 
yl/. Stanislaus Ten.-Wds. ; J\I. subbulbosa Tate; JM. schoutanica'^lz.y ; M. stilla 
Hedley; M. triile/itata Talc ; and A/, vercei MiLy. The following were also ex- 
hiiiited : — M. ebiirnea Preston, from Ceylon; AI. gruveli Bavay, co- types and 
specimens just recorded from Mossamedes, Angola. 

In the Special Exhibit of the Genus Rauella, an almost complete series of the 
known species was shown. Mr. C. II. Moore gave an interesting description of 
the more remarkable features of some of the species, together with details of their 
life-history so far as it is known. An interesting discussion followed. 



314 JOURNAL OP CONCMOLOGV, VOL. H, NO. lO, AtRIL, igti;. 

It was decided to have the following Special Exhibits at future meetings :— 
January 13th - The Genus Buliininus. 

February 6th - Types of Unionidiv. 

March loth - The Genus Harpa 



438th Meeting, held at the Museum, Manchester, Jan. 13th, 1915. 

Mr. E. Collier in the chair. 

The Hon. Librarian reported that the usual exchanges had been received ; also 
Part 21 of Taylor's " Monograph." 

Candidates Proposed for Membership, 

C. M. Steenberg, IMag.Sc. , Royal Observatory, Ostervoldgade 3, Copenhagen, 
K. (introduced by H. Overton and W. E. Collinge). 

J. Digl)y Firth, F.L.S., F.E.S., Boys' Modern .School, Leeds (introduced by 
W. Denison Roebuck and John W. Taylor). 

Members Deceased. 

W. Cash, F.G.S., F.R.M.S. 
Dr. H. Strebel. 
James Madison. 

Papers Read. 

" A Further Note on Pigmentation in Helicella gigaxii" by A. E. Boycott and 
J. Wilfrid Jackson. 

'■' Litiorina littorea (L.), a Doubtful Record," by the Rev. Dr. A. H. Cooke. 

"A Cross between Typical Helix aspersa and var. exalbida — Its Results and 
Lessons," by A. W. Stelfox. 

" Further Additions to the Land and Freshwater MoUusca of Jura, Colonsay, 
with Oronsay, and Islay," by J. F. Musham. 

"Additions to the Land and Freshwater MoUusca of Wigtownshire in 1909," 
by J. F. Musham. 

Exhibits. 

By Mrs. Gill : A series of the smaller forms of Cassis, including C. vibex, C. 
testiculiis, etc., illustrating growth and variation. 

By Mr. G. C. Spence : A series of Alcadia ; and a specimen from Jamaica 
approaching Brachypodella [Myckosioma) agnesiana C. B. Ad., and diininuta 
" Ad.," Pils. Externally similar to these but more tapering. The internal column, 
however, consists of two twisted cords, gradually thickening as they approach the 
base. Possibly a new species. 

By Mr. A. W. Stelfox : Series of specimens illustrating his paper. 

By Messrs. Boycott and Jackson ; Series of specimens illustrating their paper. 

In the Special Exhibit of Buliminus, Mr, E. Collier exhibited a very fine 
series, illustrating twelve of the fourteen sections into which this group is divided. 
He also briefly outlined their habits and distribution. 



439th Meeting, held at the Museum, Manchester, Feb. 6th, 1915. 
(Special Meeting), 

The President, Mr. R. BuUen Newton, F.G.S., in the chair. 

Among those present were Messrs. E, Collier, W. Denison Roebuck, R. 
Standen, J. W. Taylor, A. E. Boycott, B. R. Lucas, J. R. le B. Tomlin, G. C. 
Spence, C. Oldham, W. H. Hutton, J. R. Hardy, Greevz Fysher, J. E. Crowther, 
E. R. Brown, F. Booth, W. M. Tattersall, A. Hartley, Mr. and Mrs. G. H. 



PROCEEDINGS : FRR. 6, I915. 315 

Taylor, F, Rhodes, H. Maltby, R. Harrison, J. Digby Firth, C. H. Moaie, T. 
Stringer, W. H. Western, T. H. Piatt, T. Castle, J. W. Carter, H. L. Stephenson, 
F. Ashwell, Capt. W. J. Farrer, Mr. and Mrs. Gill, Mr. and Mrs. J. W. Jackson, 
and Rev. L. J. Shackleford. 

Donations to Cabinet. 

By Mr. W. Denison Roebuck : Sckisog!ossa novoseelandica Pfr. (one) from Toko, 
North Island, N.Z., the type locality for the animal and genus (received from 
R. Murdoch, 1904). Athoracophorus bitentaculattis Q. & G. , (three), from S. John 
Hills, Wanganui. The donor remarked on the perfect resemblance of the latter 
slug to a brown decayed leaf, with veins and sinuosities of outline. It has no 
shield ; the breathing orifice is in the middle of the anterior portion of the back. 

New Members Elected. 
C. M. Steenberg, Mag. Sc. 
J. Digby Firth, F.L.S., F.E.S. 

Candidates Proposed for Membership. 

Sidney Ash, 8, Gladstone Terrace, Gateshead-on-Tyne. 
Percy Thomas Deakin, 19, Digbeth, Birmingham. 

Papers Read. 

" Note on Helix nemoralis v?iY. fascialba Taylor," by J. E. A. Jolliffe. 

" The Marine Mollusca of S. Thome, II. — Descriptions of a New Genus and 
Five New Species," by J. R. le B. Tomlin, M. A., and L. J. Shackleford. 

" Note on Atarginella perla Marrat and Pnsionella recurvvostris Marrat," by 
J. R. le B. Tomlin, M.A. 

" Land Mollusca of the Weymouth District," by J. E. A. JoUifie. 

"A List of the Recent Species of Spondyhis Linne, with some Notes and 
Descriptions of Six New Forms," by Hugh C. Fulton. 

Exhibits. 

By Mr. G. C. Spence : Eucalodiiun ; Holospira, including H. goniosloma Pfr. ; 
Obba and allied forms ; co-types of Brachypodella insidacygni Clapp. 

By Rev. L. J. Shackleford : Valuta concinna Brod., from Japan ; V. kingi 
Cox, from Bass Straits. 

By Mr. E. Collier : Lit/iiUEa stagnalis from many localities ; Buliminiis. 

By Mr. J. Ray Hardy : Dipsas hejxulea from Japan ; and selection of exotic 
Unionida. 

By Mr. Thos. H. Piatt: Typical examples of Unionida from Africa, North and 
South America, and China — Tmncilla triqnetra Raf. , Dick River, Ohio ; T. sul- 
cata Lea, Ohio ; Quadrula lachrymosa Lea, Ohio ; Q. metanevra Raf., Quachita 
River, Arkansas ; Q. cylindrica Say, Arkansas ; Lanipsilis alatus Say, Mississippi; 
L. recttis '[Jv.. , Mississippi; Symphynota co)JiplanataV>2.xnz'i, 0\i\Q ; Unlo spinosus 
Lea, Georgia ; Dromiis droiiins Lea, Tennessee ; Plagiola securis Lea, Arkansas ; 
Obliqiiaria rejlexa Raf., Arkansas; Gonidea augiilata Lea, California; Cartincn- 
lina texasensis Lea, Arkansas ; Pleiirobeiiia iisopiis Green, Kankakee River, 
U.S.A. ; P. clava Lk. , Tennessee; Arcidens confyagostis-?i2,y, Indiana ; Cy progenia 
iyyorata Lea, Ohio ; Tritogonia tiiberculata Barnes, Ohio ; Alasmidonta undu- 
lata Say, Orange Co., U.S.A. ; Hyria corriigata Lk., Brazil ; Prisodon syrmato- 
phorus, Meuschen, Brazil; Tetraplodoii ambiguiis (Lam.), Sowb. Uruguay; 
Hyriopsis bialatus Simpson, Singapore ; Nodidaria grayana Lea, China ; N. 



3l6 JOURNAL OF CONCHOLOOY, VOL. I4, NO. ID, APRIL, I915. 

doiiglasics Gray, China ; N. caffer Krauts, Algoa Bay, South Africa ; Psetidospatha 
tanganyicensis Smith, Lake Tanganyika ; Grandidieria btirtoni Woodward, Lake 
Tanganyika. 

By Mrs. Gill : — Unio, Anodonia, and allied genera ; Tellina radiata from 
Bahamas, Barbados, Bermuda, Cayman Brae, Cuba and Antilles ; T. elegans. Gulf 
of Mexico. 

By Mr. J. W. Jackson : Fossil Unionida, on behalf of himself and the Man- 
chester Museum. The series included the type specimens of Unio kendalli J. W. 
Jackson, the earliest true Unio, from the TvOwer Estuarine Series, Saltwick, 
Whitley, Yorks ; Capt. Brown's type specimens of Unio humatus and Alasmodoji 
vet list lis from the Upper Estuarine Series, Gristhorpe, Yorks. ; various species of 
Unio from Wealden beds, near Hastings ; and a fine specimen of Archanodonta 
jiikesii from the Upper Old Red Sandstone, Kiltorkan, Kilkenny. 

By Mr. J. R. le B. Tomlin : The type specimens and drawings o. five new 
marine species from S. Thome ; some rare species of Marginella, including M. 
ehctrina Sow., M. anmdata Rve. , M. cessaci V^Qch&hx., M. daz'aj'i Dauiz., M. 
gloriosa Jouss., M. fischeri Pall., ]\I. hirasei Bavay, M. fiihninata Kien., M. tri- 
cincta Hinds, i1/. iJ^szw? Jouss., M. deliciosaB&v^iy, M. pulvis ]o\.\ss., M. pachia 
Wats., M. etataV^Siis., M. brachia^^X.?,., M. anxia Hedley, M. la:ta Jouss., 
M. guillaini Petit, and M. triflicata Gask. ; and a number of the less common 
species of Bulimimis, including B. pharangensis Fruhst. , B. ponrctus Mllff. , 
B. featheri Tomlin, B. spraiti Pfr. , B. colonus Mllff., B. hunanicola Gred. , 
B. selayerensis Smith, B. gansuiciis Gred., B. boothi Tomlin, B. boivini Mor. , B. 
toewUFh., B. hyemalis Heude, B. szee/tenj'i Btig. , Sttnogyropsis potanini Mllff., 
and numerous species of the Ovella section. 

By the Manchester Museum: Shells of the Hawaiian Islands; Partula ; Amphi- 
dromtis; Harpa ; Anostoina; Acavns; Papui?ia ; Ufiionidce of Lakes Tangan- 
yika and Nyassa ; the " Lodder Collection " of Tasmanian moUusca ; and 
Unionidds from the " R. D. Darhishire Collection." The general collections 
exhibited in the shell gallery were open to inspection, and also the special exhibits 
o{ Spottdylus, Xenophora, Boring Mollusca, Shell sections. Edible Mollusca, etc., in 
the side gallery. 



The principal business of this Special Meeting, held in lieu of the 
ordinary February Meeting, was the 

Presentation of an Illuminatp:d Address 
to Mr. John W. Taylor on attaining his seventieth birthday. 

The President of the Society, who had come specially from London 
for the occasion, made the presentation in the following words : — 

"We have assembled to-day to offer our heartiest congratulations 
to Mr. John W. Taylor on having attained his seventieth birthday. 
I venture to think that the occasion should also be utilized for 
offering this gentleman our deepest homage and respect as one of 
the leaders of conchological science in this country, especially in 
connection with the study of the British I-.and and Freshwater 
Shells, which he has so successfully pursued during the greater 
part of his career. Mr. Taylor's published researches form numer- 



PROCF.EDINGS : FEB. 6, I915. 



317 



ous papers in the serial literature of our science, and his great 
work, "The Monograph of the Land and Freshwater 
Mollusca of the British Isles" — of which three volumes are 
now completed — will for ever place him in the front rank of English 
conchologists. This monograph is of considerable magnitude, each 
volume extending to nearly five hundred pages of text, besides being 
profusely illustrated with coloured plates, text figures, and valuable 
distribution maps — a very monument of industry and application. 
We trust that Mr. Taylor's energies will long be with him, so that 
he may be enabled to finish so important a monograph. 

But, apart from his great researches, Mr. Taylor's name will be 
always associated with the history of our Society as its founder. 
Starting as a Leeds institution some forty or more years ago, the 
Conchological Society, with its present home in Manchester, has 
issued a valuable Journal during that long period, the early volumes 
of which were edited by Mr. Taylor. Mr. Taylor may well be proud 
of his Society, which, besides being the senior one of its kind in 
this country, has done and is doing such excellent work tovrards 
inculcating a love for the study of moUuscan science." 

Mr. Taylor, who spoke with considerable emotion, acknowledged 
this unexpected recognition of his services to the Society and to 
Conchology in general, in a felicitous speech. 





Reduced copy of the outer cover 
of the Address. 



Reduced copy of ihe illuminated 
title-page of the Address. 



The address, which is the work of Messrs. Oliver of Manchester, 
is tastefully and brilliantly illuminated, with figures of characteristic 
shells freely and appropriately introduced ; it is bound in book form, 
in dark green morocco, and runs as follows : 



3l8 JOURNAL OF C0NCH0I,0(;Y, vol. 14. NO. ID, APRIL, I915. 

" To John Willia.m Taylor, Esq. 
Dear Sir : 

In the name of the Conchological Society of Great Britain and 
Ireland we wish to offer you our hearty congratulations on the 
attainment of your seventieth birthday. 

For many years you have devoted your energies towards eluci- 
dating the many problems connected with the life-history and 
distribution of British Non-Marine Mollusca, and it is forty-one 
years ago that your enthusiasm and enterprise led you to undertake 
the publication of "The Quarterly Journal of Conchology," 
which has done so much to stimulate and encourage the study of 
conchology. From the publication of this Journal sprang the 
Conchological Society, and at this, its 439th meeting, we are 
rejoiced to be able to greet you as one of our founders, and to 
recognise the debt which we owe to you as our constant friend 
and supporter. 

The experience gained by your researches, coupled with your 
artistic and literary attainments, have fully qualified you for the 
arduous and exacting task of publishing "A Monograph of the 
Land and Freshwater Mollusca of the British Isles," 
a work which will always stand as a monument to your profound 
knowledge of the subject, and to the sacrifices which you have 
ever been ready to make for the promotion of the study. 

Conchologists have learned from your example the necessity of 
minute observation and precise description of our local fauna. In 
recent years you have also shown that the detailed and accurate 
examination of the land mollusca may suggest and exemplify 
theories of high importance in general biology, and we welcome 
the widespread acceptance of your views upon "Dominance in 
Nature" as a signal testimony to the importance of the study 
of conchology. 

It is our earnest wish that you may long be spared to continue 
your investigations and to complete the monumental work upon 
which you are engaged." 

R. BULLEN NEWTON, ipVeSi&Cnt. 
LEWIS J. SHACKLEFORD, 113011. SCCVetavy. 



EDWARD COLLIER, 
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H. M. GWATKIN, 



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C. H. MOORE. 



6th February^ igiS- 



320 JOURNAL OK CONCHOI.OGY, VOL. I4, NO. lO, APRIL, 19x5. 

440th Meeting, held at the Museum, Manchester, March loth, 1915. 

Mr. E. Collier in the chair. 

Additions to the Library announced and thanks voted : — 
"On some Generic Names first mentioned in the " Concholofjical Illustrations," 
by William Healey Dall. "A List of the Land and Fresiiwater Mollusca of the 
Dingle Promontory," by A. W. Stelfox (from tlie respective authors) ; and the 
usual periodicals received in exchange. 

New Members Elected. 

Sidney Ash. 

Percy Thomas Deakin. 

Papers Read. 

"Note on Tellina splendida of Anton," by Edgar A. Smith, LS.O. 

"The Nomenclature of British Marine Mollusca," by Tom Iredale. 

"Notes on the recent species of the Genus i¥«;-/a Lam. ," by J. C. Melvill, M.A., 
D.Sc, F.L.S. 

" Note on Turbonilla phrikalea Watson from Sao Thome," by J. R. le B. 
TomHn, M.A., F.E.S. 

Exhibits. 

By Mrs. Gill : Strigilla splendida (Anton) from West Africa, and Strigilla 
tomlini E. A. Smith from Philippines, Queensland, etc. 

By Dr. A. E. Boycott : Mount of about 200 Clausilia bidentata, all collected 
from about one square yard of wall at Portmadoc, showing the normal range of 
variation and the frequency of the different sizes. The shells ranged from 9I mm. 
to 134 mm., with a mean of 11 "35 mm. 

By Mr. T. H. Piatt : A series of co-types of a new species of Ftisconaia found 
by the Rev. H. E. Wheeler, in Cache River, Nemo, Craighead County, Arkansas, 
U.S.A. This shell, which Mr. Wheeler has named Fusconaia selecta, is closely 
related to F. undata Barnes, F. ruhis^inosa Lea, F. cerina and F. hebetata Conrad, 
but differs from these in various shell measurements, by which it can readily be 
distinguished. An excellent description of this splendid shell is to be found in 
" The Nautilus," for November, 1914. F. ?<;/(/(;/« Barnes and F. rubiginosa L.Gii 
were also exhibited. 

The Special Exhibit of the Meeting was the Genus Harha, a' d specimens were 
shown by Mrs. Gill, Mr. C. H. Moore, and Mr. j. C. Melvill, who exhiliited the 
specimen of H. cosiata L. , figured by Reeve in Conch. Icon., llarPa, pi. 2, f. 5. 
It possesses thirty-eight to forty ribs without flaw or oreak of any kind, and is 
probably as fine an example as there is in existence. 

The Manchester Museum also exhibited a very fine series of specimens, chiefly 
from the " Darbishire collection," also fossil examples of Harpidce, viz. : Flarpa 
nuitira Lam. and Cryptochorda biiccinoides Elerm., both from the Middle Eocene of 
the Paris Basin. 

It was decided to have the following Special Exhibits at the next three meetings: 
April 14th - Cydonassa { = Cyclops). 

May 1 2th - Papuiiia. 

June 9th - Marginella. 



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COITTENTS. 

Description of a New Rissoina — J. R. le B. Tomi.in ... ... 

Descri})tion of a New Variety of Cypraea variolaria Lamk.— J, C. 
Mf.i.vii.l and R. Standen 

Additions to " British Conchology," Part VII.— J. T. Marshai.i, 
(to be continued) ... 

Obituary Notice : William Cash (Plate 7)— W. Denison Roebuck 

A List of the Recent Species of Spondylus Linne, with some Notes 

and Descriptions of Six New Forms — H. C. Fulton (to be 

concluded) ... 

Note on Tellina splendida of Anton — E.A.Smith 

Editorial Notes ... 

The Nomenclature of British Marine MoUusca— T. Iredale 

Additions to the Land and Freshwater JMollusca of Wigtownshire — 
J. F. MUSHAM .. 

Conchological Notes from Chile and Brazil — L. E. Aka.ms ; with 
List of Mollusca and Descriptions of Si.K New Species (I'late 6) 
li. B. Prkston 

PLATES VI. AND VII. 



l*A<iE 



329 

339 
340 
341 



346 



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321 



JOURNAL OF CONCHOLOGY. 



Vol. 14. JULY, 1915. No. 11. 



DESCRIPTION OF A NEW RISSOINA. 



By J. R. LE B. TOMLIN, M.A. 



(Read before the Society, June gth, 1915). 



Rissoina ^miltozona sp. nov. — 

Shell regularly subulate, solid, shining, white, with a broad 
brown band encircling the lower part of each whorl, and some- 
times an additional fine brown line on the last whorl below the 
band ; apex strongly subulate ; suture strongly impressed ; whorls 
9 to 10, much flattened, protoconch consisting of two whorls, 
which are smooth and glassy, third whorl smooth with a prom- 
inent keel in the centre (visible, however, only in very fresh 
specimens), the others strongly ribbed longitudinally ; there are 




Rissoina miltczona sp. nov. 
about twenty ribs on the basal whorl, all extending right to the 
margin, and about eighteen on the penultimate ; the basal whorl 

1 ^XiXtos = red. 



322 TOURNAT. OF CONCHOLOGY, VOL. I4, NO. TI, JULY, I915. 

is also Strongly and distantly spirally grooved at equal intervals 
with six spiral lines, which cut across the longitudinals so as to 
form beads ; the small area at the base of the canal has also traces 
of spiral sculpture, and three spirals can sometimes be faintly 
traced on the penultimate whorl ; under a i-inch objective on the 
microscope all the interstitial surface is seen to be extremely finely 
spirally striate,, except the protoconch; aperture irregularly pyri- 
form and very small, having a distinct canal ; columella strongly 
arcuate; peristome stout and strong, but not perceptibly thick- 
ened, with three raised lines within the hp. 
Long., 4'25 mm. : diam. max., 1*5 mm. : diam. max. of aperture, 

■75 m"i- 

The type specimen figured is from Lifu. It has been deposited in 
the British Museum of Natural History. It has been perforated on 
the side figured by some boring animal, but was selected as the type 
as best showing sculpture and protoconch. 

Hab. I have seen specimens from Naro (Masbate Island), Bagac, 
and Banacalan (Marinduque Island), all collected by Quadras ; 
Hawaii (Thaanum), Mauritius, and Lifu. Kermadecs and Lord 
Howe Island, scarce (Iredale). 

This species may be Pease's '^Rissoina costiilata, described as 
follows : — 

"Shell elongate, fusiform, slender, longitudinally prominently 
ribbed, striate transversely ; whorls flatly convex ; suture deeply 
impressed, grooved ; aperture very small, ovate ; white, encircled 
by a chestnut-brown band on middle of whorls. 

Long., 5 mm. ; diam., 2 mm. 

Locality: Paumotus." 

The figure is utterly unrecognisable, but the small mouth seems 
distinctive. Fortunately the question of this identity is immaterial, 
as the specific name cosfi/Iata is pre-occupied in Rissoi7ia h\-R. cosfu- 
lata Dkr. from Japan. 

It is a common shell in the Lifu shingle, and ma\- be the forni 
referred to by "Melvill and Standen under R. nesiotes as a tubercled 
variety of that species. Mr. Iredale, who has been good enough to 
examine the series in the British Museum for me, tells me that a set 
of R. nesiotes Melv. and Stand, (ex Manchester JNIuseum) includes 
one R. Jiiiltozona, and that a set of three R. exasperafa Souv. (ex 
Sowerby and Fulton) consists of two R. miltozoiia and one R. exas- 
pcj-ata. 

1 .4 iiici'icnn Jon>-n. of Condi. ^ iii. (1S67). p. 295, pi. 24, f. 28. 

2 Mai. Blatt., vi. (iS5o), p. 235. 

3 Joiini. of Conch., \iii., p. 307. 



DESCRIPTION OF A NEW VARIETY OF 
CYPRiEA VARIOLARIA Lamk. 

By JAMES COSMO MELYILL, D.Sc, and ROBERT STANDEN. 



(Read before the Society, April 14th, 1915). 



C. variolaria Lamarck, var. amiges nov. — 

Shell somewhat incrassate laterally, and broadened, normally 
shaped, the labial teeth strong, fourteen in number, the columellar 
dentition feeble and thin, not far extending over the base, as is the 
general case with the allied C. cauiica and most of its varieties. 
Whole substance of shell subpellucid, dorsally bright stramineous, 
with shade of ochre, the usual typical pattern much obscured, 
and hardly determinable without a lens, when the round clear 
spots, so characteristic of the species are observable, C. caurica 
never possessing them. 
Long. 40, lat. 26 mm. 

We have seen only one example of this beautiful form, which stands 
in relation to the type precisely as the var. straininea does to C. erosa 
L., and var. hawaiiemis to C. helvola L., and we are indebted to Mr. 
J. Kidson Taylor for first calling our attention to its affinity with C. 
variolaria. 

We agree with ^Mr. H. O. N. Shaw in adopting the name variolaria 
Lam. instead of the well-known crtienta Gmel. ; he first quotes Dr. 
J. G. Hidalgo'- in saying that this latter name, as adopted generally, 
was bestowed on the wrong species, for Gmelin signalized C. errones 
L. as his cruenta, this name being, of course, thus rendered synonymic, 
and therefore, b\- the rules of nomenclature, not allowed again to 
come into use. C. chinensis, another name of Gmelin's, is now 
adopted by Hidalgo,-' but the original description is so vague that it 
seems best to discard it in favour of a name often used for this species 
preferentially by authors, of which the description is good and deci- 
sive. The varietal name is the Greek d/y.tyijs, a word used by Aristotle, 
expressive of clearness and purity. 

The unique specimen is in the collection of R. Standen. The 
locality is not exactly known. The type is found, however, in the 
Hawaiian x\rchipelago and it is, therefore, quite possible this variety 
came from thence, so many species of the genus found in those 
regions being of the same pellucidity and bright dorsal colouration. 

1 Proc. Malac. Soc, viii., p. 294 (1909). 

2 Hidalgo : "Cyprasa," p. 174. 

3 Hidalgo : " Cyprasa," p. 307. 



324 

ADDITIONS TO "BRITISH CONCHOLOGY." 



By J. T. MARSHALL. 
Part VII. {continued from p. 2ij). 

Haliotis tuberculata L. — The first wliorls of the young Haliotis 
shells are imperforate ; when three lines in length they have four 
imperforate and four perforate eyelets. 

In addition to the imperforate specimen, i^in. in length, contained 
in the collection of Miss Lukis (not in that of her sister, Mrs. Collings 
of Sark, recorded in error by Gwyn Jeffreys),^ another smaller one has 
been recorded from the shell beach of Herm,' and another is in the 
Natural History Museum, measuring 2;^in.,'' while a foreign specimen 
is on record that has no perforations at all, or any indications of them.* 
A still more remarkable example of Haliotis is recorded by Mr. Edgar 
Smith, namely a foreign specimen in the Natural History Museum 
which has a double row of perforations.'' It is probable that all these 
aberrations from the normal form are not very rare, but may not have 
been noticed. 

Even in mature specimens of //. tuberculata the number of these 
perforations is most irregular, some examples having double the 
number of others. Gwyn Jeffreys states that the number of "orifices 
is six to eight" .... "the number of orifices corresponds with the 
tubular folds of the mantle,'"^ and that they "are closed after ceasing 
to be of use in containing the pallial folds." (p. 276). 

In Brittany and Normandy the peasantry call the Haliotis " Six- 
Eyes," and although that is about the average number of perforations, 
plenty of specimens may be found with the number of "eyes" ranging 
from four to eight. Young naturalists should be told that of course 
these so-called " eyes " have no connection with the organs of vision. 

H. tuberculata is occasionally poisonous. During one of my visits 
to Jersey some years ago, one of the principal doctors in the island, 
also my sister, and various otlier persons, were rendered very ill from 
eating them. On inquiry, I could only attribute the cause to these 
Haliotis having consumed some starfish, which live in the same 
habitat under stones, starfish being well known to possess poisonous 
attributes. There have been numerous instances of ordinary illness 
following the consumption of these molluscs, but they were all trace- 

1 Brit. Conch., vol. iii., p, 281. 

2 Marquand, Journ. 0/ Conch. ^ ^904, vol. xi., p. 48. 

3 Smith, Conchologisl, vol. ii., p. 73. 

4 Kel.sey, "A Peculiar /2'ar//i?i'/i'," Nautilus, 1304, vol. xviii.. p. 67. 

5 Ann. Mag. N. Hist., ser. vi., vol. i., p. 419. 

6 Brit. Conch.,. vol. iii., p. 2S0. 



MAKSHALI. : ADDITIONS TO "BRITISH CONCHOLOGY.' 325 

able to indigestion, more or less acute, and mostly caused by insut- 
ficient cooking, of which they require an inordinate amount. When 
well pounded and sufficiently cooked, however, they make a really 
savoury dish. They should first be browned in a pan, and then 
gently stewed. I have eaten them on numerous occasions, but never 
once experienced any discomfort. 

Haliotis are most prolific, and attain a large size, on an extensive 
barrier group of rocks and islets, called the Minquiers, which are 
situated between Jersey and France, and about twenty miles from the 
former coast. Here at low tide hundreds of acres of rocky ground are 
exposed, and yield a rich harvest to the ormering parties ; while a 
marine naturalist, following in their wake, could not fail to reap a 
large reward from the number of stones they leave upturned. These 
ormering parties are taken to the group by a small steamer, only once 
or twice in the early spring (February and March), at a time when I 
have never been in the island to seize the opportunity of accompany- 
ing them, much as I have wished to explore this group. It is on 
these island reefs that Trito7t cutaceus and T. nodifenis would be 
most likely to be met with should these species still survive in our 
seas. 

Pearly excrescences frequently occur in the shell oi H. iubercidata^ 
but loose pearls of any value are very rare, although two fine pearls 
of a regular shape, and weighing about two grains apiece, have been 
taken from a Jersey ormer. 

While on the subject of pearls, it is a remarkable thing that the 
Shetland seas should be comparatively rich in seed pearls, though 
whence they are derived 1 cannot conjecture. The first and most 
obvious suggestion is that they are voided by Ostrea and Mytilus, but 
these species occur everywhere, and while I do not remember having 
found a single pearl in any other dredging, on the other hand I have 
never worked out a Shetland dredging without gleaning some seed 
pearls. A possible explanation may be that in the Shetland seas the 
oyster or the mussel is infested with parasitic larvje, which is now 
considered to be largely responsible for the valuable pearls of Ceylon, 
a scientific examination of which has revealed the fact that cestode 
larvae form their nucleus. It is only fair to add, however, that the 
parasitic theory of pearl formation is not uncontested. 

Scissurella crispata Flem. — Mull of Cantire, ig-ssf. (Knight) ! 
off Fair Isle (Simpson) I off Loch Ryan, 25f , and North Rona, 2^i. 
Also Straits of Korea, 4 if. (' Sylvia') ! 

Molleria laevigata Jeff. — Between the Shetlands and the Faroes 
(Simpson) ! 

M. COStulata Moll. — Off Fair Isle, ? fossil ; and off the Flugga 



326 JOURNAI, OF CONCHOLOGY, VOL. I4, NO. II, JULY. I915. 

Light, N. Shetlands, ? fossil (Simpson) ! off Loch Ryan, 28f, ? fossil 
(J.T.M.). Undoubted recent specimens have been dredged by the 
Scottish Fishery Board off the Shetlands'in iiif and i55f. (Simpson)! 

A specimen of M. basistriata Jeff, has been dredged off the Shet- 
lands in i55f., and two specimens between the Orkneys and the 
Faroes (Simpson) I 

A fresh but dead specimen of Olivia otaviana Cant, has been 
dredged between the Orkneys and the Shetlands in i45f (Simpson) ! 

Trochus helicinus var. fasciata Jeff.— Benbecula. 

T. grcenlandicus var. dilatata Jeff. — This is the normal form 
at Tromso (Schneider) ! Vadso (Verkriizen) ! and Holsteinborg in 
Davis Strait ('Valorous ' Expedition) 1 

T. olivaceus Brown. — Dredged by Mr. MacAndrew in 2o-3of. in 
Skye (Jeffreys).^ Jeffreys does not say how many specimens were 
dredged here, nor if alive, but as it is a fossil of the Clyde beds, its 
recent identity is desirable. The Rev. A. H. Cooke, in h.is list of the 
MacAndrew Collection, contained in the Cambridge University 
Museum, merely repeats "Sound of Skye."' 

T. cinctus Phil. — A young specimen off the Shetlands in i55f., 
and several off the Faroes in 80-85 f (Simpson) 1 

The discovery of this pretty little shell in British waters occurred 
under amusing circumstances, while Gw)'n Jeffreys, with Mr. Waller 
and another gentleman, had been dredging in the Shetlands for some 
weeks with very poor results. One night Mr. Waller, finding himself 
unable to sleep, came up on deck at two a.m., and as it was broad 
daylight and the circumstances appeared favourable, with the help of 
the night-watch he let down the dredge. After an interval, he hauled 
in again and examined the results, and then, rushing to the cabin 
stairs, excitedly called on Jeffreys and the other gentleman to "tumble 
up." They immediately hurried up in their night-shirts (there were no 
pyjamas in those days), and were greeted with the sight of several 
living specimens of T. cinctus, which were afterwards considerably 
added to by several good hauls. 

T. magus var. conica Marsh. — My record of this variety from 
Heacham in Norfolk was an error, and must be disregarded. 

T. lineatus Da C— Many specimens are turbiniform instead of 
conical, owing to the last whorl being constricted, 
var. minor Jeff.— Torbay. 

T. striatus L. — Mediterranean specimens differ from British in 
that they are higher and narrower, the base more convex, and the 

1 Brit. Conch., vol. v., \>. 20?. 

2 Jourii. of Conch., 1SS2, vol. iii., p. 362. 



MARSHAL!.: ADDiriONS TO " BRITISH CONCIIOI.OGV." 327 

periphery less sharply keeled (as in J", niontat-ufi), with ihe apex spiral 
and pointed. In British specimens the apex is invariably worn down, 
even in the young. Gwyn Jeffreys' figures of this and T. exasperaius, 
l)y an ajiparent error of thu artist, have been transposed ; nor should 
this species have a basal ridge encircling each whorl as there depicted. 

T. miliaris Brocc. — The very young of this shell might easily pass 
for the same stage of T. graiiulatus ; but this is shorter, and the second 
whorl is spirally sculptured; in the apex of T. graimlatus the first 
wOiorl is coarser and more raised, and the second one is cancellated. 

T. g'ranulatus Born. — Sanda Island, at the mouth of the Clyde 
' Hyndman and Scott V 

T. OCcidentalis Migh. — Clee, Lincolnshire, a specimen on the 
shore after a gale (A. Smith) ; off Withernsea, 2of. (Marine Bio. 
Assoc.) ; not uncommon in deep water off the Aberdeenshire coast, 
especially between Rattray and Kinnaird Heads, ten or twelve miles 
from land (Simpson). 

A young dead shell of T. sutiiralis Phil., from the Shetland-Faroe 
Channel, was erroneously described as a new species by Mr. Jordan 
as T. ietnigonosto'/ia ; and another immature shell of T. oltoi Phil. = 
T. rhysiis Wats., from the same source, he described as T. coulsoni. 

Three specimens of T. ottoi Phil., "dead but fresh," have been 
dredged off the Butt of Lewis in 545f by the Scottish Fishery Board 
(Simpson) I 

Phasianella puUus var. pulchella Reel. — Achil Island. Col- 
lectors must not confuse this variety with a dwarf of the type, equally 
small, which is abundant (and sometimes the normal form) on some 
parts of our coasts. These two dwarf forms are common to all the 
Channel Islands, but are not found living together. 

Mr. Bartlet Span, of Tenby, in 1902 sent me a specimen of P. 
speciosa Miihlf., containing the animal and operculum, which he had 
found "on a seaweed-covered boulder at Lydstep Haven, near Tenby, 
during an unusually low tide." Its occurrence as a dead shell on 
the beach would have merited little notice, as it is a common 
Mediterranean species, and is sometimes used to ornament boxes, 
etc.; but its location at low^ tide, containing animal and operculum, 
and the fact that Lydstep Haven is very retired and seldom visited by 
boats or visitors, renders its presence there a matter of curiosity. 
Should its presence, however, be due to natural causes, more speci- 
mens may be expected to come to light to confirm its British origin. 
A subsequent inquiry in the neighbourhood of Lydstep Haven has 
disclosed the fact that the Member of ParUament for the county has 
a villa close by, and that he has a family of children who sometimes 
visit the Riviera, and also play on the Haven sands ; but though just 



328 JOURNAL OF COXCHOLOGY, VOr,. I4, NO. II, JULY, I915. 

possible, this would seem a rather slender source of introduction. 

Mr. E. D. Marquand has also two specimens of P. speciosa from 
the shell-beach of Herm, both containing the dead animal and oper- 
culum. It should be remembered that the operculum of Pkasianelia, 
from its peculiar construction, is less easily detachable than in other 
genera, and there is nothing extraordinary in finding these shells still 
containing the operculum. 

The Citlina tenclla of Jeffreys cannot fairly be considered a 
British species up to the present. It has been dredged only in deep- 
sea expeditions by the 'Knight Errant,' 'Triton,' and 'Lightning,' 
but it may be discovered in the Shetland seas if any one again essays 
that interesting region for dredging researches. It is a deep-water 
species, and in addition to the above expeditions I can record speci- 
mens from some soundings at the great depths of 600 fathoms off 
Tunis, in lat. 36°© N., long. i2°o E., and near the same locality in 800 
fathoms, in lat. 36°25 N., long. i3''2o E., soundings which were pro- 
cured by H.M.S. 'Shearwater' when surveying those seas in 187 1. 

Lacuna divaricata var. gracilior Mete. — Achil Island. 
L. puteolus var. expansa Jeff. — Alderney (Marquand). 

L. pallidula var. neritoidea CtouM. — Aberdeen (Simpson) ! 
Benbecula. 

var. naticiformis Marsh. — Gareloch, a single specimen(Knight) ! 
Dornoch Frith. 

var. imperforata INIarsh. n.var. — Shell having the umbilicus 
wholly or partially closed. I have met with this from Guernsey only, 
where it is the normal form. It is analogous to Z. puteolus var. clausa 
Jeff., though in this species the umbilicus and canal are much more 
characteristic of the type than in the latter. 

Littorina obtusata L. — Mr. E. Duprey has taken a specimen 
at Jersey which had three eyes and three tentacles ; the centre or 
abnormal eye was, however, double and smaller than the normal ones, 
placed side by side on a middle tentacle, which was bifid. A further 
development of this middle tentacle would have resulted in four eyes 
and four tentacles. 

var. ornata Jeff. — Benbecula. Various collectors have recorded 
this variety from the Clyde, but I have found that in most of the 
cases (and I suspect in all) they were merely banded specimens of the 
type. Var. palliata Say has a very close affinity to this variety. 
Specimens from Reykjavik in Iceland are intermediate between the 
type and var. ornata, and the three will be found to run one into the 

I ^larine Shells of Guernsey, etc.. Trans. Guern. Soc. Nat. Sci., 1901, u. 10, sep. copy. 



Marshall : additions to. " British conchology." 329 

other. From other northern parts, however, var. paliiata exhibits 
extreme diversity in tlie spire, ranging from the comparatively simple 
coil to the raised or conical, the extended (var. clatior G. O. Sars), and 
the elongated (var. coarctata G. O. Sais| 

var. compacta Jeff. —At the mouth of Loch Fyne. 

var. asstuarii Jeff. — Specimens taken from the river Deben at 
Woodbridge correspond to those from the Belfast estuarine deposits. 
L. rudis Mat. — A ribbed form from Guernsey is indistinguishable 
from L. }:^rxnlandicd Menke, from the Arctic coasts, and stamps the 
latter as no more than a variety. 

var. tenebrosa Mont. — A small turreted form of this variety was 
found by Gwyn Jeffreys in the river Deben in Suffolk, and the same 
form was also found by him in the Arctic Expedition of 1875, cover- 
ing the rocks on the shore at Godhavn in Davis Strait. I have the 
same thing from Tilbury Marshes. The finest specimens I have met 
with of this variety come from the Bass Rock, a rocky islet at the 
mouth of the Firth of Fortli. These correspond to Jeffreys' otherwise 
too enlarged figure. 

var, similis Jeff. — Port Erin, Isle of Man (Leicester) ! 
L. littorea L. — Mr. E. D. Marquand records this species, which 
is otherwise extremely rare in the Channel Islands, as "of frequent 
occurrence between tide-marks at Alderney."^ Alderney is nearly 
thirty miles nearer the English coast than Guernsey, and is within ten 
miles of the F'rench coast. 

(To be coiiliniied). 



OBITUARY NOTICE. 

WILLIAM CASH. 

By W. DENISON ROEBUCK, E.L.S. 

Plate VII. 

(Read before the Societj', April i-(tli, 1915). 

Born at Leeds, April 28th, 1843. 
Died at Halifax, December i6th, 1914. 

William Cash, though born at Leeds, was closely identified with 
Hahfax, to which he came as a boy, and in his teens entered the 
service of the Halifax and Huddersfield Union Bank, in which he 
attained a good position. From this he retired to practice as an 
Accountant in association with his son, who is now in Oregon, U.S.A. 

I INIarine Shells of Guernsey, etc., Trans. Guern. Soc. Nat. Sci., 1901, p. 10, sep. copy. 



330 JOURNAL OF CONCHOLOGY, VOL. I4, NO. II, JULY, I915. 

He was a man of wide knowledge and muliifarious activities, in 
politics, religion, freemasonry, literature, and scieiice. But it is as 
a scientific student that he was most widely known and did his 
best Avork. 

He was more particularly a palreo-botanist, working on the one 
hand at the Halifax coal-measure flora with such local workers as 
Binns, Lomas and others, and on the other with such specialists as 
W. C. Williamson, Thomas Hick, and Robert Kidston, and the 
"C'ash Collection" of coal-measure plants, now in the Manchester 
Museum, is his worthy memorial. 

As a conchologist he was a diligent and active worker, a very 
early member of the Conchological Society, and President in 1882. 
His services to the Society were very considerable and much appre- 
ciated, particularly in the Leeds branch, to whom his most loveable 
character and disposition endeared him. Possessed of a most 
eloquent, clear and sympathetic method of speech, he was par 
excellence the orator of the Society, who could most appropriately 
voice its appreciation of work done. 

He was a keen collector and well acquainted with the British 
shells — marine as well as land and freshwater forms — and he took 
at one time special interest in the Cephalopoda. 

He was — like so many other naturalists of Leeds birth— one of 
the body of men who, some forty years ago, reorganized the York- 
shire Naturalists' Union, and made it the powerful instrument of 
research it now is. His life was devoted to science, and he was 
a most acceptable lecturer on various subjects. At one time his 
services were given to Halifax as the chairman of its School Board. 
In the masonic body he became Worshipful Master. in 1890. He 
was a Fellow of the Geological Society of London, editor of the 
publications of the Yorkshire Geological Society for a long series 
of years, and also its Hon. Treasurer from 1883 to 1901. 

The various local scientific societies of Halifax had in him a 
most diligent worker, and as a Superintendent of the Young Men's 
Class at the South Parade Wesleyan School he rendered great service. 

His papers to Societies and in Journals were numerous, but be- 
ing mostly geological and palaeo-botanical do not call for recital here. 

Of recent years he was the recipient of a civil pension from the 
State and of an annuity from the Murdoch Trust. 

His death, in his 71st year, was very sudden, due to hemorrhage 
from a fall in his own garden on returning from a short walk, and 
he is much mourned by those who knew him, his delightful com- 
panionship and cheerful and genial optimism making him popular 
with all who came under his spell. 



331 



A LIST OF THE RECENT SPECIES OF SPONDYLUS Linne, 
with some Notes and Descriptions of Six New Forms. 



By HUGH C. FULTON. 



(Read before the Society, Feljruary 6lh, 1915). 



The following is an attempt to list all the described species of 
Spondylus and arrange them in groups, according to the characters 
of their shells. The variation in species of this genus in form, 
colouration, number of ridges and spines is very great, so that they 
are often very difficult to identify ; this is especially the case when 
the specimens, owing to a cramped position during life, have become 
very much worn or rubbed. 

While endeavouring to give the chief synonymy and references, I 
have made no attempt to give all, my chief aim being to refer only 
to such figures as I felt sure represent the species in question. 
The following illustrated monographs have been published : — 
1845. — Chenu : Illustrations Conchyliologiques. 
1848. — Sowerby, G. B. (second of the name) : Thesaurus Con- 

chyliorum, vol. i. 
1856. — Reeve, L. : Conchologia Iconica. 

1858. — Kiister : Conchylien Cabinet (2nd edit.), (plates were 
published 1842-58, the text in 1858). 

Spondylus, type S. gaederopus Linne. 

Group A. 

I. — S. gcEiieropiis Linne, Syst. Nat., ed. xii., p. 1136. Thes. Conch., 

fig. 29 and fig. 41. Conch. Icon., fig. 13. Conch. Cab. 

(2nd edit), pi. I, fig. I, and pi. 2, figs. 1-2 and 4. 

Hab : Mediterranean. 

S. gcederopus var. avnurics Reeve. Conch. Icon., fig. 36. 
Although said to come from the Philippines, this is to me a small 
light coloured variety of 6". gcederopus. 

2. — S. violacescens Lamk. Hist. Anim. Sans Vert., vi., 1819, p. 195. 
lUust. Conchy]., pi. 27, fig. 3. 

Hab. : Australia (Chenu). 

As Lamarck made no reference to any figures, we have only 
Chenu's figure to go upon until the actual type is examined. I have 
examined specimens which I take to be this species; they are very 
ntdiX gcederopus, but of a more uniform dark colouration, with shorter 
spines more regularly disposed. 



332 JOURNAL OP CONCHOLOGY, VOL. I4, NO. II, JULY, I915. 

Sowerby in Thes. Conchyl., p. 421, includes it in spathuliferus ; he 
prints the iian.e as violascens in the index, and violaceu^ on p. 421. 

3. — S. aurantius Lamk. Hist. Anim. Sans Vert., vi., 1819, p. 192. 
lllust. Conchyl., pi. 23, figs. 2-4. Thes. Conch., pi. 84, 
figs. I, 2, pi. 89, fig. 55. Conch. Icon., pi. 3, fig. 10. 

Hah. : China Sea (Chenu). Seychelles (Sow.). 
A ver\- distinct species, easily recognised. 

4. — S. liiigudjelis '6o\\. Proc. Zool. Soc, Lond., 1847, p. 87. Thes. 
Conch., i., p. 420, pi. 88, fig. 50. Conch. Icon., pi. 7, fig. 27. 
Hab. ? 

5. — S. asperrimtis Sow. Proc. Zool. Soc, Lond., 1847, P- 87- I'hes. 
Conch., i., p. 421, pi. 87, fig. 38. C(jnch. Icon., pi. 12, 

fig. 45- 
Hab. : Philippines (Cuming). 

When one examines the figures of asperrimus and iingitafelis in the 
Conch. Icon., they appear to be decidedly one species ; but an exam- 
ination of Sowerby's type in the British Museum collection confirms 
his view of their distinctness. The lingnafelis is a heavier shell, of 
darker colour and different form. On the anterior and posterior 
sides of asperrimus are seen short colour-lines, similar to those found 
on dttcalis, variegatus, etc. 

Group B. 

6. — S. violaceits Reeve. Conch. Icon., pi. 16, fig. 57. 
Hab. ? 

7. — S. reevci YvXx.ow, n.n. 

(^-^hystryx Reeve. Conch. Icon., pi. 12, fig. 42, non 
Bolten). 

Hab. : Philippines (Cuming). 

Closely allied to cunens, and may prove to be the same species. 

8. — S. cuneus Reeve. Conch. Icon., pi. 15, fig. 56. 
Hab. : West Indies. 

9. — S. dedrum Reeve. Conch. Icon., pi. 15, fig. 54. 
Hab. : West Indies. 

The colouration of the figure quoted is not good ; the type speci- 
men is orange (not yellow), with dark purple spines on lower part of 
upper valve. 



FULTON : THE RECENT SPECIES OF SPONDYLUS. 333 

Group C. 
lo.—S. zouidis Lamk. Hist. Anim. Sans Vert., vi., 1819, p. 193. 
lUust. Conchyl., pi. 7, figs. 4 and 4a (not 3). Thes. Conch., 
_pl. 85, fig. 12 ; pi. 86, fig. 27 ; pi. 89, fig. 60. Conch. Icon., 
pi. 8, fig. 29a, b. 

(=herinaceus Chenu, lUust. Conchyl., pi. 25, figs. 3 
and 4). 
Hah. : Indian Ocean (Chenu). Mauritius (Sow.). Philippines 
(Cuming). 

Lamarck gave no reference to figures ; Chenu's fig. 3 on pi. 7 
lUust. Conchyl. may be a variety of albibarbatiis Reeve, which varies 
a good deal in colour. I am in doubt as to whether herinaceus 
Chenu is zonalis or a variety of reevei {==liystryx Reeve). Sowerby's 
figures in the Thes. Conch, are probably over-coloured, and one figure 
given by him on pi. 85, fig. 18, is not, I think, a zonalis at all \ it 
looks like a too highly-coloured inarisndn-i Bolt. 

II. — ^. setiger^tts^. Conch. Icon., pi. 15, fig. 53. 

Hab. : Philippines. 

The colouration of the figure in Reeve's work is not good ; the 
type specimen is of a dark reddish-brown. 

12. — S. albibarbatiis Reeve. Conch. Icon., pi. 9, fig. 32. 

Hab. : Philippines (Cuming). 

Varies in colour from nearly all pure white to specimens almost 
covered with light brown. 

13. — .9. plurispiiiosus Reeve. Conch. Icon., pi. 5, figs. i8a, b. 

Encyclopedie Methodique, pi. 194, fig. i. Conchyl. Cab., 

ix., p. 143, pi. 115, figs. 989-90. 
Hab. : Philippines (Cuming). 
This may prove to be the same as the following species. 

14—5. albiis QM^nw. Illust. Conchyl., p. 5, pi. 28, fig. 5. Conch. 
Cab., ix., pi. 115, figs. 988, 990. 
Hab. : Indian Seas (Chenu). 

15 — .S'. virgiticns Reeve. Conch. Icon., \)\. 9, fig. 31. 
Hab. : Philippines (Cuming). 

16. — S. fragilis Sow. Thes. Conch., p. 426, pi. 89, fig. 57. Conch. 
Icon., pi. 13, fig. 48. 
The shells given in the Conchyl. Cab., pi. 10, figs, i, 2, belong to 
the vexUliim group, and do not, I think, represent Sowerby's /mf/7/i-. 



334 JOURNAL OF CONCHOLOGY, VOL. I4, NO. II, JULY, I915. 

Group D. 
17. — 6". marisrubri Bolten. Museum Boltenianum, 1798, p. 194. 
Conch. Cab., vii., pi. 44, fig. 460. 

{=dentati(s Chenu, Illust. Conchyl., p. 5, pi. 25, fig. i, 

pi 27, fig. 2). 
(=aatleahis '^ow. Thes. Conch., pi. 85, figs, ir-13, 
Conch. Icon., pi. 17, fig. 63). 
Hab. : Mauritius (Sow.). Australia (Chenu). 

18. — 6". ambigims Chenu. Illust. Conchyl., p. 5, pi. 28, fig. i. 
Hab. : American Seas (Chenu). 

19. — S. castus Reeve. Conch. Icon., pi. 12, fig. 47. Conch. Cab. 
(2nd edit ), pi. 9, fig. 5. 

Hab. : Philippine Islands. 

Tlie type is a medium-sized specimen ; some specimens are much 
larger, having somewhat the appearance of marisrubri. 



CrROUP E. 

20. — S. ]ivstr\x Bolten. Museum Boltenianum, p. 195. C'onch. 
Cab., vii., pi. 45, fig. 470. Illust. Conchy)., pi. 28, figs. 2-4. 
(^=radiaus Lk. Hist. Anim. Sans Vert., vi., p. 192). 
(=aciileahts Bred. Proc. Zool. Soc, 1833, p. 5). 
{^^ciliaiiis Sow. Thes. Conch., vol. i., pi. 89, fig. 52. 

Conch. Icon., fig. 4). 
(^^nicobaricus Sow. Thes. Conch., pi. 88, fig. 48). 
{-^=coccineMs Sow. & Reeve, non Lamk. Thes. Conch., 
pi. 88, fig. 47. Conch. Icon., pi. 12, fig. 44). 
Hab. : Nicobar and I'imor Islands (Chenu). Mauritius, on float- 
ing pumice stone from eruption of Krakatoa, Sunda Straits (Robillard). 
Lord Hood's Island (Cuming). 

Very variable in degree of spinosity, some specimens having very 
numerous and closely-set spines, whilst others are in appearance 
almost smooth. A large series from Mauritius varies from almost plain 
white to specimens half covered on lower part with purple-brown. 

S. hystryx var. ocellatus Reeve. Conch. Icon., pi. 12, fig. 43. 

Hab. : Philippine Islands (Cuming). 

Somewhat similar specimens have been found at Mauritius on 
floating pumice stone, but the spots are more numerous and the 
ground-colour more reddish than the specimens collected by Cuming 
at the Philippines. 



FULTON : THE RECENT SPECIES OF SPONDYI.US, 335 

2 1. — ^. gracilis Chenu. lllust. Conchyl., p. 5, pi. 26, fig. t. 
Hab. : Indian Seas (Chenu). 
Probably a smooth variety of hystiyx Bolt. 

22. — S. asiaticus Chenu. Ilhist. Conchyl., p. 5, pi. 24, figs, i, 2. 
Hab. : Indian Seas (Chenu). 

23. — S. spectrum Reeve. Conch. Icon., pi. 14, fig. 49. 

( — nicobaricus Reeve, non Sow. Conch. Icon., pi. 14, 

fig- 5°)- 
Hab. : Philippines (Cuming). 

Most of the specimens that I have seen of this species have not 
their spines so close set as in the type. 

Group F. 
24, — S. reesianiis Sow. Journ. of Mai., 1903, vol. 10, p. 77, figd. 
Hab. : Moluccas (Admiral van Rees). 

25. — S. soiverbyi Fulton {=digitatus Sow. Proc. Zool. Soc, 1847, 
p. 87, non Perry, i8t:). Thes. Conch., i., pi. 89, figs. 58, 59. 
Conch. Icon., pi. t8, fig. 68. 
Hab. : Bermuda (Cuming coll.). 

Group G. 

26. — S. regius Linne. Sysl. Nat., ed. xii., p. 1136. lUust. Conchy]., 
pi. 7, figs. I, 2. Thes. Conch., fig. 30. Conch. Icon., fig. 20. 
Hab. : Sooloo Islands (Cuming). Japan (Stearns). 

27. — S. ciDiiingi Sow. Thes. Conch., i., [i. 425, fig. 62. Conch. 
Icon., figs. 35a, b. 
Hab, : Java (Sow.). Japan (Reeve). 
Probably only a frondose variety of regius. 

28. — S. iiiiperialis Chenu. lllust. Conchyl., [). 6, pi. 26, figs. 2, 3. 
Thes. Conch., figs. 43, 44. Conch. Icon., fig. 28. Conch. 
Cab. (2nd edit), pi. 9, fig. t. 
Plab. : Indian Seas (Chenu). China (Sow and Reeve). 

S. iinperialisv. pnrus Fulton n.v. Conch. Icon., pi. t6, fig. 28I), 
Hab. ? 
A white variety of which I have seen two specimens. 

29. — .5". victorice Sow. Proc. Zool. Soc, 1859, p. 428, pi. 49, fig. 8. 

Hab. : Flinders and Claremont Islands, N.E. Australia (Coppinger). 

In the voyage "Alert," 1884, Mr. E. x\. Smith notes that Sowerby's 
locality "Gulf of California" is incorrect. The frondose spines dis- 
tinguish this from the following species. 



336 JOURNAL OF CONCHOI.OGY, VOL. I4, NO. II, JULY, I915. 

30.— 5. wrightianus Crosse. Journ. de Conchyl , 1872, vol. 20, p. 
360, vol. 21, pi. 9, fig. I. 

(^=armaius Sow., Thes. Conch., 1848, vol. i., p. 424, 
fig- 53 5 "ot arviatiis Goldfuss, fossil, Petr.efacta 
Germanise, 1826-44, P- 96). 
Hab. : Nichol's Bay, Australia. 

Group H. 
31. — 6". coccinens Lamk. Anini. Sans Vert., vol. vi., p. 190. lUust. 
Conchyl., pis. 14, 15 (not pi. 25, fig. 2). 
Hab. : American and Indian Seas (Chenu). 

The type of this species was in the " Dufresne " Collection, which 
has probably been dispersed and the types lost sight of. Lamarck 
referred to three figures : the one in Gualt. Test., t. 99, fig. e, agrees 
very well with those figured by Chenu ; the second, fig. f, is difficult 
to identify ; and the third, in D'Argenville Conch., t. 19, fig. E, might 
possibly be a 6*. gatderopiis. The coccinens of Sow. and Reeve, in Thes. 
Conch., fig. 47, and Conch. Icon., fig. 44, are varieties of hystryx 
Bolten. 

32. — S. niicrokpos Lamk. Anim. Sans Vert., vi., p. 192. Thes. 
Conch., fig. 46, Conch. Icon., figs. 65a and b. 
Hab. : China (Sow.). 
33. — S. gilviis Reeve. Conch. Icon., pi. 11, fig. 38. 

Hab. : Guadaloupe. 
34. — 6'. erinacais Reeve. Conch. Icon,, pi. ii, fig. 39. 

Hab. : West Indies. 
35. — S. ictericiis Reeve. Conch. Icon., pi. 1 j, fig. 40, 

{==))ntltilameUatus Chenu (non Lamarck), Illust. 
Conchyl., pi, i r, figs. 1, 2), 
Hah. : Ijermuda. 

The ty{)e specimen is a very worn example of an e.xtremt-ly variable 
species; the figures quoted above perhaps illustrate the limits. I have 
examined a series that quite joins up those two figures. The spines 
vary from shoit pointed to spathulate, and the number of principal 
ridges varies from four (as in Reeve's figure) to eight or nine. 
36. — ^. electus Fulton, n.sp. 

Shell pectiniform, moderately thick, upper valve purple brown, 
variegated with whitish, very finely longitudinally ridged, the 
ridges bearing short spines and scales, mostly on the posterior 
area ; lower valve orange-red at area of attachment, the free 
anterior portion of a greyish colour, with numerous close-set 
ridges, bearing short spines ; ligamental area produced ; interior 
white, with a broad purple-brown margin. 



Fm.TON : THE RK.rRNT SPECIES OF SPONDYLUS. 337 

Maximum dimensions : Heiglit (umbonal to ventral margins), 
61 mm. Width (anterior to posterior), 58 mm. Depth or dia- 
meter, 35 mm. 
Hab. ? 

Compared with the ordinary forms of ictericiis Reeve (tlie type of 
that species is a worn specimen) our species is distinguished by its 
variegated colouration, the closer disposition of the ridges, and the 
finer spines. 

I have examined four specimens, two of which are flatter above 
than the type, and have their sides compressed, probably owing to 
situation during life. In addition, there are also two typical speci- 
mens in the National Collection. 

37. — S. ieniiispinosus Sow. Thes. Conch., i., p. 421, pi. 87, fig. 37. 
Conch. Icon., fig. 23 (not 5. tenuispina Sandberger (fossil). 
Die Conchy. Mainzer Tert., 1863). 
Hab. : Island of Zebu, Philippines (Cuming). 

The type specimen in the British Museum is the only one I have 
seen of this species. 

38. — S. ramosus Reeve. Conch. Icon., pi. 14, fig. 51. Conch. Cab. 
(2nd edit.), pi. 2, fig. 3. 
Hab. : West Indies. 

The type, as figured by Reeve, has very frondose spines ; this 
specimen I have been unable to find in the British Museum col- 
lection. There are two specimens in the British Museum (Cuming 
collection) similar to Reeve's figure, except that only one of them has 
its spines slightly frondose. I consider ra>nosus may be simply a 
yellow variety of ictericus with foliated spines. 
39. — S. inilmtus Reeve. Conch. Icon., pi. 15, fig. 55. 

{=jiux Reeve. Conch. Icon., pi. 18, fig. 64). 
Hat).? __ 

Group I. 
40. — S. ducalis Bolten. Museum Boltenianum, 179S, p. 194. Conch. 
Cab., vii., pi. 47, fig. 477 (not 476). Illust. Conchy!., pi. S, 
figs. 2, 3. Thes. Conch., fig. 16. Conch. Icon., fig. 26. 
Hab. : Indian Ocean (Chenu). Philippine Islands (Cuming). 
In the 2nd edition of the Conch. Cab., Kiister gives on pi. 8a, 
figs. I and 3, figures that probably represent iderkiis Reeve rather 
than ducalis, the name under which they appear. 

S. ducalis var. laviarcki Chenu. Illust. Conchyl., p. 6, pi. 9, 
figs. 3, 4. Thes. Conch., fig. 20 (not fig. 63). Conch. 
Icon., fig. 30. 
Hab. : Indian Ocean (Chenu). 

V 



338 JOURNAL OF CONCHOLOGY, VOI,. I4, NO. II, JUT.Y, I9I5. 

When in good condition with its spines not worn off it is seen to be 
but a dark coloured variety of ducalis. 

41. — S. sinensis Sow. Tlies. Conch., i., p. 427, pi. 87, figs. 32, t^t^ 
(not 34). Conch. Icon., fig. 7. 

Hab. : China j Japan (Lischke). 

I do not think the fig. 34 given by Sowerby is sinensis, but a variety 
of ducalis. Among the many specimens of sinensis that I have 
examined, I have never seen one with the dark niaculations on the 
umbonal region as in fig. 34. 
42. — 6". Ihxrbatus Reeve. Conch. Icon., pi. 4. fig. 16. 

Hab. : Philippines (Cuming). 

A second specimen in the Britisli Museum is of the same colour, 
light purple-brown, but its spines are not nearly so spathulate as in 
the type specimen. 

Possibly a variety only o[ sinensis. 

Group J. 
43. — S. 7'dn\x<7i//s Bolten. Museum Boltenianum, 1798, p. 194. 
Conch. Cab., vii., pi. 45, fig. 464. Illust. Conchyl., pi. 10, 
figs. r-3. Thes. Conch., figs. 14, 15. Conch. Icon., fig. 8. 
Hab. : Indian Ocean (Chenu). Amboyna (Reeve). 

S. variegahis var. inns Reeve. Conch. Icon., pi. 3, fig. 12. 
Hab. : Philippine Islands (Cuming). 

44.—^. lamyi Fulton, n.sp. 

Shell subcircular, moderately solid, very conve.x above and 
somewhat concave at area of attachment below, purple with white 
nucleus and some whitish lines at the margins, these lines being 
more conspicuous on the lower valve ; upper valve with about 
sixteen longitudinal ridges, more or less prominent, bearing some 
short vaulted spines, a few longer spines on the lower valve; 
between the principal ridges are four or five very fine ridges or 
striiie ; ligamental area somewhat produced, the umbones being 
about II mm. apart; interior of shell white, with a narrow band 
of dark purple encircling the margins of the valves. 

Maximum dimensions : Height, 70 mm. ; width, 62 mm. ; depth 
or diameter, 27 mm. 
Hab. ? 

A smaller specimen examined by me has more numerous ridges 
(about twenty-five) and spines. The very convex upper valve and 
different colouration separate this from variegahis. 

Named in honour of Monsieur E. Lamy of the Paris Museum. 

(To he concluded). 



339 
NOTE ON TELLINA SPLENDIDA of Anton. 



By EDGAR A. SMITH, I.S.O. 

(Read before the Society, March loth, 1915). 



On page 276 of tliis volume Messrs. Tomlin and Shackleford have 
proposed a new name for the Tellina senegalensis of Hanley as that 
specific name had previously been employed by Gmelin. 

This change of name, however, appears to be unnecessary since 
Anton described the same species as Tellina splendida. 

Hanley evidently mistook Anton's species for another form 
occurring at the Philippine Islands, and iiis identification was 
followed by Romer, Berlin and others, who possibly did not consult 
the original description. 

The synonymy of the two species will run as follows : — 
Strigilla splendida (Anton). 
1839. Tellina splendida Anton, Verzeichniss Conchyl., p. 5. 
1844. . ,, senegaletisis Hanley, Proc. Zool. Soc, 1844, p. 68. 

1846. ,, ,, id., 'J'hesaurns Conch., vol. i., p. 259, 

pi. Ivi., fig. 17. 
1866. ,, ,, Sowerby, Conch. Icon., vol. xvii., pi. ix., 

fig- 39- 
1872. ,, (^Strigilla) se/iegaleiisis Romer, Conch. Cab., p. 194, 

pi. xxxvii,, figs. 17-19. 
1915. Strigilla polyaulax Tomlin & Shackleford, Jonrii. of Conch., 

vol. xiv., p. 276. 

Strigilla tomlini nom. nov. 
1846. Tellina splendida Hanley [iiec Anton), Thesaurus Conch., 

vol. i., p. 259, pi. Ivi., fig. 39. 
1866. ,, ,, Sowerby, Conch. Icon., vol. xvii., pi. ix., 

fig- 3S. 
1872. „ {Strigilla) splendida Romer, Conch. Cab., p. 192, 

pi. xxxvii., figs. 13-16. 

In my opinion Hanley was not successful in his identification of 
Anton's Tellina splendida, the original description of which may be 
translated thus: — Obliquely ovate, hinder side somewhat prolonged, 
little ventricose; middle of the valves obliquely striated, behind and 
in front transversely striated ; horn-grey into yellow, epidermis red- 
brown, very glossy, within greyish-white. Length 9'", breadth 10'". 

The last part of this description — "horn-grey, etc." — applies 
perfectly to the T. splendida of Anton, but is not descriptive of the 



340 JOURNAL OF CONCHOLOGY, VOI,. I4, NO. II, .TIH.Y, I915. 

shell so-named by Hanley, which is whitish, very faintly tinged with 
purple, with purple umbones, and violet purple within the valves 
which are not so glossy externally. 

Of course the two species are very distinct, not only on account ot 
differences of colouration, but they also vary in sculpture, pallial sinus, 
etc., and are from widely separated localities, the true spJeiuUda being 
West African, and the Strigilla totnlini {=spiendid(i Auct.) from the 
Philippine Islands (Reeve), Sumatra and Moluccas (Bertin), and 
North Queensland (Brit. Mus.). 

Had Anton given the locality of his species it would probably have 
prevented Hanley's misidentification. 



EDITORIAL NOTES. 

The University of Leeds has intimated its intention to confer the Honorary Degree 
of M.Sc. on iNIr. J. W. Taylor and Mr. \V. Denison Roebuck in recognition of 
their scientific work. 

We are sure that all members of the Society w ill join in congratulating them 
both on so well merited a distinction. 



We are greatly indebted to Messrs. T. Sheppard and T. W. Woodhead, the 
editors of T/ie Naturalist^ for the loan of the portrait block of the late Mr. W. Cash 
which we are using in this number. 



The following letter has been received from tlie Smithsonian Institution, ani 
has been suitably acknowledged : — 

"Smithsonian Institution, 

United States National Museum, 

Washington, D.C., April 2, rgr;. 
Editor, Journal of Coucliology, 
J. R. le B. Tomlin, Esq., 

Lakefoot, Hamilton Road, Reading. England. 
Dear .Sir,-- 

The Smithsonian has just printed an historical account and complete 
index to the Museinn Bolieniaiuini (179S). It will h)e sent to all persons on 
the Malacological List of the U^.S. Nal. Museum without application ; but 
as there may be others interested in nomenclature who would like to possess 
a copy, I am requested to ask you to notify the readers of the Jozimal of 
Conchology that copies will be furnished to applicants as long ps the edition 
lasts, on application to the .Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. 

I remain, 

^^lln■s very truly. 

Wm. II. Dall."' 



341 

THE NOMENCLATURE OF BRITISH MARINE MOLLUSCA. 

Bv TOM I RE DALE. 

(Read before the Society, March lolh, 1915). 

" As no list of British Marine MoUusca has been published for 
fourteen years " begins the List of Marine MoUusca published in 
this Journal just fourteen years ago. 

I write this note suggesting that it is time that a new list be 
prepared " incorporating the results of recent researches." 

I have little special knowledge of the species of British Marine 
MoUusca and would have claimed no more than an academic inter- 
est in them, but many of the generic names are common to that 
fauna and the Antipodean fauna with which I am more familiar 
and which engages my attention. In working at my Antipodean 
material I have continually to refer to British forms, as they represent 
generic types which I have to examine. A\'hile thus employed I 
make note that the British List is now sadly out of date and I 
propose to indicate herewith a few of the alterations necessary in 
view of my studies and suggest that these be considered and 
approved or rejected. 

I further suggest that a list with the original references cited 
would be most valuable, not only to British workers, but also to 
extralimital investigators, who are unable to make personal refer- 
ence to works themselves.^ 

In view of recent monographs a reconsideration of family values 
is also probably necessary. 

Dall and Bartsch's Monograph of the Pyraiiiidellidce. Dall's 
monumental effort on the Tertiary MoUusca of Florida, Jukes- 
Browne's controversial papers on Bivalves, Tln'ele's Revision of the 
Polyplacophora, the conclusion of Alder and Hancock's Nudi- 
branchs by Chas. Eliot, Hoyle's Cephalopod Revision have all 
appeared since 1901. The last two I have not yet been concerned 
with, so do not know how they affect the list. 

Some of the generic names hereafter mentioned may need dis- 
cussion, but I simply mention some of those I have noticed as 
needing emendation or justification. 

Order Polyplacophora. 
Only one family, Chitonidae, is admitted, but recent studies prove 
that more should be recognised. 

1 Since this was penned I ha\e compiled such a List with, to me, startling results. 



342 JOURNAI. OF CONCHOLOGY, VOL. 14, NO. ll, |UI,V, I915. 

Thus the British forms would be classed thus : 

Family LEPIDOPLEURID.4^. 

Genus Lepidopleurus Risso. 

Hanleya Gray. 
Family LEPIDOCHFrONID^:. 

Genus Tonicella Carpenter. 

Callochiton Gray. 

Lepidochiton Gray (em). 

{-=CRASPED0CH1LUS Sars). 
Family CRYPTOCONCHII)/E. 
Genus Acanthochiton Gray (em). 

The reasons for these alterations I have given in the Proc. Malac. 
Soc. Lond., vol. xi., pp. 126-129, 19 14. 

Genus Modiolaria Beck. 

I propose to displace this by Musculus Bolten, Mus. Bolten, 1798, 

p. 156, designating as type of that genus Musculus discors Bolten 

-^^Mytilus discors Linne. Details concerning this will be elsewhere 

given. ^ 

Genus Pecten Miiller. 

I would generically separate from Pecten Miiller, Hinniies Defrance 
and Ch/a/ins Bolten. Under this latter genus, Hyalopectoi Verrill, 
Aequipecten Fischer, Pepliim B. D. & D. and Palliolum Monterosato 
might be given subgeneric rank. 

Genus Arctica Schumacher. 
Mr. E. A. Smith has argued (Proc. Malac. Soc, I>ond., vol. x., 
p. 105, 191 2) for tlie rejection of this name in favour of Cyprina. 
My reading of the nomenclatural rules would compel me to re- 
tain Arctica. This is one of the debatable points upon which 
discussion is necessary, though I consider the rules are so simple 
that there is little danger of misreading them. 

Genus Loripes Poli. 
Again this is a debatable point, but I cannot accept any of 
Poll's generic names. In the present case this name was proposed 
for the animal of l^eilina lactea Linne, and I note that he named 
the shell Loripoderma. Such a double nomination seems to me 
mutually to render each invalid. Lucinida D'Orbigny is the name 
I at present accept. 

I I communic.-ited my results to Dr. W. H. Dall by letter, and be lias confirmed my 
selection in the Nautiiiis, vol. x.wiii. t.\pr. 1915), p. 13S. 



IREDALE : NOMENCLATURE OF BRITISH MARINE MOLl.USCA. 343 

Genus Cryptodon Tuiton. 
Thyasira Lamarck has been used on the score of priority. This 
name was simply introduced in synonymy, but this has been con- 
sidered acceptable under the present nomenclatural laws. 

Genus Venus Linne. 
A criticism of Ball's and Jukes-Browne's papers would probably 
necessitate alterations in the subgenera here admitted. The type 
of Venus, as determined by Dall and confirmed by Jukes-Browne, 
seems to need reconsideration in view of my data. 

Genus Tapes Megerle von Miihlfeld. 
This should be displaced generically by Paphia Bolten, while 
subgenera should be admitted. 

Genus Irus Oken. 
This name has recently been replaced by Venerupis Lamarck. 

Genus Psammobia Schumacher. 
Gari Schumacher has priority and seems coincident. I know 
of no valid reason for tlie rejection of this name. 

(Jenus Acmaea Eschscholtz. 
The British shells, either viewed conchologically or anatomically, 
are not congeneric with the type of Aimaea, which moreover is 
invalidated by a prior Aanea. Tedura should be revived. 

Genus Eumargarita Fischer. 
Margarites Gray 1847 ^^'^s proposed as a substitute for the pre- 
occupied Margarita Leach over thirty years prior to Fischer's 
introduction and is now commonly in use. 

(ienus Monodonta Lamarck. 
I would not consider the British species congeneric with the 
Austral type of Lamarck's genus and I note that Pilsbry placed it 
in the genus Osiliiius. 

Genus Littorina Ferussac. 
I consider the genus here shown to be polyphyletic and would 
restrict Liitorina to obtusata (Linne), using Melarhaphe Menke for 
jieritoidcs (Linne) and probably some other name for the remain- 
ing members, which I have not studied. 

Family Rissoidse. 
'J'oo many genera seem here recognised and a careful revision 
is necessary. I had occasion to study the Norman GoUection, now 
in the British Museum, in an attempt to fix the generic names 
commonly applied to Neozelanic Rissoids and came to the above 
conclusion. 



344 JOURNAL Ol-' CONCHOLOGY, VOL. I4, NO. II, JULY, I915. 

Ceratia and Setia are invalid and must he replaced by (probably) 
some of the names given by Monterosato. 

Genus Adeorbis S. ^^ Wood. 
I have been able to prove that this name must be replaced by 
Tornus Turton & Kingston (Proc. Malac. Soc, Lond., vol. xi., p. 171, 
1914). As it is considered of family rank the family name nmst 
also be changed to Tornidce. 

Genus Natica Adanson. 
Natica dates from Scopoli, as recognised in the revised List, 
but the genus does not occur in British waters. In the list all 
the British species are referred to the subgenus Lunatia Gray. 
This must be given generic rank but the name to be used appears 
to be Ainpulliiia Bowdich or Euspira Agassiz. 

Genus Triforis Deshayes. 
Tills must be replaced by Triphora Blainville, though it may be 
that the British form is generically distinct. 

Genus Newtoniella Cossmann. 
Cerithiella Verrill must replace this name. I indicated this 
emendation in the Proc. Malac. Soc, Lond., vol. ix., p. 260, 191 1, 
and my conclusion has been confirmed by Thiele and E. A. Smith. 

Genus Scala Humphrey. 
Humphrey's work is not admissible and the name to be used is 
Epitonium Bolten. Again, when these matters come under care- 
ful consideration the British shells may be considered generically 
distinct from the type of Epitonium. 

Genus Solarium Lamarck. 
Architedonica Bolten has priority and is now commonly in use as 
is the family name Architectonicidce. 

Family Pyramidellidse. 

Dall & Bartsch's Monograph must be carefully considered, but 
neither the nomenclature nor cla'ssification can be entirely accepted. 
More study than I have given this group is necessary to outline 
all the alterations to be made, but that such are inevitable is obvious 
from my rough notes. 

Family Eulimidae.' 

Whether Eulinia be retained as distinct from the prior Melanella 
the family name must be changed to Melanellidce. The subgenus 
Leiostraca must be generically separated and the name changed to 
Subtilaria Monterosato as Leiostraca is preoccupied. 

I since this was penned I have deiermined Stroinbifciriiiis Costa as applicable and anterior 
to Sithnlaria and the family name would be Stroiidnformidw. Also Melanella is not appar- 
ently separable from Euliina. 



IREDALE : NOMENCLATURE OF BRITISH MARINE MOI.I.USCA. 345 

Family Lotoriidae. 

This name must be clianged to Cyniiatiidce and the genus name 
Lotoriiim replaced by Charonia and Cytiiafhtm. 

The alterations would read : 

Family CYMATIID^. 

Genus Charonia Gistel. 

CHARONIA LAM FAS [Uiiiie]. 
{^=NOD[FERUM Lamarck). 

Genus Cymatium Bolten. 

Subgenus CABESTANA BolLen. 

CYMATIUM CUTACEUM [Linm'). 

Genus Ocinebra Gray. 
Tritonalia Fleming is equivalent and many years older and should 
replace Ocinebra Gray, as pointed out by Jousseaume in j88o. 

Genus Trophon de Montfort. 
Sliould not this name be replaced by TropJionopsis B.D. & 1).? 
If not, that name must certainly be subgenerically cited and also 
Boreotrophon Fischer. 

Genus Purpura Bruguiere. 
This must be replaced by Niicella Bolten. Purpura P3ruguiere is 
antedated by Purpura Martyn, the type of which is the Californian 
foliata Martyn, the name thus displacing Cerastonta Conrad. The 
family name Thaididce. would here come into use. 

Family Columbellidae. 

The family name must be changed to Pyrenidce whilst it would 
be best to give Astyris and Anachis generic rank. 

Family Nassidae. 

'J'his name must disappear as A^assa was used by Bolten before 
Lamarck's usage, and Bolten proposed it for the shell commonly 
known as lopas sertum (Bruguiere). Dall has proposed Alectrio7iidce 
but in accordance with the rule that the family name must be 
based on the oldest generic name, ArculariidcB is the name to be 
utilised. 

Examination of living specimens of reticulata Linne would force 
the acceptance of Tritia Risso, based on this species, in preference 
to the introduction into British literature of either Arcularia or 
Alectrion based on exotic species which are not congeneric in my 
estimation. 

Family Pleurotomidae. 

This family name also disappears, Pleurotoina Lamarck falling as 
an absolute synonym of Turris Bolten, from which the faniily name 



346 JOURNAL OF CONCHOI.OGY, VOL. I4, NO. II, JULY, I9I5. 

Tiirridcc is derived. The genera in this family are difficult and 
probably alterations will here be made. I have indicated that Lora 
Gistel is equivalent and anterior to ClathnreUa Carpenter. 

Genus Bullinella Newton. 

Cylichnella Gabb has been used as anterior to this, but probably 
other names antedate this. 

The preceding very rough notes are sufficient to call for re- 
vision of the List, when probably many other necessary alterations 
will be brought to light. 

It is more than probable that many specific emendations are 
also necessary and if progress in Marine Mollusca has kept pace 
with that made in the Land Molluscs, as shewn in Kennard and 
Woodward's List of Non-Marine Molluscs, numerous additions must 
be made. Li ten years the Land Molluscs have advanced in 
number from 170 to 210, so that fourteen years should show a 
numerical increase in Marine Molluscs also. 

I would emphasize the fact that it is more than probable that 
careful study would show that many of the names hitherto in use 
have no right, as well as Monodonta^ Natica and Nassa. 

Having collected typical shells of tliese three, I was very sur- 
prised when I found that British shells which I collected, showing 
very little of the characters I knew, were referred to these genera, 
and this tact instigated this medley. 



Additions to the Land and Freshwater Mollusca of Wigtownshire.- 

To help in the work on the acceleration of the Census I made arrangements to pay 
a visit to the western portion of Wigtownshire, the whole county record at the time 
being 17 species. The following additions to the list resulted: — Avion aier (L.) 
var. caslanea, frequent at Stranraer in juvenile stage. Arion inlerinediiis Norm., 
under old limber, Port Patrick. Arion inteniiedius var. gn'sea Roebuck, road- 
sides around Stranraer, frequent under stones. Arion sitb/iisciC5\T)xA]i.), numerous 
and fine under stones, Stranraer. Milax gagates (Drap. ) var. rava Williams, 
frequent under old timber. Port Patrick. Hyalinia radiatula (Alder), scarce, 
Dunskey Wood, Zonitoidcs excavaius var. vitrina P^er. , common under roadside 
rubbish, Stranraer. Zonitoidcs nitidiis (INliill.), scarce, Dunskey Wood. Helix 
aspersa Miill., a few in the Battery, Port Patrick. Hygroinia rtifcscens Auctt. , 
scarce, Stranraer, on nettles. Hygroinia hispida (L. ), frequent, the Battery, Port 
Patrick. Helicella caperata (jNIont.), frequent, the Battery, Port Patrick. Acan- 
thintda acukata (Miill.), rare, one, Dunskey Wood. Cochlicopa lubrica (Mlill.), 
numerous round Stranraer, Carychiwn ininiiniini Miill., apparently rare, one, 
Dunskey Wood. Clausilia bidentata (Strom), much the commonest shell in the 
district. Pupa cylindracea (DaC ), plentiful under stones, Dunskey Wood, 
Ancyltts fluviatilis Mlill,, numerous under stones in burn by roadside, Port Patricic 
to Stranraer. — J. F. iNIusilAlM ^^Read before the Society^ January 13th, 1915). 



347 



CONCHOLOGICAL NOTES FROM CHILE AND BRAZIL. 

By LIONEL E. ADAMS, B.A. 
(Plate VL). 

(Read before the Society, 9th December, 1914). 

On December 1 1, 1913, we arrived at Santos with a cargo of railway 
stock from Antwerp, and during our stay in that port, with the kind 
guidance of Mr. HarUng, a correspondent of one of the members of 
this Society, I was enabled to visit the various sea-beaches in the 
neighbourhood. These at first sight most promising stretches of 
sand, at intervals along the rocky coast, yielded few shells, and those 
of no importance. It was, moreover, most tantalising to find that 
the seabirds had been beforehand and smashed up all the live shells 
left by the retreating tide. 

To my surprise the wooded hills round Santos were devoid of 
shells, in spite of the tropical rain that fell at frequent intervals dur- 
ing my stay. We next visited Paranagua to discharge more cargo, 
and here, too, I was from a conchological point of view disappointed. 
The town is situated in a magnificent lagoon, larger than that at Rio, 
and surrounded by mountains covered with forest, which comes 
down to the water's edge. A thorough search of the shore for many 
miles only produced the very plebeian Littorina fiava Brod., which 
thrives in enormous quantities among the scrub lining the water. 

We then proceeded to Rio Grande do Sul, on the Lago de Patos, 
an inland sea, one hundred miles in length. The surrounding 
country being low sandy desert is absolutely destitute of molluscan 
life, and the lagoon itself only contains an unattractive lot of Lamelli- 
branchs belonging to the Cyrenidce. 

I made enquiries everywhere as to the localities of the giant 
Bulimia which European conchologists imagine to infest the entire 
country of Brazil, and I learnt that they are only found inland at a 
much greater elevation than the sea level. I had been supplied by 
Mr. H. B. Preston with specially made sacks for stowing moss, dead 
leaves, and other debris, which collectors in Britain find so fruitful 
in small species ; and I made many excursions along the forest paths 
round Paranagua and into the jungle itself in search of material. 
The material, however, was not there. Tropical trees and creepers 
do not shed their leaves at a given season, and only an occasional 
dead leaf is to be found, and the soil, being either peaty or sandy, is 



34^ JOURNAL OF CONCHOLOGY, VOL. I4, NO. II, JULY, I9I5. 

quite an unsuitable liabitat for moUusks. Nevertheless, I spent hours 
in examining with a lens quantities of this unpromising material from 
the most likely places without finding the smallest fragment of any 
shell whatever. The swamps were alike unproductive of freshwater 
species. I have for many years been in the habit of examining 
anchor-mud for small shells — often with interesting results. In 
Brazil my siftings only resulted in a single example of a minute 
Cylichna at Paranagua. 

From Brazil we proceeded, via the Strait of Magellan, to the nitrate 
coast of Chile. We anchored one night at the ill-fated Port Famine, 
a small collection of squalid wooden huts, on the east side of Cape 
Froward, the most southerly point of the mainland of South America, 
and here I collected a quantity of anchor-mud, which subsequent 
examination by Mr. H. B. Preston [see below) proved interesting, as 
it contained no less than four new species. 1 had no opportunity of 
landing, or of dredging in the strait, but judging by the accounts of 
Uarwin in the "Voyage of the 'Beagle,'" R. O. Cunningham in 
" Notes on the Natural History of the Strait of Magellan," and W. P. 
Snow in " A Two Years' Cruise in Terra del Fuego," there is a great 
deal to be done, especially with the small species. Though our 
passage was made on January 27 (the midsummer of the southern 
hemisphere), the weather was bitterly cold, the sun only now and 
then breaking through violent sleet and rain squalls. On our home- 
ward passage, some weeks later, we came through without stopping 
to anchor, and enjoyed one of the proverbial four fine days that 
occur yearly in those parts, and I was enabled to take a series of 
photographs of the glaciers and snow-capi>ed mountain peaks so well 
known from the descriptions of the authors above referred to. 

Our next stop was at Coronel, up the Chile coast, where I obtained 
from the debris emptied from fishing boats some enormous Mytilus 
tiiagellanicus Ch., covered with a fine series of Calyptrcea. 'J'hese 
huge mussels proved excellent eating. The anchor-mud here, though 
containing interesting Foramiuifera, proved destitute of mollusks. 

We then proceeded to the nitrate coast, and spent some days load- 
ing at Iquique, Caleta Buena, and Pisagua. Along the coast of the 
nitrate region, for some four hundred miles, the mountains in an 
almost unbroken line descend steeply into the sea, and most of the 
small coast towns are built on a imrrow talus at the water's edge. 
No rain having fallen for more than fifty years, there is absolutely no 
vegetation, and the small streams which trickle down the gullies here 
and there are so impregnated with nitrate that the water is undrink- 
able — all drinking water is condensed and very dear. The inhabit- 
ants, however, seem to prefer " pisco," a native spirit, which takes its 



APAMS ; CONrHOI.OfUrAT. NOTF.S FROM THILF. AND HRAZIT.. 349 

name from the chief town where it is distilled. Nor, apparently, do 
the natives appreciate the natural water for washing. Of course, in 
a district absolutely destitute of vegetation, no wild land creatures are 
to be found, except a few lizards on the rocks above the wash of the 
surf, though what they feed upon I could never discover. Perhaps 
they prey upon the Z^'/Ve, which are abundant ; flies are too scarce 
to furnish a constant livelihood. This region of desolation extends 
for ten to fifty miles inland, and under these conditions the collector 
of land and freshwater species, of course, draws an absolute blank. 

I therefore turned my attention to marine species, and made 
many excursions along the rocks. To collectors desirous of a spice 
of excitement with their occupation I can heartily recommend this 
district. Large irregular masses of granite, weathered smooth and 
slippery with kelp, afford a most precarious foothold, and a slip 
might easily deposit one in a deep pool -or cleft, without a possi- 
bility of extricating oneself. Moreover, on the calmest day there is 
always a tremendous surf and a huge irregular swell, which one has 
to watch carefully to avoid being washed off the rocks altogether. 
It is always just within the range of this surf that the finest specimens 
are to be found, and several times an ill-timed dash for these ended 
in a hurried scramble of retreat, and often a complete wetting as well; 
and I never returned from these excursions otherwise than scratched, 
bruised, and wet through. On one of these occasions, at Caleta 
Buena, I chanced upon specimens of what proved to be two new 
species of Astyris. 

At Pisagua, leading from the south end of the town, there is an 
ancient coast-road on the steep mountain-side. Where it leaves the 
town it is about a hundred feet above sea-level, and it has recently 
been improved by cutting it deeper into the hill on the landward side. 
On passing this cutting, which is about four feet deep, I noticed 
strata of sea shells, which immediately reminded me of similar 
deposits on other parts of the coast, which Darwin in the "Voyage 
of the ' Beagle '" described as raised beaches, A further examina- 
tion of the spot showed that the road traversed an Inca burying 
ground. I found that the place had been recently excavated. Several 
human skeletons were lying on or just below the surface, all in the 
characteristic doubled-up attitude ; they had been buried wrapped 
up in a coarse grass matting. None of the skulls were perfect, the 
upper and lower jaws were all missing, as if the excavators had taken 
them to study the dentition. 

In addition to human remains, were skulls of some large species of 
dolphin, skulls of sea-lions (? Otaria juhata), the rib of a small whale, 
and dogs both large and small ; to one of the latter, which was enve- 



350 JOURNAI, OF CONCHOLOGY, VOL. I4. NO. II, JULY. I915. 

loped in matting, the reddish hair was adhering. 

I collected samples of all the shells in the strata, and submitted 
them to Mr. H. B. Preston for examination, and he agrees with me 
that they were not deposited with a raised beach, but were the refuse 
forming a "kitchen midden." I append Mr. Preston's report : — 

" I. — A Fissuiella bears traces of having been held over a fire, as 
the shell is cracked as though by the action of intense heat. 

2. — Another specimen oi Fissure] la is so fresh internally as to give 
the impression that it has in no way been 'beacli-rolled.' 

3. — The Purpura has probably been split open, as though to 
obtain the animal whole. 

4. — All are probably edible kinds, and easily obtainable within 
tide-marks.'' 

These remarks I can corroborate, and supplement as follows: — 

5. — All these species are now collected by the people for food 
from the rocks. 

6. — They are all rock species, which when dead would quickly be 
smashed to pieces by the tremendous surf always running. 

y. — There are no small specimens among them, the big ones 
being naturally selected for food. 

8. — There are no small species among them, though an abundance 
of small species is found now on the rocks with the large ones, and 
would be mingled with the large ones if naturally deposited. 

Mr. H. B. Preston, to whom I have submitted all the shells col- 
lected during the voyage, has kindly sent me the following notes. 



List of the Mollusca, 

WITH Descriptions of Six New Species. 

By H. B. PRESTON, F.Z.S. 

Ausirofusus al/ernaius Phil. - Pisagua. 

Nassa tschudii Troschel - - Caleta Buena. 

N. flammulata Preston - - Caleta Buena. 

Astyris cnletce Preston, s[>. nov. - Caleta Buena. 

A. lioneli Preston, sp. nov. - - Caleta Buena. 

Concliolepas peruviana l.k. - - Pisagua. 

Priene rudis Brod. - - - Pisagua. 

Turritella sp. ? (juv.). - - - Pisagua. 

I.iltoriua peruviana Lk. - - - I'isagua. 

L. brasiliensis Guild. - - - Paranagua. 



ADAMS: CONCHOLOGICAL NO! ES FROM CHILE AND BRAZIT.. 35I 

IJltoridi?ui cuiiosa Preston, sp. nov. - Port Famine. 

Z. lioneli Preston, sp. nov. - - Port Famine. 

L. famiiiensis Preston, sp. nov. - Port P'amine. 

Z. afigustiariiin Preston, sp. nov. - Port Famine. 

Prisogaster niger Gray - - - Pisagua. 

Clilorostoma atruin Lesson - - Pisagua. 

Acincza ceciliana d'Orbigny - - Pisagua. 

A. viridula Lk., \ar. - - - Pisagua. 

Chiton cumingil Fremb. - - - Pisagua. 

Cyreiia sp. ? (dead valves only) - Rio Grande do Sul. 

The Port Famine mud also contained a number of odd valves of 
various Pelecypods, but all in too poor condition to be of any use for 
purpose of identification. 

'J'he following are the descriptions of the new species : — 

Astyris caletse sp. nov. - 

Shell somewhat radiiform, solid, reddish-chestnut flecked and 
transversely banded, especially on the last whorl below the peri- 
phery, wnth yellow ; whorls seven, regularly increasing, the first 
six smooth, but for indistinct transverse growth lines, the last 
bearing a number of revolving lirje at the base ; suture impressed, 
very narrowly margined with white below ; columella slightly 
callously thickened, bearing about six weak plaits ; labrum thick- 
ened, of a darker chestnut colour than the remainder of the shell, 
broadly and shallowly notched above, bearing five pinkish den- 
ticles on the inner margin ; aperture subrectangular ; canal short 
and somewhat broad. 

Alt., 8"5 mm. ; diam. maj., 4'5 mm. ; diam. min., 375 mm. 

Aperture: Alt., 4*25 mm. ; diam., 175 mm. 

Hab. : Caleta Buena, Chile (Lionel E. Adams). 

Astyris lioneli sp. nov. — 

Sliell allied to A. caktce. Preston, but differing from that species 
in its much smaller size and narrower form, and in having one 
whorl less ; it has but three weak plaits on the columella, and the 
labrum is quite destitute of denticulation within. 

Alt., 6'5 mm. ; diam. maj., 3"5 mm. ; diam. min., 275 mm. 

Aperture: Alt., 3"25 mm. ; diam., 1-25 mm. 

Hab. : Caleta Buena, Chile (Lionel E. Adams). 

Littoridina limosa sp. nov. — 

Shell small, subulate, with slightly obtuse apex, reddish-horn 
colour; whorls six, regularly increasing, flattened, smooth ; suture 



352 JOtTRNAT, OF CONCHOLOCY, VOL. I4, NO. tl, jtTI.V, T915. 

rather lightly impressed ; columella margin nearly vertically 
descending, a little curved below, diffused above into a whitish, 
well-defined, parietal callus, which reaches the upper margin of 
the labrum ; labrum acute, dilated at the base, somewhat bent 
inwards over the aperture above ; aperture ovate. 

Alt. 3 mm. ; diam. raaj., i'25 mm. 

Hab. : Port Famine, Straits of Magellan, from a muddy bottom 
(Lionel E. Adams). 

Littoridina lioneli sp. nov.— 

Shell subulately fusiform, whitish, covered with a greenish- 
yellow periostracum ; whorls six, the last slightly convex, smooth; 
suture impressed ; columella obliquely descending above, then 
rather sharply curved, and again obliquely descending in the 
opposite direction below ; labrum acute, a little dilated at the 
base, and slightly bent inwards over the aperture above ; aperture 
rather elongately ovate. 

Alt., 4 mm. ; diam. maj., 175 mm. 

Hab. : Port Famine, Straits of Magellan, from a muddy bottom 
(Lionel E. Adams). 

Littoridina faminensis sp. nov. — 

Shell subulate, whitish, covered with a greenish periostracum ; 
whorls six, regularly increasing, somewhat flattened, smooth ; 
suture impressed : columella descending in a curve, extending 
above into a thickish, well-defined, parietal callus, which reaches 
to the upper margin of the labrum ; labrum acute, dilated at the 
base and in front ; aperture rather roundly ovate. 
• Alt., 375 mm. ; diam. maj., i'5 mm. 

Hab. : Port Famine, Straits of Magellan, from a muddy bottom 
(Lionel E. Adams). 

Littoridina angustiarum sp. nov. 

Shell allied to L. faminensis Preston, but much broader and 
with more convex whorls ; the periostracum is of a hght reddish- 
brown colour, and the aperture is rather more oblique and longer 
than is the case in that species. 
Alt., 4 mm. ; diam. maj., 2 mm. 

Hab. : Port Famine, Straits of Magellan, from a muddy bottom 
(Lionel E. Adams). 



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The Annual Meeting ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 363 

Tentacular Abnormality in Helix nemoralis — A. J. Akicell (with 

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A New \^ariety of Columbella niisera Sow. from Japan — ^J. R. le 

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Proceedings : April 14, 1915 ; May 12, 1915 ; June 9, 1915 ... 364 

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553 



JOURNAL OF CONCHOLOGY. 



Voi,. 14. OCTOBER, 1915. No. 12. 



A LIST OF THE RECENT SPECIES OF SPONDYLUS Linne, 
with some Notes and Descriptions of Six New Forms. 

{^Concluded from p. 338). 
By HUGH C. FULTON. 

(Read before the Society, February 5th, 1915). 

45. — S. fragiim Reeve. Conch. Icon., pi. 17, fig. 6t. 
Hab. : Philippine Islands. 

46. — .S. affinis Reeve. Conch. Icon., pi. 17, fig. 62. 

Hab. : Philippine Islands. 

The type specimen is lighter in colour than the figure in the 
Iconica. 

47. — 5. tcnebrosus Reeve. Conch. Icon., pi. 9, fig. ^^l- 
Hab. : Moreton Bay, Australia. 

48. — S. multisetosus Reeve. Conch. Icon., pi. 3, fig. i r. 

Hab. : Philippines (Cuming). 

The shell figured by Kiister in the 2nd edition of the Conch. Cab., 
pi. 10, fig. 3, is certainly not multisefosus, but I am unable to identify it. 

49. — ^. i/ndtiinuricaiiis Reeve. Conch. Icon., pi. 4, fig. 15. 
Hab. : Philippine Islands (Cuming). Singapore (Tomlin). 

50.^^. depressus Fulton, n.sp. 

Shell moderately thickened, very depressed, upper valve with 
numerous very slightly raised longitudinal ridges, which on the 
posterior side bear short spines; colour whitish with dark brown 
maculations above and a broad margin of purplish-brown at the 
ventral margin; ligamental area moderately produced ; lower valve 
whitish and roughly scored where it has been attached to rocks ; 
anterior and posterior margins with short close-set colour-lines, as 
seen in S. a'ucalis, etc. 



354 JOURNAT. OF CONCHOLOGY, VOL. I4, NO. 12, OCTOBER, IQIS- 

Maximum dimensions: Height, 80 mm.; width, 71 mm.; 
depth or diameter, 21 mm. 
Hab. : New Caledonia. 

Three specimens have been examined by me; the largest, taken as 
type, is somewhat more worn than the two smaller specimens, one of 
which is lighter and the other darker in colour than the type. 

Its compressed form and short spines separate it from multisetosiis. 

51. — S. igneus Fulton, n.sp. 

Shell pectiniform, moderately solid, upper valve fiery-red with 
white umboncs and some specks of white at a line of growth 
towards the middle ; ornamented with about twenty-six longitu- 
dinal ridges, bearing rather short red spines ; lower valve of a 
lighter red; ligamental area moderately produced; interior white 
with margins bordered with red. 

Maximum dimensions : Height, 45 mm. : width, 42 mm. ; 
diameter or depth, 23 mm, 
Hab. ? 

A beautiful little shell of the multimuricaUts group. 
52. — S. layardi ^Q&wQ. Conch. Icon., pi. 18, fig. 66. 
Hab. : Ceylon. 

The type specimen is not so dark in colour as represented in the 
Iconica. 

53. — S. pesasininus Bolten. Museum Boltenianum, 1798, p. 194. 
Conch. Cab., vii., pi. 46, figs. 472, 473. 

{^^digitatus Perry. Perry's Conch., 181 1, pi. 59, no. 3). 
(=r.cosiatus Lamk. Anim. Sans Vert., vi., p. 189). 
(^^multilatnellatus\a^mk. Anim. Sans Vert., vi., p. 189). 
{^—=petroselinum Sowb. Thes. Conch., figs. 6, 10 & 49). 
{=^foliaceus Reeve. Conch. Icon., fig. 25). 
Hab. : Philippine Islands (Cuming). Mauritius (Sow.). 
Chenu in his lUust. Conchyl. figures quite a different species as 
inultilamellatus Lamk., but the figures referred to by Lamarck are 
certainly pesasininus Bolt. 

Group K. 
54. — S. tenellus Reeve. Conch. Icon., pi. 18, fig. 67. 

Hab. : Australia. 

There are two specimens in the British Museum collection from 
Adelaide much larger than the type, with less numerous but longer 
spines. There are also short-spined specimens said to be from 
Tasmania. 



FUI.TOX : THE RECENT SPECIES OF SPONDYIUS. 355 

55. — S. rostratus Chenu. Illust. Conchy!., p. 7, pi. 26, fig. 4. 

Hab. : Indian Seas (Chenu). 

Two specimens that I refer to this species are larger, and the liga- 
mental area, or " talon," is not so produced as in Chenu's figure ; in 
one the umbones are about 6 mm. apart, and in the other closer 
together. One specimen is coloured similarly to the type, the other 
has its upper valve almost covered with dark reddish-brown, the 
strias being whitish towards the ventral margin. 

56. — S. cru(7ttus Lischke. Mai. Blatt., xv., 1868, p. 221. Jap. Meer. 
Conchyl, i., p. 172, pi. 12, figs. 1-5. 
Hab. : Nagasaki (Lischke). 

57. — S. lima Chenu. Illust. Conchyl., p. 6, pi. 24, fig. 7. 

Hab.? 

A distinct and very pretty species of which I have seen specimens 
from Kii, Japan, of a more orange colour. 



Group L. 

58. — S. atira?iHacus Bolten. Museum Boltenianum, 1798, p. 195. 
Conch. Cab., vii., t. 45, fig. 463. Conch. Icon., fig. 19. 
(^■=croceus Lamk. Anim. Sans Vert., vi., p. 192). 
Hab. : Indian Ocean ; Moluccas (Reeve). 

Chenu's figure in his Illust. Conchyl., pi. 27, fig. i, may be this 
species, but the figure on pi. 24, fig. 6, is more like a compressed form 
oi pictorum. I am doubtful whether the shell figured in Thes. Conch., 
fig. 31, is really croceus. 

59. — S. vionadius Chenu. Illust. Conchyl., p. 6, pi. 26, fig. 5. 
Hab. : Indian Seas (Chenu). 
Possibly a variety of anrantiacus Bolten. 

60. — S. biitkri Reeve. Conch. Icon., pi. 4, fig. 14. 
Hab. : Philippine Islands (Cuming). 

61. — 6". ustidliitns Reeve. Conch. Icon., pi. 16, fig. 58. 

{=vexilIion Reeve. Conch. Icon., pi. 16, fig. 59). 

Hab. : Bermudas (Reeve). 

The figures given in Thes. Conch., figs. 23, 25, and 56, and in the 
Conch, Icon., fig. 46, as representing longitudmalis, are varieties of 
ustulaius. 



356 JOURNAL OF CONCHOLOGY, VOT,. I4, NO. 12, OCTOBER, I9T5. 

Group M. 

62. — .9. a/nericanns Hermann, der Naturforscher, xvi., 1781, p. 51. 

Conch. Cab., vii., pi. 45, fig. 465. Illust. Conchyl., pis. 3, 

4, and 5. Thes. Conch., figs. 42, 64, and 65. Conch. 

Icon., pi. 4, fig. 17. Conch. Cab. (2nd edit.), vol. vii., fig. 

465- 

{j=^echinat!is Martyn. Univ. Conch., ii., 1784, fig. 154). 

(^z=ame?-ica nus Lk. Anim. Sans Vert. vol. vi., p. 1S8). 

{=arachnoides Lk. Anim. Sans Vert., vol. vi., p. 188). 

{^^=lon°;ispina Lk. Anim. Sans Vert., vol. vi., p. 189). 

{^^avicularis Lk. Anim. Sans Vert., vol. vi., p. 189). 

Hab. : American seas (Chenu) ; Bermudas (Reeve); Porto Rico 

(Dall and Simpson). 

An extremely variable species, both in colour and in the disposition 

of its spines, well illustrated by the fine series of figures given by Chenu 

in his Illustrations Conchyliologiques. 

63. — S. crassisquamatiis Lk. Anim. Sans Vert., vi., 18 19, p, 191. 
Conch. Cab., vii., pi. 69, figs, e, f. Thes. Conch., fig. 28. 
Conch. Icon., figs. 24 and 29. 

{=:.pnnceps Brod. P.Z.S., 1833, p. 4). 
{j=^diibius Brod. P.Z.S., 1833, p. 4). 
(^=leucacantha Brod. P.Z.S., 1833, p. 5). 
{^pictoriim Sow. Thes. Conch., fig. 45). 
{=basi/icus Reeve. Conch. Icon., fig. 41). 
Hab. : Island of Plata, West Columbia (Cuming). 
This species is extremely variable in colour ; it occurs from pure 
white to red and purple-brown. The leucacantha Brod. has a colouration 
of orange and white, the orange generally covering the umbonal 
region and extending along the spines. It rarely occurs as figured 
by Reeve with its whole surface orange and white spines. Sowerby's 
figure o{ pictonim in Thes. Conch., pi. 85, fig. 17, is to me doubtful ; 
it seems almost too highly coloured for any species of Spondyhis. 
Lamarck also referred to the fig. i, tab. 28, Rumph. Mus., which 
may represent crassisquamatiis, but it is difficult to say so with any 
certainty. 

64. — 6". iinicolor Sow. Proc. Zool. Soc, 1847, p. 86. Thes. Conch., 
fig. 19. Conch. Icon., fig. 37. 

Hab. ? 

Owing to the difficulty of tracing the whereabouts of Sowerby's 
type, I am unable satisfactorily to identify ^his species with any speci- 
mens I have examined. Reeve's figure does not agree altogether 
with Sowerby's, which is coloured purple, but according to the descrip- 



FULTON : THE RECENT SPECIES OF SPONDYLUS. 357 

tion, should be uniform purplish-red, which accords better with the 
colour of Reeve's figure and agrees perfectly with the Cumingian 
specimen. 

65. — S. poivelli Smith. Journ. of Conch. ^ 1892, vol. 7, p. 70. 
Hab. : Madeira. 

66. — S. siiiithi Fulton, n.n. 

{=radula Reeve. Conch. Icon. , 1856, pi. 14, fig. 52, 
not radula Lk. (fossil), Ann. du Mus., 1806, vol. 8, 
p. 351- 
Hab. : Tehuantepec, West Mexico (Capt. Dare). 
Named in honour of Mr. Edgar A. Smith, I.S.O. 

67.— .S. liinbatiis Sowerby. Proc. Zool. Soc, 1847, p. 87. Thes. 
Conch., fig. 51- Conch. Icon., fig. 34. 

Hab. : Persian Gulf (Sowerby). 

Reeve's figure in the Conch. Icon, does not bear much likeness to 
Sbwerby's figure in the Thes. Conch., but the %^^tQ^t's, oi Spondylus 
vary so much that, without an examination of the types, one scarcely 
dares to consider them as being distinct species. There are three 
specimens in the National Collection similar to Reeve's figure, except 
that two of them are of regular growth, not distorted. I refer to the 
V-shaped sinus shown in figure. There is no record as to where 
Sowerby's type is now, but he refers to specimens in the British Museum. 

68. — S. calcifer Carpenter. Catalogue of Mazatlan Shells in British 
Museum, 1857, p. 152. 

Hab. : Bay of Panama (Cuming) ; Mazatlan (Carpenter). 

This species is very close to S. limbatus as figured by Reeve, and 
may possibly prove to be the same species. The specimens of calcifer 
in the British Museum appear to be of a darker purple-red colour 
than limbatus^ and shew more prominently the fine longitudinal 
striae between the principal ridges. Old shells are generally very 
worn and bored by various organisms; the young shells have long 
spathulate spines, and are variously coloured, red, purple, and yellow. 

69. — S. exilis Sowerby. Proc. Mai. Soc, 1895, vol. i., p. 280, figured. 

Hab. : Karachi. 

There are other specimens in the British Museum that I take to 
be the same species; they are from Jeddah, Red Sea. 

70. — S. gloriaiidus Melv. and Stand. Proc. Zool. Soc. (1906), 1907, 
P- 811, pi. 53, fig. I. 
Hab. : Persian Gulf. 



358 JOURNAL OF CONCHOLOGY, VOL. I4, NO. 12, OCTOBER, I9I5. 

Group N. 
71. — S. varius Sowerby. Appendix Cat. Polyn. Shells coll. by Stutch- 
bury, 1829. Thes. Conch., figs. 21, 22. Conch. Icon., fig. 3. 
{=delesserti C\\tn\x. lUust. Conchyl., pi. 12). 
(^=7'aiians Auct.). 
Hab. : Polynesian Islands (Sowerby). 

No reason was given by Sowerby for changing the name from varius 
to varians. 

72. — S. gravis Fulton, n.sp. 

Shell oval, of a heavy solid substance ; umbonal area white, the 
rest of the exterior of a rather light purple-brown colour ; both 
valves with numerous longitudinal rugose ridges, which are more 
prominent on the right or lower valve ; there are also numerous 
fine striae between the ridges, these with the concentric lines of 
former margins give the shell, especially the less-worn undervalve, 
a rough wavy appearance : judging by the way in which light 
shews through the undervalve, it is not absolutely solid, but prob- 
ably of the same laminar construction as in the so-called water- 
Spondy/us, S. varius Sowb. Interior margin crenulated and edged 
with same colour as exterior : ligamental area greatly produced, 
somewhat twisted, and forming a triangle, the sides of which are 
about 55 mm. in length. 

Maximum dimensions : Height (umbo of lower valve to ventral 
margin), 144mm. ; width (anterior to posterior margin), 102 mm.; 
depth or diameter, 67 mm. 
Hab. ? 
73. — 6". rubicundus Reeve. Conch. Icon,, pi. 17, fig. 60. 
Hab. : Philippine Islands. 

Group O. 

74. — 6". candidus Lamk. Anim. Sans Vert., vi., 1819, p. 188. lUust 
Conchyl., pi. 12, fig. 4. Thes. Conch., figs. 3-5. Conch. 
Icon., fig. 22. Conch. Cab. (2nd edit.), pi. 10, fig. 4. 
Hab. : Australia (Chenu) ; Lord Hood's Island (Cuming). 
Besides white specimens, there are others varying from rose colour 
to orange. 

75. — S. iredalei Fulton, n.sp. 

Shell solid, exterior of a coral-red colour, except the earliest 
portion which is whitish, more so on the under than the upper 
valve ; there are about nine principal longitudinal ridges on the 



KULTON : THE RECENT SPECIES OF SPONDYLUS. 359 

upper valve, bearing short stunted spines, between these ridges 
are seven to ten finer ridges having somewhat the appearance of 
granose striae, but seen under the lens to consist of minute and 
more or less fluted spines or costae; ligamental area produced, 
leaving the umbones about 13 mm. apart; margin of interior 
narrowly bordered with orange-red. 

Maximum dimensions : Height, 66 mm. ; width, 47 mm. ; dia- 
meter or depth, 35 mm. 
Hab. : Kermadec Islands (T. Iredale). 

Besides the type, which is in good condition, Mr. Iredale collected 
a number of odd valves (more or less worn) the largest of which 
measures 68 x 64 mm. ; he also obtained a young and perfect example 
which has some longer spines; probably older specimens living under 
more favourable conditions than the type would have comparatively 
longer spines. Although the specimens vary in form, they are all 
constant in colour, and in possessing the characteristic sculpture. 

Named in honour of Mr. T. Iredale, to whom we are indebted for 
many valuable papers on the mollusca. 

76. — S excaviitus Chenu. Illust. Conchyl., p. 5, pi. 19, fig. 2. 
Hab. : Cape de Verde Islands. 

77. — S. occidens Sowerby. Joutn. of Mai. ^ 1903, vol. 10, p. 77, figd. 
Hab, : Philippines. 

78. — S. flabellum Reeve. Conch. Icon., pi. 6, fig. 21 ; and pi. 13, 
fig. 2 IB. 
Hab. ? 

79. — ^S". pacificus Reeve. Conch. Icon., pi. i, fig. i. Conch. Cab. 
(2nd edit.), pi. 10, fig. 5. 
Hab. : Lord Hood's Island, Pacific (Cuming). 

80. — S. anacanthus Mawe. Linn. Syst. Conch., 1823, pi. 2, fig. 3. 
Conch. Cab., vol. xi., pi. 203, figs. 1989, 1990. Thes. 
Conch., figs. 39, 40. Conch. Icon., fig. 2. 

{r=nudus Reeve. Conch. System., 1841). 
Hab, : West Indies (Chenu); Mauritius and Philippines (Cuming); 
Japan (Dunker). 

8t. — S. obliqinis Chenu. Illust. Conchyl., p. 7, pi. 24, fig. 5. 

Hab.? 

Sowerby, in the Thes. Conch., i., p. 426, suggests that this may be 
a young varius Sow. (=varians Auct.), but I fail to see any likeness 
to the young of that species. 



360 JOURNAL OF CONCHOLOGY, VOL. I4, NO.